Page:Robert the Bruce and the struggle for Scottish independence - 1909.djvu/59

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1286 A.D.]
The Making of Scotland.

dream to unite them with the races with which they had for centuries been at cruel enmity; and the men of Galloway, though originally of Celtic race, had been so long under Norse influence, and were so largely infused with Norse blood, that they had become known among other Celts as Gall Gaidheal, foreign Gaels; Gaels, that is, but foreigners, much as Englishmen now look on Americans.[1] The formidable insurrection of 1130, under Malcolm and Angus, the sons of Heth and grandsons of Lulach, the Mormaer of Moray, was a revolt of the Gael against the Saisneach, for Saxon and Norman were merged in the common term applied to the hated Southerner. Of like nature was the rising under the impostor Wimund between 1141 and 1150, when many Celtic chiefs joined in an attempt to throw off the Norman yoke which the policy of David had laid upon the land.

However, when David invaded England in 1138 to support his niece, Matilda, in her conflict with Stephen, his army, as Ailred of Rievauld affirms, was composed, not only of men under his own rule, but of those under Norse dominion also.

This expedition placed several of David's Norman barons in a dilemma; for, if they refused to follow the King of Scots, their Scottish lands and dignities would be in jeopardy; whereas if they marched with David, and yet failed to overthrow Stephen, they would be sure to forfeit their English possessions.

Upon none of them did this weigh more heavily

  1. The modern name Galloway is an altered form of Gall-gaidheal through the Welsh Gall-wyddel.