which, through sheer lack of reasoning, men unhappily lose sight of fundamental principles.
When the Duke of Chou was minister under Ch‘êng Wang, he regulated ceremonies and made music, and venerated the arts of scholarship and learning; yet when the barbarians of the River Huai revolted, he sallied forth and chastised them. When Confucius held ofﬁce under the Duke of Lu, and a meeting was convened at Chia-ku, he said: “If paciﬁc negotiations are in progress, warlike preparations should have been made beforehand.” He rebuked and shamed the Marquis of Ch‘i, who cowered under him and dared not proceed to violence. How can it be said that these two great Sages had no knowledge of military matters?
We have seen that the great Chu Hsi held Sun Tzŭ in high esteem. He also appeals to the authority of the Classics: —
Our Master Confucius, answering Duke Ling of Wei, said: “I have never studied matters connected with armies and battalions.” Replying to K‘ung Wên-tzŭ, he said: “I have not been instructed about buff-coats and weapons.” But if we turn to the meeting at Chia-ku, we ﬁnd that he used armed force against the men of Lai, so that the marquis of Ch‘i was overawed. Again, when the inhabitants of Pi revolted, he ordered his ofﬁcers to attack them, whereupon they were defeated and ﬂed in confusion. He once uttered the words: “If I ﬁght, I con-
- See Shu Ching, preface § 55.
- See Tso Chuan, 定公 X. 2; Shih Chi, ch. 47, f. 4 ro.
- Lun Yü, XV. 1.
- Tso Chuan, 哀公, XI. 7.
- See supra.
- Tso Chuan, 定公, X. 2.
- Ibid. XII. 5; Chia Yü, ch. 1 ad fin.