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of the inscription around the Pelican which he made his symbol Alliis non sibi Clemens. The Sun-king had, as his own ambassador to Rome declared, appointed this Pope as dictatorically as he might have appointed the chairman of a merchant's guild. Thereafter a grave conflict between the state church and the Papacy was inevitable. Gallicanism was as old as France. Louis XIV surpassed all previous bearers of the French crown in carrying out the political rule that the clergy must be kept under control by the Pope . . . while the Pope was being kept under control by a nationalistic clergy. Clement X (16701676) was a Pontiff who favoured Spain. Louis retorted by venting his animosity on a Vatican so openly sympathic with the enemies of France. The Crown had the right to enjoy the income of a bishopric during an interregnum, and to dispense the religious offices at its disposal. This right was now extended to provinces in which it had never previously been enforced. Ecclesiastical posses- sions were confiscated. The king conferred upon himself full powers to tax Church instances for military purposes, and retained moneys due to Romans who possessed sources of income in France. The clergy bowed before the King in filial loyalty. Kneeling beside Madame dc Montespan in the Chapel at Versailles and blending his prayers with hers, he made up by appearing to be a good Catholic for what he lacked to be a good Christian. Harlay advised him to kiss the Pope's feel and tie his hands! Louis followed the second part of the advice much more assiduously than he did the first. But Pope Innocent XI (1676- 1689) , the irreproachable Cardinal Odescalchi of Lake Como, managed to get both hands free. He was a gentle benefactor whom the people venerated as a saint, but he warded off bankruptcy from the Papal States with a firm hand and resolutely took up the gauntlet which Louis had thrown down. He affirmed his solidarity with two bishops who had refused to obey the Gallican edict and had since lived under a torrent of abuse emanating from the King. Soon the issue became still more decisive it was a question of the Pope's rights vis-a-vis the King. The Gallican clergy were astounded when Rome dared to offend die "oldest son of the Church,** and clamoured for a national Council. Louis summoned ecclesiastical delegates from all the prov- inces to a general assembly of the clergy of France. In 1682 this proclaimed the Liberte dc Feglise Gallicane, which Bossuet condensed


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