CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT 435
Federal Government. Deputies and Senators are paid, and neither can be Ministers of State, and retain at the same time their scats in Congress. Deputies must have been Brazilian citizens for four years. Senators must be over thirty-live years of age and must have been citizens for six years.
The Chamber of Deputies consists of 212 members elected for three years by direct vote (i)roviding for the representation of the minority), in a })ro- portion not greater than one to every 70,000 of population as shown by a decennial census, but so that no State will have less than four representatives. It has the initiative in legislation relating to taxation.
The following table shows the number of Deputies from the different States and from the Federal district : —
Rio Grande do Sul
Minas Geraes .
Matto G rosso .
Rio de Janeiro
Rio Grande do Norte
Senators, 63 in number, are chosen by direct vote, three for each State, and for the Federal district, for nine years, and the Senate is renewed to the extent of one-third every three years. The Vice-President of the Republic is President of the Senate.
The executive authority is exercised by the President of the Republic* He must be a native of Brazil, over thirty-five years of age. His term of office is four years, and he is not eligible for the succeeding term. The President and the Vice-President are elected by the people directly, by an absolute majority of votes. The election is held on the 1st of March in the last year of each presidential period in accordance with forms prescribed by law. No candidate must be related by blood or marriage, in the first or second degree, to the actual president or vice-president, or to either who has ceased to be so within six months.
The President has the nomination and dismissal of ministers, supreme command of the army and navy, and, within certain limits, the power to declare war and make peace. He (with the consent of Congress) appoints the members of the Supreme Federal Tribunal and the diplomatic ministers. No minister can appear in Congress, but must communicate by letter, or in conference with commissions of the Chambers. Ministers are not responsible to Congress or the Tribunals for advice given to the President of the Republic.
The franchise extends to all citizens not under twenty-one years of age, duly enrolled, except beggars, 'illiterates,' soldiers actually serving, and members of monastic orders, &c., under vows of obedience.
President of the Republic. — Dr. Campos Salles ; assumed office, Novem- ber 15, 1898.
Vice-President, — Dr. Rosas e Silva.
There are 6 Secretaries of State at the head of the following Departments : — 1. Finance, 2. Justice, Interior and Public Instruction, 3. War, 4. Marine, 5. Foreign Affairs, 6. Industry, Communications and Public Works.
In 1885 a bill was passed for the gradual extinction of slavery, and on May 13, 1888, an act was passed repealing all former acts on the subject, and abolishing slavery from the day of the promulgation of the law.
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