adopted by the commentators. Tu Mu, however, seems to take it in the sense of “possessions,” or, as we might say, “assets,” which he considers to be 兵衆國富人和令行 “a large army, a rich exchequer, harmony amongst the soldiers, punctual fulfilment of commands.” These give us a whip-hand over the enemy.
and keep them constantly engaged;
役, literally, “make servants of them.” Tu Yu says 令不得安佚 “prevent them from having any rest.”
hold out specious allurements, and make them rush to any given point.
Mêng Shih’s note contains an excellent example of the idiomatic use of 變: 令忘變而速至 “cause them to forget pien (the reasons for acting otherwise than on their first impulse), and hasten in our direction.”
11. The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him;
The T‘ung Tien and Yü Lan read 有能以待之也, but the conciser form is more likely to be right.
not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.
The T‘ung Tien and Yü Lan insert 吾也 after the first 攻, and omit 有所.
12. There are five dangerous faults which may affect a general: (1) Recklessness, which leads to destruction;
勇而無慮 “Bravery without forethought," as Ts‘ao Kung analyses it, which causes a man to fight blindly and desperately like a mad bull. Such an opponent, says Chang Yü, “must not be encountered with brute force, but may be lured into an ambush and slain.” Cf. Wu Tzŭ, chap. IV ad init.: 凡人論將常觀於勇勇之於將乃數分