very same manuscript in which he foresees the governmental collaboration of Socialism with other democratic factions, nevertheless repeats and seems to agree with the phrase so vigorously condemned by Marx: "From the Socialist point of view, all the other parties form only a single reactionary body." And this is also in direct opposition to the practice of the German Socialists themselves, who do not hesitate to support the liberal bourgeoisie in their struggle against the small land-owners and the remnants of agrarian feudalism. But Liebknecht atoned for the breadth, comprehensiveness, and elasticity of his contribution to the theory of Socialist action by the dogmatism of this narrow formula.
As a matter of fact, his definition of the working class is of the broadest:
"We must not limit our conception of the term 'working class' too narrowly. As we have explained in speeches, tracts, and articles, we include in the working class all those who live exclusively or principally by means of their own labour and who do not grow rich through the work of others.
"Thus, besides the wage-earners, we should include in the working class the small farmers and small shopkeepers, who tend more and more to drop to the level of the proletariat—in other words, all those who suffer from our present system of production on a large scale.
"Some maintain, it is true, that the wage-earning proletariat is the only really revolutionary