EAST AFRICA ■ 195
the Mbomu). North of this tlie British sphere has at present no western delimi- tatiou and debouches on the independent Mohammedan states of that region. The total area thus embraced probably extends to over 1,000,000 square miles. Treaties have been made with almost all the native chiefs between the coast and the Albert Nyanza, and with the Somali tribes occupying the interior between the Juba and Tana, whereby commercial access to the Galla country is now opened.
In 1886 the dominions of the Sultan of Zanzibar were delimited, and were recognised as including a continuous strip of coast, ten miles in depth, reaching from Cape Delgado to Kipini on the Ozi River. Outside this tract, it was agreed that Germany should have as a sphere of influence the country stretching inland from the river Rovuma northwards to the Umba River ; England's sphere of intluence extending northward from the Umba. Northwards of Kipini the Sultan of Zanzibar retained several stations where he had hitherto kept garri- sons, viz., Lamu, Kismayu, Brava, Merka, Mogadischo, Warsheikh. Of these, however, the last four were ceded to Italy on August 26, 1892, and the Italian Government took over their administration on September 26, 1893. The German East African Association, in virtue of a concession signed in May 1888, acquired the right to administer the Mrima or mainland (including the customs of the Sultan's ports) from the Rovuma to the Umba River on the north, the Sultan of Zanzibar being subsequently paid the sum of 4,000,000 marks in return for the cession by him of all his rights to and on the coast-line which thus became an integral part of the German sphere or, as it is now called, German East Africa. The Imperial British East Africa Company acquired the right to administer the coast from the Umba to Kipini for fifty years, on con- dition of an annual payment to the Sultan ; and in 1889 further acquired the ports and islands (including Lamu, Manda, and Patta) to the north of the Tana. A further settlement of territorial questions in 1890 conferred on England the protectorate of Zanzibar, including the island of Pemba, and left to British influence the territory from the Umba north to the Juba River, including the territory of Witu, which was for a time placed under the control of the British East Africa Company.
By the end of 1892 the Company had occupied the country as far as Uganda, and between that and Lake Albert Edward and the River Semliki. By arrangement with the Government the Company retired from Uganda at the end of March 1893, and on June 19, 1894, a British Protectorate was declared over Uganda proper. On July 31, 1893, the Company withdrew from the administration of Witu, which was temporarily placed under the administration of the Sultan, On June 15, 1895, a British Protectorate was proclaimed over the territories lying between and not hitherto included within the Protectorates of Zanzibar, Witu and Uganda proper, and the whole of this region has since been divided, for administrative purposes, into two districts called respectively, the East Africa Protectorate, and the Uganda Protectorate. The former extends, roughly speaking, some 400 miles inland, and the latter from that frontier to the interior limits of the British sphere. On June 30 the Company evacuated the teiTitory leased from the Sultan, the administration being taken over by her Majesty's Government.
THE EAST AFRICA PROTECTORATE.
The East Afiica Protectorate, which extends from the Umba to the Juba river, and inland as far as the borders of Uganda, is placed under the control of a Commissioner and Consul-General, who is also British agent and Consul- Genei-al at Zanzibar. It is divided for purposes of administration into four provinces, each under a sub-commissioner : (1) the Coast Province (Seyyidieh),