tion and the name changed in accordance therewith. Still later jurisdiction was extended over the terrazzo workers' helpers, and now all of these branches of the craft are recognized in the title of the organization.
Objects. — "The objects and aims of this international association are to discourage piecework, to encourage an apprentice and improver system, to cultivate feelings of friendship among the men of the different industries named, to assist each other to procure employment, to reduce the hours of daily labor, and secure adequate pay for our work, and by legal and proper means elevate the moral, intellectual, and social conditions of our members."
Territorial Jurisdiction. — United States and Canada.
Trade Jurisdiction. — "The sawing, rubbing, and polishing of marble, stone, and slate used for structural, sanitary, decorative, commemorative, and other purposes inside and about buildings of every description, in subways and cemeteries or wherever required for floors, wall linings, wainscoting, ceilings, stairways, steps, platforms, tile, door and window trims, counters, store fronts, vaults, operating rooms, bath and toilet rooms, and switchboards.
"Our polishers and rubbers shall polish, rub, and clean all marble, stone, slate, and glass, and all compositions and imitations that require the same proc- ess of finishing required in polishing, rubbing, and cleaning marble, stone, or slate; this work applies to shop and building, hand and machine.
"Sawyers shall run all gang, cable, and diamond saws, set all blocks in gangs, and hammer and set all saws.
"Marble setters' helpers shall do all utility work, such as loading and un- loading trucks at shop or building, rigging for heavy work, and such other work as Is required in helping a marble setter.
"Tile layers' helpers shall do all the cleaning of tile set by the tile layer, handle all sand, cement, lime, tile, and all other materials that may be used by tile layers after being delivered at the building.
"Terrazzo workers' helpers shall do all the handling of sand, cement, lime, terrazzo, and all other materials that may be used by the marble, mosaic, and terrazzo workers after being delivered at the building, or at the shop ; rubbing and cleaning all marble, mosaic, and terrazzo floors, bare wainscoting when run on the building by hand or machine."
Government. — 1. General executive council, composed of president, secretary-treasurer, and nine vice presidents, is the governing body, with the president as the chief executive officer, with comprehensive powers.
2. Local unions: Autonomous, but constitution and by-laws must be approved by general president.
3. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.— Applicants for membership must be or become citizens of the United States. Four years' apprenticeship is required for marble polishers before admission to the union.
Apprenticeship regulations.— Apply to marble polishers only, in which branch there is a four-year term. One apprentice to each five journeymen, but not more than five apprentices per year are allowed in any one shop.
Agreements. — Negotiated by local unions. Constitutional requirement: "Local unions must embody in their constitutions and by-laws a general law providing for a form of agreement with employers and the establishment of a joint committee of arbitration."
Benefits. — Death.
Official organ. — None.
Headquarters. — 406 East One hundred and forty-ninth Street, New York City.
Organization. — Local unions only: California, 2; Canada, 2; Connecticut, 2; District of Columbia, 1; Illinois, 6; Indiana, 3; Maryland, 1; Massachusetts, 2; Michigan, 1; Minnesota, 1; Missouri, 4; New Jersey, 2; New York, 8; Ohio, 4; Oklahoma, 1; Pennsylvania, 8; Rhode Island, 1; Washington, 1; Wisconsin, 2; Total, 52.
Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Baltimore, Md., on March 15, 1887. Incorporated December 7, 1894. Painters took active and prominent part in the