102 STAT. 1359
PUBLIC LAW 100-418—AUG. 23, 1988
technology, or information available from foreign sources and so incur little or no economic costs as a result of the controls, the President should, through diplomatic means, employ alternatives to export controls which offer opportunities of distinguishing the United States from, and expressing the displeasure of the United States with, the specific actions of that couhtiy in response to which the controls are proposed. Such alternatives include private discussions with foreign leaders, public statements in situations where private diplomacy is unavailable or not effective, withdrawal of ambassadors, and reduction of the size of the diplomatic staff that the country involved is permitted to have in the United States.". (b) SPARE PARTS.—Section 6 of the Act (50 U.S.C. App. 2405) is amended by adding at the end the following: "(p) SPARE PARTS.—(1) At the same time as the President imposes President of or expands export controls under this section, the President shall U.S. determine whether such export controls will apply to replacement parts for parts in goods subject to such export controls. "(2) With respect to export controls imposed under this section before the date of the enactment of this subsection, an individual validated export license shall not be required for replacement parts which are exported to replace on a one-for-one basis parts that were in a good that was lawfully exported from the United States, unless the President determines that such a license should be required for such parts.". SEC. 2424. EXPORTS OF DOMESTICALLY PRODUCED CRUDE OIL. (a) TECHNICAL AMENDMENT.—Section 7(d) of the Act (50
App. 2406(d)) is amended by striking paragraph (4).
(b) CRUDE OIL STUDY.— (1) REVIEW OF EXPORT RESTRICTIONS ON CRUDE OIL.—The
Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, shall undertake a comprehensive review to assess whether existing statutory restrictions on the export of crude oil produced in the contiguous United States are adequate to rotect the energy and national security interests of the United tates and American consumers. Taking into account exports licensed since 1983 and potential exports of heavy crude oil produced in California, u e review shall assess the efif(Kt of increased exports of crude oil produced in the contiguous United States on— (A) the adequacy of domestic supplies of crude oil and refined petroleum products in meeting United States energy and national security needs; (B) the quantity, quality, and retail price of petroleum products available to consumers in the United States generally and on the West Coast in particular; (C) the overall trade deficit of the United States; (D) acquisition costs of crude oil by domestic petroleum refiners; (E) thefinancialviability of sectors of the domestic petroleum industry (including independent refiners, distributors, marketers, and pipeline carriers); and (F) the United States tanker fleet (and the industries that support it), with particular emphasis on the availability of militarily useful tankers to meet anticipated national defense requirements.
50 USC app. 2406 note.
Defense and national security.