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ican and arc always at the Pope's disposal. They stand to the right and the left of his throne, and the Maestro di Camera always accom- panies him. When a number of people are received in audience, he precedes the Pope by a few steps in order to ask each person's name and to make the introduction. Whoever wishes to be received in audience must address a written request to the Maestro di Camera. The dress prescribed for such audiences is strictly conventional. For- merly the laity figured in something like a masquerade: men had to appear in the black costume of the Spanish Court, but today the customary full dress suit suffices, top hat and gloves being left in the ante-room; the ladies must still conform to the old requirements, wearing a black dress extending to every extremity, and a black lace veil in lieu of a hat. Only royal princesses have the right to wear gloves. A private audience is governed by a solemn ceremonial con- cerning which the visitor is given precise instructions. He is received into the beautiful Sala Clementina, where Swiss Guards keep watch, is relieved of his hat and coat by train bearers dressed in red, and is then led on into the chamber of the Papal gendarmerie. Thence he goes on to the next room, where the Palatine Guard keeps watch, and from it to the chamber of the bussolanti, or door-keepers. He must remain here, if he is not accorded the privilege of entering the adjoin- ing ante-room to the throne room, in which the Noble Guard keeps watch. Then two honorary chamberlains conduct the visitor to the throne room which gleams with red damask and gold, and thence to the adjoining secret ante-room, which is at the same time the foyer of the Papal house chapel and is guarded by other members of the Noble Guard, They then conduct him farther to two secret chamberlains who, in case he does not have to wait longer, lead him through three reception rooms and the Sala del tronetto into the Pope's study, where the reception is accorded. The Pope is seated on a chair of red and gold behind a huge writing desk covered with red morocco leather. The visitor moves toward him and in the three intervals genuflects three times. Today kissing the foot i. e. the cross on the ponti- fical shoes still takes place in the liturgy of the Pope's Mass and at solemn receptions, being a custom associated with antique cere- monies of greeting, particularly in the Orient, but is omitted in pri- vate audiences. Then the Pope requests his visitor to rise and take