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  1. 邱陵隄防必處其陽而右背之此兵之利地之助也
  2. 上雨水沫至欲涉者待其定也
  3. 凡地有絶澗天井天牢天羅天陷天𨻶必亟去之勿近也


the other commentators follow him, apparently taking as = . Cf. Mencius, V. 1. ix. 1, where 養牲者 means a cattle-keeper. But here 養生 surely has reference to the health of the troops. It is the title of Chuang Tzŭ’s third chapter, where it denotes moral rather than physical well-being.

and camp on hard ground,

must mean dry and solid, as opposed to damp and marshy, ground. This is to be found as a rule in high places, so the commentators explain as practically equivalent to .

the army will be free from disease of every kind,

Chang Yü says: “The dryness of the climate will prevent the outbreak of illness.”

and this will spell victory.


13. When you come to a hill or a bank, occupy the sunny side, with the slope on your right rear. Thus you will at once act for the benefit of your soldiers and utilize the natural advantages of the ground.

14. When, in consequence of heavy rains up-country, a river which you wish to ford is swollen and flecked with foam, you must wait until it subsides.

The T‘ung Tien and Yü Lan have a superfluous before .

15. Country in which there are precipitous cliffs with torrents running between,

絶澗, explained by Mei Yao-ch‘ên as 前後險峻水橫其中.

deep natural hollows,

天井, explained as 四面峻坂澗壑所歸 “places enclosed on every side by steep banks, with pools of water at the bottom.”

confined places,