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Index to Periodicals Professor J. Laurence Laughlin. Atlantic, v. 112, p. 644 (Oct.). "The only real permanent aid to low wages is to increase the productivity and skill of the per sons at the bottom. Instead of talking of such injurious palliatives as minimum wages, create institutions at once where those persons can be given a trade or training for a gainful occupa tion. . . . Under unrestricted competition there will be seen the inevitable results of 'natural monopoly' by which superiority comes to its own, and wages are in some proportion to produc tive power. Thus organization may be used to forward merit; and our individualistic democracy may found its material development on the satis factory basis of correct economic principles." Law Books. "Reports and Some Reporters." By Henry Budd. 47 American Law Review 481 (July-Aug.). "This debased condition of the reports does not necessarily show that the present reporters are inferior in ability to those who, in times past, were led to engage in the labor of reporting primarily by love of the work. Some excellent lawyers have been and some now are official reporters. Occasionally (but alas! rarely) a case is admirably reported, and that fact is proof that good reporting is still possible. The condition is due very largely to two reasons: (1) Because the reporter does not as a rule hear the cases argued. (2) Because of the adoption of a bad system, due in part, at least, to the demand, voiced in some cases by legislative enactment, that every case of a court of last resort shall be reported in the official series, and reported with great promptness. The report of every case we have, but it can hardly be said 'with great promptness,' when we find cases decided Janu ary 2, 1912, appearing, with imperfections to be corrected before final publication, in advance sheets dated May 24, 1912. All reasonable requirements would be met should decisions which are manifestly of trifling importance in point of law be merely noted in a very abbrevi ated form. There may be, there probably are, other reasons for the present state of the re ports; but it is very probable that if the reporter were in court, and if discrimination whether a case should be reported or noted were permitted to be exercised by him, always assuming him to be a well-trained lawyer, our reports would be much improved. But whatever the reason, reporting as formerly known seems to be a lost art or an abandoned practice in this country. The last struggle for good reporting in our state [Pennsylvania] has its monument in the fortyfour volumes of the Weekly Notes of Cases, originated and, for a time, edited by Elias L, Boudinot, and for by far the greater part of their existence by Mr. Outerbridge." "Evolution in Annotation." By Henry P. Farnham, M. L. 20 Case and Comment 114 (July). "The highest evolution in annotation, and that which the best publishers are more and more nearly approaching, begins with an abso lutely exhaustive collection of the cases bearing


upon the subject in hand, and a search for the underlying principle which should be applied to its decision. From the cases collected is pre pared an elucidation of the principle involved, so clear that the reader will have no difficulty in determining what the law is, and why, setting out each case fully enough to indicate how the principle was applied in it, and just what it is worth as a precedent, indicating the bestreasoned cases, and those decided by the strong est judges, so as to enable the lawyer or judge to examine the fewest cases possible in the preparation of brief or opinion. All cases are so classified, harmonized, and distinguished that the needed one may be found in the shortest time, and if any reason exists why a particular one should or should not rule the one under consideration that reason plainly pointed out. This gives ample scope for the profound study and constructive ability of the text-book writer, and the exhaustive and painstaking care of the case lawyer, and furnishes to the profession a combination of principle and case which is of the highest value. This is modern annotation in the true sense." "The Common Law's Debt to Annotations." By George F. Longsdorf. 20 Case and Comment 192 (Aug.). "The truth is that in an evolutionary system of law like ours, wherein we generalize from cases to doctrines, there cannot be too many cases. The law is enriched, and not smothered, by its many cases. But the generalizing must be done by careful and accurate method and with adequate expenditure of time, neither of which the lawyer can be ex pected to bring to such work. And so it has come to pass that, after the work of the great commentators, and in sequence the work of the digesters has been done, need has developed the modern annotator and his methods. His work relieves the common law from the neces sity of a Justinian or a Napoleon to recodify our law; for when a 'conflict of authorities' is rightly and patiently examined, and the cases explained in a good annotation, the conflict is often found to have been an appearance, and not a reality, or else the true and the fallacious are sifted so thoroughly that the lawyer as he reads is freed from doubt and vexation." "The Bible as a Law Book." By Judge Charles S. Lobingier, Manila, P. I. 47 American Law Re view 556 (July-Aug.). "Aside from its legal authority in ancient Israel it has repeatedly been given the force of law by Christian peoples. When, in the seventh century of our era, the Visigoths laid the foundation of the modern Spanish law by promulgating their great law book, the Forum Judicum, they drew very considerably from the Mosaic legislation. The same source was largely utilized by John Calvin, nine cen turies later when he came to devise laws for that interesting theocracy which he established at Geneva. In New England the followers of Calvin almost re-enacted the Mosaic Code." Legal Education. "The Social Sciences as the Basis of Legal Education." By William