THE BRITISH EMPIRE; — NEWFOUNDLAND
The coast of Newfoundland is rugged, 'especially on the south-west, where the coast range reaches an elevation of nearly 2,000 feet. The hills attain their summit within a few miles of the salt water, and then spread out into an undulating country, consisting largely of barrens and marshes, and inter- sected by numerous rivers and lakes. On the borders of the lakes and water- courses good land is generally found, and in some cases, as about the Exploits, the Gander and the Humber, it is heavily timbered. Area, 42,200 square miles. Population in 1891 : island, including Labrador, 202,040, of whom 195,472 were natives of Newfoundland and 143 Indians. Of the total popu- lation 54,755 were engaged in the fisheries, 1,547 were farmers, 2,682 mechanics, 1,258 miners. Capital, St. John's, with suburbs, 29,007 in- habitants; other towns being Harbour Grace, 6,466; Carbonear, 4,127; Twniingate, 3,585 ; Bonavista, 3,551. The birth rate in 1891 was 33, and the death rate 22 per 1,000.
The government is administered by a Governor, assisted by an Executive Council (not exceeding 7 members), a Legislative Council (not exceeding 15 members), and a House of Assembly consisting of 36 representatives. Mem- bers of the Legislative Council receive 120 dollars per session ; members of the Legislative Assembly receive 200 or 300 dollars per session, according as they are resident or not in St. John's. For electoral purposes the whole colony is divided into 18 districts or constituencies, 7 of which elect 3 members, 4 return 2 members, and 7 return 1 each. Of the population, 69,824 belong to the Church of England, 72,696 are Roman Catholics, 53,276 Methodists, 1,449 Presbyterians, 4,795 other denominations. The total number of aided schools in 1894 was 605, with 35,501 pupils; total expenditure, including Government grant, fees, &c., 147,544 dollars.
By the treaty of Utrecht, 1713, the French retain some rights enabling fishermen to land and dry fish on the northern and western shores. The existence of these rights, their extent having long been matter of dispute, has interfered with the development of the island, and it is understood that an effort towards a better understanding regarding them is now being made by the British and French Governments.
The revenue and expenditure in five years (1 dollar = 45. li^d.) have been : —
• £ 3G5,384 f37C,479
£ 341,882 402,126
£ 325,721 281,809
£ 330,689 283,439
Of the Revenue for 1897, no less than 303,861^. is from Customs. Public debt (1897) 3,431, 988Z.
The total imports and exports of Newfoundland for five years are as follows : —
£ 1,577,619 1,308,523
Imports . Exports .
£ 1,492,654 1,210,660
£ 1,233,233 1,278,080
£ 1,250,725 1,364,011
£ 1,211,905 1,005,263