(Republica Boliviana.) Constitution and Government.
The Constitution of the Republic of Bolivia bears date October 28, 1880. By its provisions the executive power is vested in a Pi'esident, elected for a term of four years by direct popular vote, and not eligible for re-election at the ter- mination of his period of oHice ; while the legislative authority rests with a Congress of two chambers, called the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies, the suttrage is possessed by all who can read and write. There are 18 Senators elected for six years, and 64 Deputies elected for four years. Senators and Deputies receive a salary of 200 bolivianos per month with an allowance for travelling expenses. There are two Vice-Presidents and a ministry, divided into five depaitments- — of Foreign Relations and Worship ; Finance and Industry ; Government and Colonisation ; Justice and Public Instniction ; War.
President of the llepuhlic. — Senor Sevcro Fernandez Alonso, installed August 15, 1896.
The supreme political, administrative, and military authority in each department is vested in a prefect. The Republic is divided into nine departments, 52 provinces, and 374 cantons, administered respectively by prefects, sub-prefects, and corregidores. The capital of each province has its municipal council.
Area and Population.
The area of Bolivia was estimated in 1869 at 842,729 English square miles, with a population of close upon two millions. The following table gives after official returns of 1890-93, the area of each of the existing provinces, with their estimated population (excluding aboriginal Indians) : —
Area : English square miles
La Paz de Ayacucho .... Potosi .
Chuquisaca, or Sucre ....
Santa-Cmz de la Sierra .... Tarija .......
171,130 52,100 21,350 39,890 21,430 100,580 126,340 34,610
593,779 360,400 189,840 286,710 360,220 1
As a result of the war with Chile, 1879-80, Bolivia mortgaged to that country the Litoral department, area 29,910 square miles, containing the port of Antofagasta. The question of the redemption of the territory at present mortgaged to Chile is discussed annually in the Bolivian Congress, but no resolution concerning it has yet l)cen carried into effect. The aboriginal or Indian population of Bolivia is estimated at a million ; the mestizos or uiixed races at 500 000, and the whites about 500,000. They arc mostly