ers' Union, and in 1929 the Tunnel and Subway Constructors' International Union joined the hod carriers' union by an agreement between the two organizations. The tunnel and subway workers continue as a unit, in a local union of the hod carriers, and retain complete jurisdiction over that class of work.
Objects.—"The object of this union shall be the protection of its members, to assist each other by all legal means to obtain fair and just treatment for all laborers, and to elevate their social position."
Territorial Jurisdiction.— United States and possessions, Canada.
Trade Jurisdiction. — "Wrecking of buildings, excavation of buildings, digging of trenches, piers and foundations, holes, digging, lagging and sheeting of said foundations, holes and caisson work; concrete for walls, foundations, floors, or any other construction, whether done by hand or any other process; tending to masons, mixing and handling all materials used by masons, building of scaffolds for masons and plasterers; building of centers for fireproofing purposes; tending to carpenters; tending to and mixing all material for plastering, whether done by hand or by any other process; clearing of débris from buildings; shoring, underpinning and raising of old buildings; drying of plastering when done by salamander heat; handling of dimension stones; and common laboring in the construction of streets, sewers, and tunnels. Working in air pressure (compressed air) whether in caisson cylinders, subway tunnels, or compartments; sinking of all open caissons for whatever purpose they may be used; common laboring in factories, mills and shipyards."
Government. — 1. General officers, president, six vice presidents, secretary-treasurer. " The international union shall have supreme ruling power over all local unions." Its powers " shall be executive, legislative, and judicial, * * * its jurisdiction shall be the ultimate tribunal and * * * its decision shall be final and conclusive."
2. District councils: Composed of delegates from local unions, have jurisdiction, supervision, and control over all matters relative to agreements with employers covering wages, hours and working conditions in their localities; and have jurisdiction over "all things necessary to guard the interests" of component locals. Affiliation of locals mandatory.
3. Local unions: "The government and superintendence of subordinate unions shall be vested in the international union as the supreme head of all local unions. * * * The jurisdiction of local unions shall be that assigned to them by the international union."
4. Convention: Held every five years, unless otherwise ordered by referendum. Enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.—"No person shall be accepted to membership in any local union under the jurisdiction of the international union unless he is actually working at the calling and is a man of good moral character and known by at least two members in good standing." Applicants must be citizens or have made legal citizenship declaration.
Apprenticeship regulations. — No apprentice system.
Agreements. — Negotiated locally between local unions or district councils, and individual employers. Subject to approval of international office. General officers assist in conferences if needed.
Benefits. — Death.
Official organ. — None.
Headquarters. — 25 School Street, Quincy, Mass.
Organization. — District councils: California—Fresno, Glendale, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Pasadena, and San Jose; Connecticut—Bridgeport, Danbury, Greenwich, New Canaan, Ridgefield, South Norwalk, and Stamford; Illinois—Chicago, Oak Park, Evanston, Joilet, Wheaton, Aurora, Batavla, East St. Louis, Belleville, Granite City, Gillespie, and Staunton; Indiana—Gary, Hammond, and Lafayette; Iowa—Des Moines; Kansas—Kansas City; Kentucky—Louisville; Maine—Portland; Massachusetts—Boston; Missouri—Kansas City, Sugar Creek, and St Louis; New Jersey—Hudson County, Monmouth County, Hackensack and vicinity, Essex County; New York—Albany, Rochester, Schenectady, Syracuse, Troy, Utica, and Westchester County; Ohio—Cleveland, Berea, Cincinnati, and Lockland; Oregon—Portland; Pennsylvania—South Brownsville, Unlontown, Pittsburgh and vicinity, and Philadelphia and vicinity.