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FINDING
The standardization of collected information via well-crafted calibration will make it possible to carry out a rigorous scientific investigation into UAP. NASA's experience in this area will be vital.

Once more, however, robust data calibration is vital, and here NASA again can play an important advisory role. The calibration process ensures that information gathered from sensors and instruments is precise, dependable and devoid of any systematic errors or biases. In the case of UAP studies, where data often originates from instruments not specifically designed for detecting such objects, proper calibration becomes even more crucial. In turn, metadata, which provides contextual information such as sensor type, manufacturer details, noise characteristics and time of acquisition, must simultaneously be present for an accurate characterization of both a potential UAP as well as the sensor itself. Indeed, several apparent UAP have been demonstrated to be sensor artifacts once appropriate calibration and metadata scrutiny were applied. Although a substantial investment, the standardization of collected information via well-crafted calibration will make it possible to carry out a rigorous scientific investigation into UAP. NASA's experience in this area will be essential.


3 What other types of scientific data should be collected by NASA to enhance the potential for developing an understanding of the nature and origins of UAP?


FINDING
NASA should leverage its considerable expertise in this domain to potentially utilize multispectral or hyperspectral data as part of a rigorous campaign.

To improve our understanding of UAP, NASA should contribute to a comprehensive approach to collecting data within the broader whole-of-government framework to understand UAP. The importance of detecting UAP with multiple, well-calibrated sensors is paramount, and NASA should leverage its considerable expertise in this domain to potentially utilize multispectral or hyperspectral data as part of a rigorous campaign to acquire additional data on future UAP. In addition, forthcoming large-sky surveys enabled by Federal ground-based assets including the Vera C. Rubin Observatory will collect vast quantities of data, which can be directly used to search for anomalous objects beyond the Earth's atmosphere.

Data signatures are vast, and theories that predict novel signatures help guide our searches. It is imperative to set clear evidence thresholds to avoid errors, especially with automated methods. Furthermore, purpose-built future sensors for UAP detection should be designed to adjust on millisecond timescales to aid better detection. In lockstep, alert systems should detect and share transient information quickly and uniformly.

The panel notes that, at present, gathering data on UAP is hampered by sensor calibration challenges and a lack of sensor metadata. In short, calibration ensures that future data gathered are reliable and accurate, while gathering metadata–such as the time, location, and sensor observing modes–ensures that the contextual and environmental factors of a recorded UAP event are well


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