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the prastâva the sun, the udgîtha the sky, the pratihâra the fire, the nidhana the earth.

3. The worlds in an ascending and in a descending line belong to him who knowing this meditates on the fivefold Sâman as the worlds[1].

THIRD Khanda

1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Sâman as rain. The hinkâra is wind (that brings the rain); the prastâva is, "the cloud is come;" the udgîtha is, "it rains;" the pratihâra, "it flashes, it thunders;"

2. The nidhana is, "it stops." There is rain for him, and he brings rain for others who thus knowing meditates on the fivefold Sâman as rain.


1. Let a man meditate on the fivefold Sâman in all waters. When the clouds gather, that is the hinkâra; when it rains, that is the prastâva; that which flows in the east[2], that is the udgîtha; that which flows in the west[3], that is the pratihâra; the sea is the nidhana.

2. He does not die in water[4], nay, he is rich in

  1. The commentator supplies some fanciful reasons why each of the five Sâmans is identified with certain objects. Earth is said to be the hihkâra, because both always come first Agni is prastâva, because sacrifices are praised in the fire (prastûyante). The sky is udgîtha, because it is also called gagana, and both words have the letter g in common. The sun is pratihâra, because everybody wishes the sun to come towards him (prati). Heaven is nidhana, because those who depart from here are placed there (nidhîyante), &c.
  2. The Ganges, &c. Comm.
  3. The Narmadâ, &c. Comm.
  4. The commentator adds, "unless he wishes to die in the Ganges."