Page:Southern Historical Society Papers volume 25.djvu/65

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toh. on the 22d day of June, 1863. ordrn-d I.imtenant-General 11 to move his corps to the lim-of the Susquehannah one divis- ion to cross over the mountain and pass through Gettysburg to York. Pa., with a view of indicating a movement upon Baltimore, as he writes in his first report (p. 307): " In order to retain it (the Union Army), on the east side of the mountains, after it should enter Maryland, and thus leave open our communications with the Poto- mac through Hagerstown and Williamsport, General Ewell had been instructed to send a division eastward from Chambersburg to cross the South Mountain. Early's division was detached for this service and proceeded as far east as York." Ewell, with the other two di- visions was directed to proceed north, up the Valley, through Cham- bersburg to Harrisonburg, which place, General Ewell says in his report, he was ordered to capture.

THE FIRST ERROR.

Longstreet and Hill crossed the Potomac on the 26th, and reached Chambersburg on the evening of the 27th. The same day Ewell with his two divisions reached Carlisle, and Early with the other, the neighborhood of York. The infantry was now admirably arranged for an advance upon Harrisburg, and from there, upon Philadelphia and New York, with nothing in that direction to oppose it but hastily gathered militia. The army had found, in the country occupied, abundant supplies of subsistance and forage, as well as horses and other quartermaster supplies.

Unfortunately, General Lee had, before leaving Virginia given his consent that Stuart, with three brigades of his cavalry, should pass around in rear of Hooker's army and cross the Potomac between it and Washington, whilst the other two brigades were left to guard the mountain passes in Virginia, and observe the movements of Hooker's army, with orders to make reports directly to General Lee or Longstreet. Nothing was heard from either division until Stuart reported at Gettysburg in the afternoon of July 2nd, and Robertson on the 3rd. The consequences of that error were soon apparent, for to it was due the fact that General Lee assumed the aggressive against Meade's army and attacked it in position as will appear.

On the 28th, General Lee, thinking from not hearing from the cavalry that Hooker had not left Virginia writes (p. 307): " Prep- arations were now made to advance upon Harrisburg; but on the night of the 28th, information was received from a scout that the