Page:Sun Tzu on The art of war.djvu/19

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Tzŭ stands beyond the reach of carping criticism. My contemporaries, however, have failed to grasp the full meaning of his instructions, and while putting into practice the smaller details in which his work abounds, they have overlooked its essential purport. That is the motive which has led me to outline a rough explanation of the whole.[1]

One thing to be noticed in the above is the explicit statement that the 13 chapters were specially composed for King Ho Lu. This is supported by the internal evidence of I. § 15, in which it seems clear that some ruler is addressed.

In the bibliographical section of the Han Shu,[2] there is an entry which has given rise to much discussion: 吳孫子八十二篇圖九卷 “The works of Sun Tzŭ of Wu in 82 p‘ien (or chapters), with diagrams in 9 chüan.” It is evident that this cannot be merely the 13 chapters known to Ssŭ-ma Ch‘ien, or those we possess to-day. Chang Shou-chieh in his 史記正義 refers to an edition of Sun Tzŭ’s 兵法 of which the “13 chapters” formed the first chüan, adding that there were two other chüan besides.[3] This has brought forth a theory, that the bulk of these 82 chapters consisted of other writings of Sun Tzŭ — we should call them apocryphal — similar to the 問答 Wên Ta, of which a specimen dealing with the Nine Situations[4] is preserved in the 通典 T‘ung Tien, and another in Ho Shih’s commentary. It is suggested

  1. 吾觀兵書戰策多矣,孫武所著深矣。孫子者,齊人也,名武;為吳王闔閭作兵法一十三篇;試之婦人,卒以為將;西破強楚,入郢,北威齊、晉。後百餘歲有孫臏,是武之後也。審計重舉,明畫深圖,不可相誣,而但世人未之深亮訓說,況文煩富行於世者,失其旨要,故撰為《略解》焉。
  2. 漢書藝文志、兵權謀
  3. The 宋藝文志 mentions two editions of Sun Tzŭ in 3 chüan, namely 孫武孫子 and 朱服校定孫子.
  4. See chap. XI.