negroes, 200,000. The number of Christians does not exceed 5,000 ; the Christian population of Tangier alone probably amounts to 4,000. Much of the interior of Morocco is unknown to Europeans. Fez, the capital, has a population of about 140,000, and Tangier about 30,000. Morocco city is the southern capital. Tlie Sultan and his subjects are of the Malekite sect of Sunnite Mohammedans. The differences between sects are chiefly in the attitudes assumed during the recital of prayers.
The Sultan's armj^, which is quartered at the capital where he may happen to reside, is composed of about 10,000 Askar or disciplined infantry, under the command of an Englishman, and 400 disciplined cavalry ; a few batteries of Held guns commanded by three French ofhcers, and 2,000 irregular cavalry. Two Italian artillery ofhcers and an Italian civil engineer have Ijeen recently lent to the Sultan by the Italian Government to assist in the establishment of a small-arms factory at Fez. A Spanish military commissioner also is engaged on topographical sworks, either at Tctuan, Tangier, or Fez, according to the direction of the Spanish Government. There is also a Spanish engineer ofhcer and military doctor, and a German engineer officer with the Sultan. In addition to these forces there are in the Empire about 8,000 militia cavalry and 10,000 infantry. Every year several of the governors of pro- vinces are ordered to assemble their contingents to accompany the Sultan in his progress from Fez to Morocco. The irregular cavalry and infantry which could be collected in time of war would amount to about 40,000, in addition to the forces already enumerated. There is no commissariat.
There is a gunboat of 1,200 tons, the Beschir-es-Salamch, as Avell as an old iron screw ship, the Hassaneh. A gunboat was launched at Leghorn in 1897, and another, of 450 tons, specially intended for the repression of piracy, is building at Sampierdarena. She will carry two guns, one fore and the other aft, and have engines of 1,200 horse-power, intended to give a speed of 14 '5 knots.
In 1896 the imports, including specie, amounted to 1,315,536/., and the exports to 1,286,847Z. The following table shows the value of the trade and the shipping of Morocco at the different ports in 1897, excluding specie and precious metals : — •