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112 THE BRITISH EMPIRE: — CEYLON Books of Reference concerning Borneo. Handbook to British North Borneo. London, 1890. Colonial Office List. Annual. London. Boyle (Frederick), Adventures among the Dyaks of Borneo. 8. London, 1865. Clutterbuck (W. J.), About Ceylon and Borneo. 8. London, 1891. Codrington (B. H.), The Melanesians, their Anthropology and Folklore. London, 1890. Guillemard (F. H. H.), Australasia. Vol. II. 8. London, 1894. Haf^on (Frank), North Borneo. 8. London, 1880. Hatton (Joseph), The New Ceylon, a Sketch of British North Borneo. 8. London, 1886. Jacob (Gertrude), The Rajah of Sarawak. London, 1870. Low (Sir H.), Residence in Sarawak. London. Posewitz {Th.),Bomeo: Its Geologj^ and Mineral Resources. [Translation.] 8. London, 1892. Pryer (Mrs. W. B.), A Decade in Borneo. 8. London. 1894. Roth (H. Ling), The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo. 2 vols. London, 1896. Sf. Joftn (Sir S.), Life in the Forests of the Far East. 2 vols. London, 1862: Life of Sir Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak. 8. London, 1879. Wallace (A. R), The Malay Archipelago. London, 1809. Whitehead (J.), Exploration of Mount Kina Balu, North Borneo. London, 1893.

CEYLON. Constitution and Government. The island of Ceylon was first settled in 1505 by the Portuguese, who established colonies in the west and south, which were taken from them about the middle of the next century by the Dutch. In 1795-96 the British Government took possession of the foreign settlements in the island, which were annexed to the Presidency of Madras; but in 1798 Ceylon was erected into a separate colony. In 1815 war was declared against the native Government of the interior, and the whole island fell under British rule. The present form of government (representative) of Ceylon was established by Letters Patent of April 1831, and supple- mentary orders of March 1833. According to the terms of this Constitution, the administration is in the hands of a Governor, aided by an Executive Council of five members — viz. the Lieut.- Governor and Colonial Secretary, the Officer commanding the Troops, the Attorney-General, the Auditor-General, and the Treasurer ; and a Legislative Council of 1 7 members, including the members of the Executive Council, four other oflice-holders, and eight unofficial members, representative of different races and classes in the community. Governor. — Right Hon. Sir Joseph West Ridgeway, K.CB., K. C.S.I. ; born 1844 ; entered Indian Army, 1861 ; Under Foreign Secretary to Govern- ment of India, 1880-84 ; Assistant Commissioner for N. W. Afghan boundary demarcation, 1884, and Commissioner for Afghan frontier delimitation, 1885 ; Colonel, Indian Army, 1885 ; Under-Secretary at Dublin Castle, 1887 ; Minister and Envoy to Sultan of Morocco, 1892 ; Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Man, 1893. Appointed Governor of Ceylon, September 9, 1895, The Governor has a salary of 80,000 rupees, and the Colonial Secretary, 24,000 rupees.