582 GERMAN EMPIRE
the evening or other convenient time. The Gymnasia are the most fully developed classical schools, preparing pupils in a nine years' course for the universities and the learned professions. The Progyimiasia differ from these only in not having the highest classes. In the Realgymnasia, Latin, but not Greek, is taught, and what are usually termed ' modern subjects ' have more time devoted to them. Real]yroyymnasia have a similar course, but have no class corresponding to the highest class in the preceding. In the Oherrealschulen and Realschulen Latin is wholly displaced in favour of modern languages. In 1897, 1,048 secondary schools (including 56 private schools), also 181 public Lehrer- Seminare n.xidi ?>1 public Fachschulen : total 1,261 institutions, possessed the right of granting certificates to pupils, entitling them to serve in the army as one-year volunteers. The teachers in German schools are required to hold a Government certificate, and to have undergone a year's probation. Higher schools for girls are called Hohere Tochterschulen. Besides these there are numerous Geioerheschulen or technical schools, Polytechnica, normal schools, seminaries, and the universities. The total number of children of school age in 1890 was 8,694,887.
No official statistics of the number of schools, pupils, teachers, &c. , are issued for the entire Empire ; but particulars on these heads will be found under some of the separate States. The number of elementary schools was estimated in 1891 at 56,560, of pupils attending them 7,925,000, and of teachers 120,030. The immediate expenditure on elementary schools was about 242,400,000 marks, of which 69,305,000 marks came from State funds. [Brachelli, Statistische Skizze des Deutschen Reichs, 7th ed.] In 1897 the number of secondary schools was as follows : —
Other iniblic schools
Among the more important special and technical schools in 1891 were 9 technical high-schools and polytechnics ; 31 middle schools of agriculture ; 15 schools of mining; 15 schools of architecture and building; 9 academies of forestry ; 23 schools of art and art-industry (A'^«?s^ and Kunstgewerhe- Schulcn) ; and 7 public music-schools. There are also numerous smaller as well as private agricultural, music, &c., schools, and a large number of artisans' or trade schools. There is a naval academy and school at Kiel, and military academies at Berlin and Munich ; besides 47 schools of navigation, 9 military schools, and 9 cadet institutions.
It appears, from statistical returns relating to the formation of the united German army, that of all recruits of the year 1896-97 only 0*11 per cent, could neither read nor write. In East and West Pnissia and in Posen the percentage ranged from 0'49 to 0'67 ; in all the other States the number was less than 29 per cent. In Alsace-Lorraine it was only 0"23 per cent, in 1890-91, and OlO in 1896-97.
There are 21 universities in the German Empire, l)esides the Lyceum