Page:Statesman's Year-Book 1899 American Edition.djvu/1382

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The following is a list of the kings and queens of Sweden, with the dates of their accession, from the accession of the House of Vasa:—

House of Vasa.
Gustaf I. 1521
Eric XIV. 1560
Johan III. 1568
Sigismund 1592
Carl IX. 1599
Gustaf II Adolf 1611
Christina 1632
House of Pfaltz.
Carl X. 1654
Carl XI. 1660
Carl XII. 1697
Ulrika Eleonora 1718
House of Hesse.
Fredrik I. 1720
House of Holstein-Gottorp.
Adolf Fredrik 1751
Gustaf III. 1771
Gustaf IV. Adolf 1792
Carl XIII. 1809
House of Ponte Corvo.
Carl XIV. 1818
Oscar I. 1844
Carl XV. 1859
Oscar II. 1872

By the treaty of Kiel, Jan. 14, 1814, Norway was ceded to the King of Sweden by the King of Denmark, but the Norwegian people did not recognise this cession, and declared themselves independent. A Constituent Assembly met at Eidsvold, and having adopted, on May 17, a Constitution, elected the Danish Prince Christian Fredrik King of Norway. The Swedish troops, however, entered Norway without serious resistance, and, the foreign Powers refusing to recognise the newly elected King, the Norwegians were obliged to conclude, August 14, the Convention of Moss, by which the independency of Norway in union with Sweden was solemnly proclaimed. An extraordinary Storthing was then convoked, which adopted the modifications in the Constitution made necessary by the union with Sweden, and then elected King Carl XIII. King of Norway, November 4, 1814. The following year was promulgated a charter, the Riksakt, establishing new fundamental laws on the terms that the union of the two Kingdoms be indissoluble and irrevocable, without prejudice, however, to the separate government, constitution, and code of laws of either Sweden or Norway.

The law of succession is the same in Sweden and Norway. In case of absolute vacancy of the throne, the two Diets assemble for the election of the future sovereign, and should they not be able to agree upon one person, an equal number of Swedish and Norwegian deputies have to meet at the city of Karlstad, in Sweden, for the appointment of the king, this nomination to be absolute. The common affairs are decided upon in a Council of State composed of Swedes and Norwegians. In case of minority of the king, the Council of State exercises the sovereign power until a regent or council of regency is appointed by the united action of the Diets of Sweden and Norway.


Constitution and Government.

I. Central Government.

The fundamental laws of the Kingdom of Sweden are:—1. The Constitution or Regerings-formen of June 6, 1809; 2. The amended regulations for the formation of the Diet of June 22, 1866; 3. The law of royal succession of September 26, 1810; and