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THE LIFE OF TOLSTOY

began to recover, his family decided that he should spend the winter in the south, and on the doctor's advice the whole family removed, in September, 1901, to the Crimea, and settled at Gaspra, in the villa which Countess Panin had kindly put at Tolstoy's disposal. At every halting-place on the journey, especially at Kharkoff, crowds of people enthusiastically greeted the venerable teacher.

At the beginning of his stay in the Crimea, under the influence of the mild and warm climate, he began to recover rapidly. But later he fell ill with typhus and inflammation of the lungs. These illnesses weakened him terribly, and there were times when his family expected a fatal end; but Tolstoy's strong constitution asserted itself, and he was soon able to resume his work.

During his convalescence he wrote an article in the form of a letter, "To the Tsar and his Associates," in which he described the wretched condition of the Russian people, and suggested a series of reforms which were partially initiated by the Manifesto of November 1st, 1905. He wrote also a number of addresses to people of different professions, working people, clergy, politicians, soldiers, officers, and another letter to the Tsar. In all these appeals he tried to show the right way of living, according to Christ's teaching.