JUDICIARY Ixxxi LIBRARY BUILDING AND GROUNDS Superintendent of. — Bernard R. Green. Chief Clerk to Superintendent. — Ed. Sutherland. The new building for the Library of Congress was provided for by an act of Congress approved April 15, 1886. The Library was opened to the public in the new building in November of the same year. The actual cost of the building was $0,032,124.54, or $213,443.40 less than the limit fixed by law. The book shelving is 231,680 running feet, or about 44 miles, which will accommodate 2,000,000 volumes. When completely filled the Library, without encroaching on pavilions, reading rooms, or exhibition halls, will accommodate 4,500,000 volumes, occupying a little less than 100 miles of shelving. The Library embraces 800,000 printed books, in which is included the law library of 100,000 volumes. There are also 240,000 pamphlets, 25,000 original manuscripts, 60,000 graphic arts, 210,000 pieces of music, 45,000 bound volumes of newspapers and periodicals. There is also a pavilion for the blind, open daily, with a special library of books in raised letters. Judiciary THE judicial SYSTEM The judicial system, like the executive and legislative sys- tems, is dual. The Federal Government maintains courts for the trial of civil causes arising out of the admiralty, patent, banking, and other laws of the United States; of certain causes between citizens of different States ; and of crimes against the United States. These crimes are few in number, and the criminal jurisdiction of United States courts is com- paratively insignificant, extending only to piracy, murder on the high seas, offences against the postal and revenue laws, and the like. Almost all offences against the person and against property are dealt with by the State courts; also all civil causes Avhere the parties are residents of the same State, and matters of probate, divorce, and bankruptcy. In the separate States the lowest courts are those held by Justices of the Peace, or, in towns and cities, by Police Judges. In the counties courts of record are held, some by local county officers, others by District or Circuit Judges, who go from county to county. In these courts there are usually the grand and petty jury. The highest court in each State is the Supreme Court, or Court of Final Appeal, with a Chief Justice and Associate Judges. These judges are usually elected by the people, but sometimes appointed by the Governor, with or without the Senate or Council ; they usually hold office for terms of years, but sometimes practically for life or during good behavior. Their salaries vary from $2500 to $7500.
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