ers union with bad faith and violation of the agreement. The whole subject was thrown open again and the convention of 1913 passed a group resolution presented by the blacksmiths, the sheet-metal workers, the metal polishers, the painters, the pattern makers, the machinists, the carpenters, the electrical workers, and the upholsterers demanding that the carriage and wagon workers' union release its members to the respective craft unions holding jurisdiction and that the word "automobile" be dropped from the title of that organization.
Succeeding conventions reaffirmed the craft principle as applied to the situation in the automobile industry, and in April, 1918, the International Union of Carriage and Wagon Workers was expelled from the American Federation of Labor for failure to comply with convention decisions.
Following the separation from the American Federation of Labor the union adopted a new constitution and launched an independent industrial organization under the name of United Automobile, Aircraft, and Vehicle Workers of America.
Object.—"The object of this organization shall be to establish and uphold a fair and equitable rate of wages, lessen the hours of labor, and regulate all labor matters pertaining to members.
"To educate the workers in all economic and political questions necessary to better the condition of wage earners; to endeavor to replace strikes by arbitration and conciliation in settlement of all disputes concerning wages and conditions of employment; to elevate, protect, and maintain the position of the workers in our industry."
Territorial jurisdiction.—United States.
Trade jurisdiction.—The automobile, aircraft, and vehicle industry.
Government.—"The government of this organization shall be vested in a general executive board, consisting of the general officers and five members to be elected by the local in the city in which the general headquarters is located. * * * It is the duty of the general executive board to represent the general organization in every respect. The general executive board shall decide all questions of jurisdiction and law and shall have full power to authorize strikes, so far as they are not prohibited by this constitution."
2. Local unions: "The shop shall be the basic unit of structure, local unions to be composed of an unlimited number of shop units."
3. Convention: Held biennially; enacts legislation and elects general officers.
Qualifications for membership.—Any worker of good moral character engaged in the industry is eligible to membership. Male and female membership.
Apprenticeship regulations.—None by general organization. So far as apprenticeship system exists it is regulated in agreements.
Agreements.—Negotiated by local unions, with the approval of the general executive board, but "it shall be obligatory upon all unions to insert the arbitration clause in all contracts," and "it shall be mandatory to provide for the lay-off system in every contract."
Benefits.—Strike and lockout.
Official organ.—The Auto Worker.
Headquarters.—3782 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, Mich.
Organization.—The unit of organization is the shop.
Local unions: California, 1; Michigan, 4; Ohio, 3. Total, 8.
Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers, and Helpers, International Brotherhood of
Affiliated to the American Federation of Labor.
Organized in Atlanta, Ga., in 1889. An organization called the Grand Union of Machinists and Blacksmiths was formed at Philadelphia, Pa., on March 3, 1859, by delegates from five cities in three