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50 Joseph Schafer This officer has accompanied the present emigration to Fort Hall, from whence he crossed toward the southern boundary, and we understand he is making a survey of the Valley of the Klamet River, with a view to its settlement, and to find a line of communication between that country and the head- waters of the Willamette. This officer always appears in his undress uniform and makes no concealment of his being employed by the Govern- ment of the United States. It is extremely difficult to discover the exact number of emigrants now arriving in the country, but from the best information we have estimated their numbers at about 2000 individuals. They have 570 wagons drawn by oxen, which are found to be preferable to horses for so long a journey, and it is stated that they started with 6000 cattle, including milch cows, etc., etc., large numbers have died on the route. They have a large number of horses and a few mules. Their wagons are admirably adapted for the long rugged land journey. That the gentlemen of the H. B. Company have not exag- gerated the lamentable condition of these emigrants on former occasions is evident by the appearance on arrival of this, said to be the most wealthy and respectable of all the former. Fever and sickness have made fearful havoc among them, and many are now remaining in a helpless condition at the "Dalles" and the "Cascades." They report 30 men, women and children having died upon the journey. By the foregoing statement your Lordship will observe that even in 1844 the citizens of the United States formed a large majority over the only British subjects in the Oregon country, viz. : the gentlemen composing the Hudson's Bay Company, their servants, and the retired servants who had become settlers. This majority would be much increased by the arrival of the anticipated emigration of 1845.

The subjects of Great Britain had great difficulty in pro-----