the greater de Brus, when he resolved, after long hesitation, to enforce his claim to the throne.
Power was taken in the settlement for the King of England to interfere as Lord Paramount, in the event of de Balliol neglecting to rule his people justly. On November 19, 1292, the kingdom and castles of Scotland were handed over to King John. On the following day he did fealty to King Edward; the great seal used by the Guardians was broken in pieces, and the fragments deposited in the English Treasury, in token of the superiority of England over Scotland. It did not take long to cut a new seal, for the impression thereof remains attached to King John's letters patent, written from Newcastle-on-Tyne on December 24th, announcing to the Scottish people the fact that he had sworn fealty to King Edward on November 20th foregoing.
The coronation took place at Scone on St. Andrew's Day (November 30th), and once more King John did homage for his kingdom, on December 26th, at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The national manuscripts of Scotland were delivered to the new King, and an indenture taken. Most, if not all, of these papers, which would now be of incalculable value, have since perished.
- A large round seal in green wax. Obverse: the King in chain mail and surcoat, barred helmet crowned, and sword in hand, riding to sinister. The Scottish lion rampant double and tressure are on the shield and housings. Reverse: the King on a carved seat, sceptred. At dexter side, a shield charged with an orle (Balliol); at the sinister, one with a lion rampant (Galloway). Legend on both sides: Johannes Dei Gratia Rex Scottorum.