forgetting that her experience of war in all its phases has also been such as no modern State can parallel. Her long military annals stretch back to a point at which they are lost in the mists of time. She had built the Great Wall and was maintaining a huge standing army along her frontier centuries before the ﬁrst Roman legionary was seen on the Danube. What with the perpetual collisions of the ancient feudal States, the grim conﬂicts with Huns, Turks and other invaders after the centralisation of government, the terriﬁc upheavals which accompanied the overthrow of so many dynasties, besides the countless rebellions and minor disturbances that have ﬂamed up and ﬂickered out again one by one, it is hardly too much to say that the clash of arms has never ceased to resound in one portion or another of the Empire.
No less remarkable is the succession of illustrious captains to whom China can point with pride. As in all countries, the greatest are found emerging at the most fateful crises of her history. Thus, Po Ch‘i stands out conspicuous in the period when Ch‘in was entering upon her ﬁnal struggle with the remaining independent states. The stormy years which followed the break-up of the Ch‘in dynasty are illumined by the transcendent genius of Han Hsin. When the House of Han in turn is tottering to its fall, the great and baleful ﬁgure of Ts‘ao Ts‘ao dominates the scene. And in the establishment of the T‘ang dynasty, one of the mightiest tasks achieved by man, the superhuman energy of Li Shih-min (afterwards the Emperor T‘ai Tsung) was seconded by the brilliant strategy of Li Ching. None of these generals need fear comparison with the greatest names in the military history of Europe.
In spite of all this, the great body of Chinese sentiment, from Lao Tzŭ downwards, and especially as reﬂected in the standard literature of Confucianism, has been consistently paciﬁc and intensely opposed to militarism in any form. It is such an uncommon thing to ﬁnd any of the literati