Page:Sun Tzu on The art of war.djvu/49

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xlvii
Introduction

which, through sheer lack of reasoning, men unhappily lose sight of fundamental principles.[1]

When the Duke of Chou was minister under Ch‘êng Wang, he regulated ceremonies and made music, and venerated the arts of scholarship and learning; yet when the barbarians of the River Huai revolted,[2] he sallied forth and chastised them. When Confucius held office under the Duke of Lu, and a meeting was convened at Chia-ku,[3] he said: “If pacific negotiations are in progress, warlike preparations should have been made beforehand.” He rebuked and shamed the Marquis of Ch‘i, who cowered under him and dared not proceed to violence. How can it be said that these two great Sages had no knowledge of military matters?[4]

We have seen that the great Chu Hsi held Sun Tzŭ in high esteem. He also appeals to the authority of the Classics: —

Our Master Confucius, answering Duke Ling of Wei, said: “I have never studied matters connected with armies and battalions.”[5] Replying to K‘ung Wên-tzŭ, he said: “I have not been instructed about buff-coats and weapons.”[6] But if we turn to the meeting at Chia-ku,[7] we find that he used armed force against the men of Lai,[8] so that the marquis of Ch‘i was overawed. Again, when the inhabitants of Pi revolted, he ordered his officers to attack them, whereupon they were defeated and fled in confusion.[9] He once uttered the words: “If I fight, I con-


  1. 季孫問于冉有曰子之戰學之乎性達之乎對曰學之季孫曰事孔子惡乎學冉有曰卽學之於孔子者大聖兼該文並用適聞其戰法實未之詳也夫不知自何代何年何人分爲二道曰文曰武離而俱行因使縉紳之士不敢言兵甚或恥言之苟有言者世以爲麤暴異人人不比𢿙嗚呼亡失根本斯爲最甚.
  2. See Shu Ching, preface § 55.
  3. See Tso Chuan, 定公 X. 2; Shih Chi, ch. 47, f. 4 ro.
  4. 周公相成王制禮作樂尊大儒術有淮夷叛則出征之夫子相魯公㑹于夾谷曰有文事者必有武備叱辱齊侯伏不敢動是二大聖人豈不知兵乎.
  5. Lun Yü, XV. 1.
  6. Tso Chuan, 哀公, XI. 7.
  7. See supra.
  8. Tso Chuan, 定公, X. 2.
  9. Ibid. XII. 5; Chia Yü, ch. 1 ad fin.