Defence, Production, and Industry.
The new harbour of Singapore, ooini»ri.siiig the coal stores, wharves, and (locks, is defended by several forts armed with annour-piercing and medium guns, and by a system of sul)marine mines. The initial cost of the forts amounted to nearly 100, 000^, and was defrayed out of the revenues of the colony, the Imperial Government supplying the guns and ammunition only. The garrison comprises one battalion of infantry at war strength, two l)atteries of European artillery, half a company of fortress engineers, and a company of Malay submarine miners. A further augmentation of the garrison is under contemplation.
The colony also maintains an armed police force consisting of 32 officers and 1,811 men, and a l)attery of volunteer artillery consisting of 105 officers and men. The latter during time of war would be placed under the orders of the officer commanding the troops and act as auxiliaries to the European artillery.
Articles produced in the Straits territory are gambier in Singapore ; pepper in Singapore and Province Wellesley ; tapioca and rice in Malacca and Pro- vince Wellesley ; sugar in Province Wellesley. Liberian coffee is successfully cultivated in Perak, Selangor, Sungei Ujong, Negri Sembilan, and Johor. Coffee, pepper, sugar and rice are exported from Perak ; gambier and pepper are grown in Sungei Ujong, Negri Sembilan, Selangor, and Johor ; tapioca in Sungei Ujong and Negri Sembilan. The duty on the export of tin forms the largest item of the revenue of the States on the West Coast. In 1897 the ex- poit from Perak amounted to 20,702 tons, from Selangor 20,606 tons, and from Sungei Ujong and Jelebu about 3,522 tons. Tin is also successfully worked in the Kuantan District of Pahang. Gold is found in and exported from Pahang, Negri Sembilan, and Perak, and other metals are known to exist in various parts of the Peninsula. In 1897, 26,420 ounces of gold was ex- ported from Pahang,
The Straits ports are wholly free from duties on imports and exports, and their trade, centred at Singapore, is to a large extent a transit trade. The ports of the Protected Malay States are also free except as to opium and spirits. The chief exports comprise tin, sugar, pepper, nutmegs, mace, sago, tapioca, nee, buffalo hides and horns, rattans, gutta percha, india-rubber, gambier, gum, copra, coffee, dyestuffs, tobacco, &c.
The following table shows the value of imports and exports (exclusive of inter-Settlement trade, but inclusive of treasure) for live years : —
Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars
1893 22,126,7.38 42,041,115 95,981,107)160,148,960
1894 27,852,362 47,051,162 134,450 699i209,.354,223
1895 :21, 599,976 51,414,927 125,203,403,198,218,306
1896 121,680,591 56,804,570 122,858,539 201,343,700
1897 .28,476,448 67,09.3,079 124,340,774 219,910,296
30,294,499 20,243,5911 94,219,.354:i44,7.57,394 21,800,010 120,340,8is!l73,900,316
30,062,072 21^766,794 20,012,414 22,468,804 25,936,224 29,576,077
121,146,0871172,974,953 12.% 239,596173,720,814 137,624,076193,136,377
The exports do not include coal supplied to ships' bunkers, ships' stores, telegraph cables. Ac, materials for building and repairing vessels, nor ojiium sent to Johor for con- sumption there.