of a separate union for engineers and called a meeting of engineers in St. Louis in December of the same year. The National Steam Engineers' Union was thus established. In 1905 the name of the organization was changed to International Union of Steam Engineers, and in 1915, on account of widened jurisdiction, it was again changed to International Union of Steam and Operating Engineers.
A union of steam shovel and dredge men was formed the same year the engineers organized, which affiliated to the American Federation of Labor in 1915. The engineers protested against what they considered a dual organization within the federation and by 1918 had secured a convention decision ordering the steam-shovel men to amalgamate. This the Brotherhood of Steam Shovel and Dredge Men refused to do. They were expelled from the American Federation of Labor in 1918, and for 10 years maintained an independent existence, the only unaffiliated union in the building industry. By a referendum vote of the two organizations an amalgamation took place in April, 1927, which was virtually absorption of the Brotherhood of Steam Shovel and Dredge Men by the engineers. The new title, "International Union of Operating Engineers," was adopted in April, 1928.
Objects.—"The objects of the organization are: The elevation of our craft to its proper position in the ranks of the workers; to encourage a higher standard of skill among our members; to cultivate feelings of friendship among the men of our craft; to assist each other in securing employment; to reduce the hours of labor; to secure a higher standard of wages for work performed; and by legal and proper means to elevate the moral, intellectual, and social conditions of our members."
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States, Canada, and Panama.
Trade jurisdiction.—"All those engaged in the operation of steam boilers, stationary, marine, Diesel, portable, hoisting, and electrical engines, gas engines, internal-combustion engines, or any machine that develops power.
"All hoisting and portable engines and boilers on building and construction work, when operated by steam, electricity, or compressed air, including pumps, siphons, pulsometers, concrete mixers, stone crushers, air compressors, and elevators when used for hoisting building materials, street rollers, steam shovels, cableways, clamshell buckets, orange-peel buckets, pile drivers, dinky locomotives, or any other machine that develops power."
Government.—1. General executive board, consisting of the general president, the five vice presidents, and the general secretary-treasurer. "All the powers of the International Union of Operating Engineers when not in session shall be vested in the general executive board. * * * The general president shall act as chairman. He shall have full control of all matters of interest to the organization."
2. Joint executive board: "Where there are two or more local unions in one city or town, there shall be formed a Joint executive board to be composed of three members from each local union. * * * joint executive boards may adopt such by-laws as they may deem necessary to govern their local conditions, providing they do not conflict with the constitution of the general organization."
3. Local unions: "Local unions reserve power at their own option by vote of their members to approve or reject all or any part of any legislative act, measure, resolution, by-law, rule or constitutional amendment enacted by the convention or promulgated by any general officer or officers. These reserved powers are expressly declared to include all measures relating to elections and finances of the organization."
4. Convention: Held quadrennially; enacts legislation and nominates general officers. Election of general officers by referendum. Constitutional amendments by convention and referendum, or by initiative and referendum.
Qualifications for membership.—"A candidate for membership must be a competent engineer or apprentice engineer. He shall possess a license in locali-