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346 Peter Skene Ogden Journals much against their will. The cold is greater than I ever before experienced on the Columbia; 2 beaver this day. Ice chisels produced nothing, nor will in this river, tho no scarcity of beaver. Thursday, 29th. I intended raising camp, but stormy weather and non-arrival of McKay prevented. Friday, 30th. Cold increases. My guide refuses to proceed ; says there are no animals in the Snake Country, nor any bea- ver, and our horses will die; that we cannot cross the moun- tains. This is discouraging, but we must make a trial. On promising him a gun at Fort Nez Perces he consented to go. Followed the river S. E. for 5 miles ; 6 small deer, 57 beaver.^ Saturday, 31st. Great severity of weather. No beaver to be expected. One of the freemen, being 3 days without food, killed one of his horses. This example will soon be followed by others. The only chance we have is of finding red deer, but from our guide we can learn nothing. He appears unwil- ling to give any information. Two hunters returned, but with no success. The deer very wild; i beaver today. Gave the men half rations for tomorrow, which will be devoured tonight, as three-fouTths of the party have been two days without food. Sunday, Jan. i, 1826. Remained in camp. Gave all hands a dram. There was more fasting than feasting. The first New Year's day since I came to the Indian country when my men were without food ; 4 beaver today. Monday, 2d. Altho 6 men are absent since 30th, I ordered camp raised. Followed up the stream 6 miles S. E. Altho bank is well lined with willows, only a few trees to be seen on the hills of the juniper species. Trappers report favorable beaver signs, but ice prevents taking any ; 3 beaver today. The absent men still out. Tuesday, the 3d. Cold has decreased, but still severe for Columbia. Followed stream S. E. 12 miles and camped at an

I On headwaters of eastern branch of Des Chutes River,----