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Warre and Vavasour^ 1845-6. 41 depend upon the buffalo and other wild animals for their sup- plies, and had not more than sufficient for the consumption of their present occupants. The difficulties of the journey across the American conti- nent are much increased by the uncertainty of finding buffalo, nor did we obtain throughout the whole journey one single animal to supply provisions for more than the day's consump- tion, to even our limited party. The trading posts above mentioned consist of a dwelling house for the gentleman in charge, and stores, etc., built of wood, surrounded by strong pickets or palisades, about 1 5 feet in height, and small block houses at the opposite angles armed with field and wall pieces. They are calculated to resist a sudden attack of a band of Indians, but cannot be considered as works of defense against a disciplined force. The emigration mentioned by Sir George Simpson in the above extract was composed of several families of retired trappers and servants of the H. Bay Company accustomed to a 'Voyageurs" life, from whom it is impossible to judge of the practicability of a route for the conveyance of troops. On the east side of the mountains, to the point where they were obliged to abandon their wagons, etc., their course was to the south of that by which we passed, it not being considered safe for our party, composed of only ten men, to encounter the wild tribes of Indians on the open plains. Fort Colville is situated on a small plain surrounded by lofty sand hills at the head of an unnavigable rapid called La Chaudiere Falls. It is said to be 2049 feet above the level of the sea, 824 [ ?] miles from the boat encampment on the Columbia (whence the northern portages of the Rocky Moun- tains). It is 84 miles below McGillivray's River and 672 miles from the Pacific Ocean. The buildings are similar in construction to the trading posts on the east side of the mountains, and calculated only

to resist the sudden atacks of Indians.----