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108 MEATS.

surface of the meat, and the generating of the steam prevents its crispness, so desirable in a roast.

It should be frequently basted with its own drippings, which flow from the meat when partly cooked, and well seasoned. Lamb, veal and pork should be cooked rather slower than beef, with a more mod- erate fire, covering the fat with a piece of paper, and thoroughly cooked till the flesh parts from the bone, and nicely browned, with- out being burned. An onion sliced and put on top of a roast while cooking, especially roast of pork, gives a nice flavor. Remove the onion before serving.

Larding meats is drawing ribbons of fat pork through the upper surface of the meat, leaving both ends protruding. This is accom- plished by the use of a larding needle, which may be procured at house- furnishing stores.

Boiling or stewing meat, if fresh, should be put into boiling water, closely covered and boiled slowly, allowing twenty minutes to each pound, and, when partly cooked, or when it begins to get tender, salted, adding spices and vegetables.

Salt meats should be covered with cold water, and require thirty minutes very sloiv boiling, from the time the water boils, for each pound ; if it is very salt, pour off the first water and put it in another of boiling water, or it may be soaked one night in cold water. After meat commences to boil the pot should never stop simmering and al- ways be replenished from the 'boiling teakettle.

Frying may be done in two ways. One method, which is most generally used, is by putting one ounce or more (as the case requires) of beef drippings, lard or butter into a frying pan, and when at the 'boiling point lay in the meat, cooking both sides a nice brown. The other method is to completely immerse the article to be cooked in suf- ficient hot lard to cover it, similar to frying doughnuts.

Broiled meats should be placed over clear, red coals free from smoke, giving out a good heat, but not too brisk, or the meat will be hardened and scorched; but if the fire is dead the gravy will escape and drop upon the coals, creating a blaze, which will blacken and smoke the meat. Steaks and chops should be turned often, in order that every part should be evenly done never sticking a fork into the lean part, as that lets the juices escape ; it should be put into the outer skin or fat. When the meat is sufficiently broiled it should be laid on

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