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lection of thoughts and aphorisms of the great thinkers of the world. In this collection were brought together for the first time in the Russian language the ideas of the leading thinkers of humanity: Christ, Socrates, Rousseau, Pascal, Buddha, Lao-tsze, and many others.

The wave of social and political agitation grew apace, and caught in its vortex ever larger and larger masses of the people. At last came the fatal January 21st, 1905, with Gapon's demonstration and its sanguinary suppression. All Russia was shaken by the volleys in the streets of St. Petersburg. The whole nation was aroused; new political parties sprang up; strikes took place, as well as armed risings, expropriations, agrarian disorders, and brigandage. The Imperial Manifesto of November 1st was followed by pogroms, the first Duma, then the Vyborg appeal, and afterwards deportations, imprisonment, exceptional laws, and executions.

It was difficult at that time to find one's bearings, and to avoid joining one or other of the struggling parties. But Tolstoy was true to himself. He had to bear reproaches, threats, and abuse from all sides, and people carried away by politics temporarily fell away from him, as he could not share their opinions or those of any political party.