Philosophical Transactions/Volume 1/Number 11

Num. 11.



Munday, April 2. 1666.

The Contents.

A Confirmation of the former Account, touching the late Earthquake near Oxford, and the Concomitants thereof, by Mr. Boyle.Some Observations and Directions about the Barometer, communicated by the same Hand.General Heads for a Natural history of a Country, small or great, proposed by the same.An extract of a letter, written from Holland, about Preserving Ships from being Worm-eaten.An Account of Mr. Boyle's lately publish't Tract, entituled, The Origine of Forms and Qualities, illustrated by Considerations and Experiments.

A Confirmation of the former Account touching the late Earthquake near Oxford, and the Concomitants thereof.

THis Confirmation came from the Noble Mr. Boyle in a Letter, to the publisher, as followeth:
As to the Earth-quake, your curiosity about it makes me sorry, that, though I think, I was the first, that gave notice of it to several of the Virtuosi at Oxford; yet the Account, that I can send you about it, is not so much of the Thing it self, as of the Changes of the Air, that accompanied it. To inform you of which, I must relate to you, that riding one Evening somewhat what late betwixt Oxford & a Lodging, I have at a place, 4. miles distant from it, the weather having been for a pretty while Frosty, I found the Wind so very cold, that it reduced me to put on some defensives against it, which I never since, nor, if I forget not, all the foregoing part of the Winter was obliged to make use off. My unwillingness to stay long in so troublesome a Cold, which continued very piercing, till I had got half way home-ward, did put me upon galloping at no very lasy rate; and yet, before I could get to my Lodgings, I found the Wind turned, and felt the Rain falling; which, considering the shortness of the time, and that this Accident was preceded by a setled Frost, was surprising to me, and induced me to mention it at my return, I, as one of the greatest and suddainest Alterations of Air, I had ever observ'd: And what changes I found, have been taken notice of in the Gravity of the Atmosphere at the same time by that Accurate Observer *Dr. * See Num. 10. Phil. Transactions p. 166-171; at the time of the printing whereof, this Relation of Mr. Boyle was nor yet come to hand. Wallis, who then suspected nothing of what follow'd; as I suppose, he has ere this told you himself. Soon after, by my guess about an hour, there was a manifest Trembling in the House where I was (which stands high in comparison of Oxford.} But it was not there so great, but that I, who chanced to have my thoughts busied enough on other matters, than the weather, should not have taken notice of it as an Earth-quake, but have imputed it to some other cause, if one, that you know, whose hand is employed in this Paper, and begins to be a diligent observer of Natural things, had not advertis'd me of it; as being taken notice of by him and the rest of the people of the House. And soon after there hapned a brisk Storm; whereupon I sent to make inquiry at a place call'd Brill, which standing upon a much higher ground, I supposed might be more obnoxious to the effects of the Earth-quake (of which, had I had any suspicion of it, my having formerly been in one neer the Lacus Lemanus, would have made me the more observant:) But the person I sent to, being disabled by sickness to come over to me (which he promis'd to do, as soon as he could) writ me only a Ticket, whose substance was, That the Earth-quake was there much more considerable, than where I lodged, and that at a Gentlemans house, whom he names (the most noted Person, it seems, of the neighbourhood) the House trembled very much, so as to make the Stones manifestly to move to and fro in the Parlour, to the great amazement and fright of all the Family. The Hill, whereon this Brill stands, I have observ'd to be very well stor'd with Mineral substances of several kinds; and from thence I have been inform'd by others, that this Earth-quake reach'd a good many miles; but I have neither leasure, nor inclination to entertain you with uncertain reports of the Extent and other Circumstances, especially since a little further time an inquiry may enable me to give you a better warranted account.

Some Observations and Directions about the Barometer, communicated by the same Hand, to the Author of this Tract.

There shall be set down, as they came to hand in another Letter; videl.

As to the Barometrical Observations (as for brevities sake I use to call them) though you* guessed * See Num. 9. of the Phil. Transact. p.159. the last paragraph.aright, that, when I saw those of the Learned and Inquisitive Dr. Beale, I had not Mine by me, (for I left them, some years since, in the hands of a Virtuoso, nor have I now the leasure to look after those Papers;) yet since by the Communication, you have made publick, 'tis probable, that divers Ingenious men will be invited to attempt the like Observations, I shall (notwithstanding my present haste) mention to you some particulars, which perhaps will not appear unseasonable, that came into my mind upon the reading of what you have presented the Curious.

When I did, as you may remember, some years agoe, publickly express and desire that some Inquisitive men would make Baroscopical Observations in several parts of England (if not in forrain Countries * * Some whereof have been since invited by the Publisher, to give their concurrence herein. also;) and to assist them, to do so, presented some of my Friends with the necessary Instruments: The declared reason of my desiring this Correspondence was (among other things) that by comparing Notes, the Extent of the Atmospherical Changes, in point of Weight, might be the better estimated. But not having hitherto received some account, that I hoped for, I shall now, without staying for them, intimate thus much to you: That it will be very convenient, that the Observers take notice not only of the day, but, as near as they can, of the Houre wherein the height of the Mercurial Cylinder is observ'd: For I have often found; that within less than the compass of one day, or perhaps half a day, the Altitude of it has so considerably vary'd, as to make it in many cases difficult, to conclude any thing certainly from Observations, that agree but in the day.

It will be requisite also, that the Observers give notice of the Scituation of the place, where their Barometers stand, not only, because it will assist men to Judge, whether the Instruments were duely perfected, but principally, because, that though the Baroscope be good (nay, because it is so) the Observations will much disagree, even when the Atmosphere is in the same state, as to Weight, if one of the Instruments stand in a considerably higher part of the Countrey, than the other.

To confirm both the foregoing admonitions, I must now inform you, that, having in these parts two Lodgings, the one at Oxford, which you know stands in a bottom by the Thames side, and the other at a place, four miles thence, seated upon a moderate Hill, I found by comparing two Baroscopes, that I made, the one at Oxford, the other at Stanton St. Johns, that, though the former be very good; and have been noted for such, during some years, and the latter was very carefully fill'd; yet by season, that in the Higher place, the incumbent part of the Atmosphere must be lighter; than in the Lower, there is almost always between 2 and 3 Eights of an Inch difference betwixt them: And having sometimes order'd my servants to take notice of the Disparity, and divers times carefully observ'd it my self, when I pass'd to and fro between Oxford and Stanton, I generally found, that the Oxford Barometer and the other, did, as it were by common consent, rise and fall together so, as that in the former the Mercury was usually 3/8; higher, than in the latter.

Which Observations may teach us, that the Subterraneous steams, which ascend into the Air, or the other Causes of the varying Weight of the Atmosphere, do, many times, and at least in some places, uniformly enough affect the Air to a greater height, than, till I had made this tryall, I durst conclude.

But, as most of the Barometricall observations are subject to exception, so I found the formerly mentioned to be. For (to omit lesser variations) riding one Evening from Oxford to Stanton, and having, before I took horse, look't on the Baroscope in the former of these 2. places, I was somewhat surprised, to find at my comming to the latter, that in places no farther distant, and notwithstanding the shortness of the time (which was but an hour and a half, if so much) the Barometer at Stanton was short of its usual distance from the other, near a quarter of an Inch, though, the weather being fair and calm, there appear'd nothing of manifest change in the Air, to which I could adscribe so great a Variation; and though also, since that time, the Mercury in the two Instruments hath, for the most part, proceeded to rise and fall as before.

And these being the only Observations, I have yet met with, wherein Baroscopes, at some Distance of Place, and Difference of Height, have been compar'd (though I cannot now send you the Reflexions, I have elsewhere made upon them;) as the opportunity I had to make them my self, rendred them not unpleasant to me, so perhaps the Novelty will keep them from being unwelcome to you. And I confess, I have had some flying suspicions, that the odd Phænomena of the Baroscope, which have hitherto more pos'd than instructed us, may in time, if competent number of Correspondents do diligently prosecute the Inquiries (especially with Baroscopes, accommodated with Mr. Hooks ingenious additions) make men some Luciferous discoveries, that possibly we do not yet dream off.

I know not, whether it will be worth while to add, that since I was oblig'd to leave London, I have been put upon so many lesser removes, that I have not been able to make Baroscopical Observations with such a constancy, as I have wished, but, as far as I remember, the Quick-silver has been for the most part, so high, as to invite me to take notice of it; and to desire you to do me the favour to inquire among your correspondents whether they have observ'd the same thing. * This hath been inquired into, and is found, that several Accurate and Curious persons (as the Most Noble President of the Royal Society, the lord Viscount Brounker, Doctor Beale, Mr. Hook &c.) have observed the same. * For, if they have, this lasting (though not uninterrupted) Altitude of the Quick-silver, happening, when the Seasons of the year have been extraordinary dry (so much as to become a grievance, and to dry up, as one of the late Gazettes informs us, some springs near Waymouth, that used to run constantly) it may be worth inquiry, whether these obstinate Droughts, may not by cleaving of the ground too deep, and making it also in some places more porous and as it were, spungy, give a more copious Vent, than is ufual, to subterraneal steams, which adscending into the Air, increase the gravity of it. The inducements I have to propose this inquiry, I must not now stay to mention. But perhaps, if the Observation holds, it may prove not useless in reference to some Diseases.

Perhaps it will be needless to put you in mind of directing those Virtuosi, that may desire your Instructions about Baroscopes, to set down in their Diarys not only the day of the month, and the hour of the day, when the Mercuries height is taken, but (in a distinct Columne) the weather, especially the Winds, both as to the Quarters, whence they blow (though that be not always so easy nor necessary,) and as to the Violence or Remisness, wherewith they blow. For, though it be more difficult, than one would think, to settle any general rule about the rising and falling of the Quick-silver; yet in these parts one of those, that seem to hold oftnest, is, *  * See Number 9. Phil. Transact. p. 157. 5. 8. & 9. where the Word, Generally, signifies no more, than for the most part. that when high winds blow, the Mercury is the lower; and yet that it self does sometimes fail: For, this very day (March 3.) though on that hill, where I am, the somewhat Westerly Winds have been blustering enough, yet ever since morning the Quick-silver has been rising, and is now risen near 3/8 of an Inch.

I had thoughts to add something about another kind of Baroscope (but inferior to that in use) whereof I have given some intimation in one of the Prœliminaries to the History of Cold. But you have already too much of a letter, and my occasions, &c.

So far that Letter. Since which time, another from the same Noble Observer intimates, That, as for that cause of the height of the Quick-silver in Droughts, which by him is suspected to be the elevation of steams from the Crust or Superficial parts of the Earth, which by little and little may add to the Weight of the Atmosphere, being not, as in other seasons, carried down from time to time by the falling Rain, it agrees not ill with what he has had since occasion to observe. For, whereas about March 12th, at Oxford, the Quick-silver was higher, than, for ought he knew, had been yet observ'd in England, viz. above 3/16 above 30. Inches, upon the first considerable showers, that have interrupted our long Drought, as he affirms, he foretold divers hours before that the Quick-silver would be very low, (a blustering Wind concurring with the Rain) so he found it at Stanton to fall 1/8 beneath 29. Inches. ** Dr. Beale concurs with his Observations, when he saith, in a late Letter of March. 19. to his Correspondent in London; By change of Weather and Wind, the Mercury is sunk more than an Inch, since I wrote to you on Munday last, March 12. This last night, by Rain and South-wind, 'tis sunk half an Inch.

General Heads for a Natural History of a Countrey, Great or small, imparted likewise by Mr. Boyle.

It having been already intimated (Num. 8. of Phil. Transact. p. 140. 141.) that divers Philosophers aime, among other things, at the Composing of a good Natural History, to superstruct, in time, a Solid and Useful Philosophy upon; and it being of no slight importance, to be furnisht with pertinent Heads, for the direction of Inquirers; that lately named Benefactour to Experimental Philosophy, has been pleased to communicate, for the ends abovesaid, the following Articles, which (as himself did signifie) belong to one of his Essays of the unpublisht part of the Usefulness of Nat. and Experimen. Philosophy.

But first he premises, that what follows, is design'd only to point at the more General heads of Inquiry, which the proposer ignores not to be Divers of them very comprehensive, in so much, that about some of the Subordinate subjects, perhaps too, not the most fertile, he has drawn up Articles of inquisition about particulars, that take up near as much room, as what is here to be deliver'd of this matter.

The Heads themselves follow;

The things, to be observ'd in such a History, may be variously (and almost at pleasure) divided: As, into Supraterraneous, Terrestrial, and Subterraneous; and otherwise: but we will at present distinguish them into those things, that respect the Heavens, or concern the Air, the Water, or the Earth.

1.To the First sort of Particulars, belong the Longitude and Latitude of the Place (that being of moment in reference to the observations about the Air &c.) and consequently the length of the longest and shortest days and nights, the Climate, parallels &c. what fixt starrs are and what not seen there; What Constellations 'tis said to be subject to? Whereunto may be added other Astrological matters, if they be thought worth mentioning. 2.About the Air may be observ'd, its Temperature, as to the first four Qualities (commonly so call'd) and the Measures of them: its Weight, Clearness, Refractive power: its Sublety or Grossness: its abounding with, or wanting an Esurine Salt: its variations according to the seasons of the year, and the times of the day; What duration the several kinds of Weather usually have: What Meteors it is most or least wont to breed; and in what order they are generated; and how long they usually last: Especially, what Winds it is subject to; whether any of them be stated and ordinary, &c. What diseases are Epidemical, that are supposed to flow from the Air: What other diseases, wherein that hath a share, the Countrey is subject to; the Plague and Contagious sicknesses: What is the usual salubrity or insalubrity of the Air; and with what Constitutions it agrees better or worse, than others.

3.About the Water, may be observ'd, the Sea, its Depth, degree of Saltness, Tydes, Currents, &c. Next, Rivers, their Bigness Length, Course, Inundations, Goodness, Levity (or their Contraries) of Waters, &c. Then, Lakes, Ponds, Springs, and especially Mineral waters, their Kinds, Qualities, Vertues, and how examined. To the Waters belong also Fishes, what kinds of them (whether Salt or Fresh-water fish) are to be found in the Country; their Store, Bigness, Goodness, Seasons, Haunts, Peculiarities of any kind, and the wayes of taking them, especially those that are not purely Mechanical.

4.In the Earth, may be observed,

1. It self.
2. Its Inhabitants and its Productions, and these External and Internal.

First, in the Earth it self may be observ'd, its dimensions, scituation, East, West, North, and South: its Figure, its Plains, and Valleys, and their Extents its Hills and Mountains, and the height of the tallest, both in reference to the neighbouring Valleys or Plains, and in reference to the Level of the Sea: As also, whether the Mountains lye scattered, or in ridges, and whether those run North and South, or East and West, &c. What Promontories, fiery or smoaking Hills, &c. the Country has, or hath not: Whether the Country be coherent, or much broken into stands. What the Magnetical Declination is in several places, and the Variations of that Declination in the same place (and, if either of those be very considerable, then, what circumstances may of those one to guess at the Reason as Subterranean fires, the Vicinity of Iron-mines, &c.) what the Nature of the Soyle is, whether Clays, Sandy, &c. or good Mould; and what Grains, Fruits, and other Vegetables, do the most naturally agree with it: As also, by what particular Arts and Industries the Inhabitants improve the Advantages, and remedy the inconveniences of their Soyl: What hidden qualities the Soyl may have (as that of Ireland, against Venomous Beasts, &c.)

Secondly, above the ignobler Productions of the Earth, there must be a careful account given of the Inhabitants themselves, both Natives and Strangers, that have been long settled there: And in particular, their Stature, Shape, Colour, Features, Strength, Agility, Beauty (or the want of it) Complexions, Hair, Dyet, Inclinations, and Customs that seem not due to Education. As to their Women (besides the other things) may be observed their Fruitfulness or Barrenness; their hard or easy Labour, &c. And both in Women and Men must be taken notice of what diseases they are subject to, and in these whether there be any symptome, or any other Circumstance, that is unusual and remarkable.

As to the External Productions of the Earth, the Inquiries may be such as these: What Grasses, Grains, Herbs, (Garden and Wild) Flowers, Fruit-trees, Timber-trees (especially any Trees, whose wood is considerable) Coppices, Groves, Woods, Forrests, &c. the Country has or wants: What peculiarities are observable in any of them: What Soyles they most like or dislike; and with what Culture they thrive best. What Animals the Country has or wants, both as to wild Beasts, Hawks, and other Birds of Prey; and as to Poultrey, and Cattle of all sorts, and particularly, whether it have any Animals, that are not common, or any thing, that is peculiar in those, that are so.

The Internal Productions or Concealments of the Earth are here understood to be, the riches that ly hid under the Ground, and are not already referr'd to other Inquiries.

Among these Subterraneal observations may be taken notice of, what sorts of Minerals of any kind they want, as well as what they have; Then, what Quarries the Country affords, and the particular conditions both of the Quarries and the Stones: As also, how the Beds of Stone lye, in reference to North and South, &c. What Clays and Earths it affords, as Tobacco-pipe-clay, Marles, Fullers-earths, Earths for Potters wares, Bolus's and other medicated Earths: What other Minerals it yields, as Coals, Salt-Mines, or Salt-springs, Allom, Vitrial, Sulphur, &c. What Mettals the Country yields, and a description of the Mines, their number, scituation, depth, signs, waters, damps, quantities of ore, goodness of ore, extraneous things and ways of reducing their ores into Mettals, &c.

To these General Articles of inquiries (saith their Proposer) should be added; I Inquiries about Traditions concerning all particular things, relating to that Country, as either peculiar to it, or at least, uncommon elsewhere. 2 Inquiries, that require Learning or Skill in the Answerer: to which should be subjoyned Proposals of ways, to enable men to give Answers to these more difficult inquiries.

Thus far our Author, who, as he has been pleased to impart these General (but yet very Comprehensive and greatly Directive) Articles; so, 'tis hoped from his own late intimation, that he will shortly enlarge them with Particular and Subordinate ones. These, in the mean time, were thought fit to be publisht, that the Inquisitive and Curious, might, by such an Assistance, be invited not to delay their searches of matters, that are so highly conducive to the improvement of True Philosophy, and the well-fare of Mankind.

An Extract Of a Letter, Written from Holland, about Preserving of Ships from being Worm-eaten.

This Extract is borrowed from the French Journal des Scavans of Febr. 15. 1666. and is here inserted, to excite inventive heads here, to overtake the Proposer in Holland. The letter runs thus:

Although you have visited our Port (Amsterdam) I know not whether you have noted the ill condition, our ships are in that return from the Indies. There is in those Seas a kind of small worms, that fasten themselves to the Timber of the ships, and so pierce them, that they take water every where; or if they do not altogether pierce them thorow, they so weaken the wood, that it is almost impossible to repair them. We have at present a Man here, that pretends to have found an admirable secret to remedy this evil. That, which would render this secret the more important, is, that hitherto very many ways have been used to effect it, but without success. Some have imployed Deal, Hair and Lime, &c. and therewith lined their ships; but, besides that this does not altogether affright the worms, it retards much the ships Course. The Portugals scorch their ships, insomuch that in the quick works there is made a coaly crust of about an Inch thick. But as this is dangerous, it happening not seldom, that the whole vessel is burnts so the reason why worms eat not thorow Portugal ships, is conceived to be the exceeding hardness of the Timber, employed by them.

We expect with impatience the nature and effect of this Proposition. Many have already ventur'd to give their thoughts concerning it. Some say, there needs no more, but to build Ships of harder kind of Wood, than the usual. Others having observed, that these Worms fasten not to a kind of wild Indian Pear-tree, which is highly bitter, do thereupon suggest that the best Expedient would be, to find out a Wood having that quality. But certainly there being now no Timber, fit for Ships, that is not known, 'tis not likely that any will be found either more hard, or more bitter, than that, which has been hitherto employed. Some do imagine, that the Proposer will, by certain Lixiviums, give to the ordinary Wood such a quality and bitterness, as is found in the already mention'd Indian Pear-tree. But this also will hardly succeed, since it will be requisite not only to make Lixiviums, in great quantities at an easie rate, and strong enough to penetrate the thick sides of a Ship, but also to make them durable enough, not to be wash't out by the Sea. Yet not withstanding, in these matters one ought to suspend on's judgement, untill experience do shew, what is to be believed of them.

So far the Extract. To which it may perhaps not be unseasonable to add, that a very worthy person in London, suggests the Pitch, drawn out of Sea coles, for a good Remedy to scare away these noysome insects.

An Account Of a Book, very lately publish't, entituled, The Origine of Forms and Qualities, illustrated by Considerations and Experiments, by the Honourable Robert Boyle.

This Curious and Excellent Piece, is a kind of Introduction to the Principles of the Mechanical Philosphy, explicating, by very Considerable Observations and Experiments, what may be, according to such Principles, conceived of the Nature and Origine of Qualities and Forms; the knowledge whereof, either makes or supposes the Fundamental and Useful part of Natural Philosophy. In doing of which, the Author, to have his way the clearer, writes rather for the Corpuscularian Philosophers (as he is pleased to call them) in General; than any Party of them, keeping himself thereby disengaged from adopting an Hypothesis, in which perhaps he is not so thoroughly satisfied, and of which he does not conceive himself to be necessitated to make use here; and accordingly forbearing to employ Arguments, that are either grounded on, or suppose Atoms, or any Innate Motion belonging to them; or that the Essence of Bodies consists in Extension; or that a Vacuum is impossible; or that there are such Globuli Cælestes, or such a Materia Subtilis, as the Cartesians imploy to explicate most of the Phænomena of Nature.

The Treatise consisting of a Speculative, and an Historical part, the Author, with great modesty leaves the Reader to judge; Whether in the First part he hath treated of the Nature and Origine of Forms and Qualities in a more Comprehensive way, than others; Whether he has by fit Examples, and other means, rendred it more intelligible, than they have done: Whether he has added any considerable number of Notions and Arguments towards the compleating and confirming of the proposed Hypothesis: Whether he has with reason dismissed Arguments unfit to be relied on; and Whether he has proposed some Notions and Arguments so warily, as to keep them from being liable to Exceptions and Evasions, whereto they were obnoxious, as others have proposed them. And, as to the Second and Historical part, he is enclin'd, to believe that the Reader will grant, he hath done that part of Physicks, he is treating of, some service, by strengthning the doctrines of the New Philosophy (as 'tis call'd) by such particular Experiments, whose Nature and Novelty will render them as well Acceptable as Instructive.

The summe of the Hypothesis, fully and clearly explicated in the First Part, is this;

That all Bodies are made of one Catholick matter, common to them all, and differ but in Shape, Size, Motion or Rest, and Texture of the small parts, they consist off; from which of Matter, the Qualities, that difference particular Bodies, result: whence it may be rationally concluded, that one kind of Bodies may be transmuted into another; that being in effect no more, than that one Parcel of the Universal Matter, wherein all Bodies agree, may have a Texture produced in it, like the Texture of some other Parcel of Matter, common to them both.

To this Hypothesis, is subjoin'd an Examination of the Scholastick opinion of Substantial Forms; where the Author, First, States the Controversie; next gives the Principal reasons, that move him to oppose that Opinion; then, answers the Main arguments employed to evince it; further, assigns both the First Cause of Forms (God;) and the Grand Second Cause thereof (Local Motion:) and lastly, proves the Mechanical Production of Forms; grounding his proof; partly upon the Manner, by which such a Convention of Accidents, as deserve to pass for a Form, may be produced; as that the Curious Shapes of Salts (believed to be the admirablest Effects and strongest Proofs of Substantial Forms) may be the Results of Texture; Art being able to produce Vitriol as well as Nature: partly, upon the possibility of Reproducing Bodies by skill, that have been deprived of their reputed Substantial Forms: Where he alledges the Redintegration of Saltpetre, succesfully performed by himself; though his Attempts, made upon the dissipation and re-union of Amber, Allum, Sea-Salt, and Vitriol, proved (by reason of accidental hindrances rather, than of any impossibility in the Nature of the Thing) less succesful.

In the Second and Historical Part, the Author, appealing to the Testimony of Nature, to verifie his Doctrine, sets down, both some Observations, of what Nature does without being over-ruled by the power and skill of man; and some Experiments, wherein Nature is guided, and as it were, mastered by Art.

The Observations are four.

1.The First is taken from what happens in the Hatching of an Egge; out of the White whereof, which is a substance Similar, insipid, soft, diaphanous, colourless, and readily dissoluble in cold water, there is by the New and Various contrivement of its small parts, caused by the Incubation of the Hen, an Animal produced, some of whose parts are opacous, some red, some yellow, some white, some fluid, some consistent, some solid and frangible, others tough and flexible, some well, some ill-tasted, some with springs, some without springs, &c.

2.The Second is fetcht from Water, which being fluid, tastless, inodorous, diaphanous, colourless, volatile, &c. may by a Differing Texture of its parts, be brought to constitute Bodies, having qualities very distant from these, as Vegetables, that have firmeness, opacity, odors, tasts, colours, Medicinal vertues; yielding also a true Oyle, that refuses to mingle with Water, &c.

3.The Third, from Inoculation; wherein, a small Bud is able so to transmute all the sap, that arrives at it, as to make it constitute a Fruit quite otherwise qualified, then that, which is the genuine production of the Tree, so that the same sap, that in one part of the Branch constitutes (for Instance) a Cluster of Haws, in another part of the same Branch, may make a Pear. Where the Author mentions divers other very considerable Effects of Inoculations, and inserts several Histories, all countenancing his doctrine,

4.The Fourth, from Putrified Cheese; wherein, the rotten part, by the alteration of its Texture, will differ from the Sound, in colour, odor, taste, consistence, germination, &c.

The Experiments are ten.

1.A Solution of Vitriol and Camphire; in which by a change of Texture, appear'd the Production of a deep colour from a white Body, and a clear Liquor without any external heat: The destruction of this Colour, by adding only some fair water: The change of an Odorous Body, as Camphire, into an Inodorous, by mixing it with a Body, that has scarce any sensible odour of its own: The sudden restauration of the Camphire to its native scent and other qualities, by common water, &c.

2.Sublimate, distill'd from Copper and Silver, which both did wholly loose their Metalline forms, and were melted into brittle lumps, with colours quite differing from their own; both apt to imbibe the moisture of the Air, &c.

3.A solution of Silver into Luna Cornea: Whereby the opacous, malleable and hardly fusible Body of Silver, was, by the addition of a little spirit of salt, reduced into Chrystals, differing from those of other Mettals; diaphanous also, and brittle, and far more easily fusible, than Silver; wholly unlike either a Salt or a Mettal, but very like to a piece of Horn, and withall insipid, though the Solution of Silver, be very bitter, and the spirit of salt, highly sowre, &c.

4.An Anomalous Salt; (which the Author had not, it seems the liberty to teach the Preparation off) whose Ingredients were purely Saline, and yet the Compound, made up only of salt, sowre, and strongly tasted Bodies, was rather really sweet, than of any other taste, and when a little urged with heat, its odour became stronger, and more insupportable than that of Aqua fortis, distilled Urine, and even spirit of salt Armoniack; but yet went these Fumes settled again into salt, their odour would again prove inoffensive, if not pleasant, &c.

5.A Sea-salt, whence Aqua fortis had been distilled: Where the Liquor, that came over, proved an Aqua Regis: the substance in the bottom, had not onely a mild taste, and affected the Pallat much more like salt-peter, than Common salt; but was also very fusible, and inflammable, though produced of two un-inflammable bodies: and the same substance, consisting of Acid salts, by a certain way of the Author, produced a Fixt salt.

6.Oyle of Vitriol pourell upon a Solution of Bay-salt: whence was abstracted a liquor, that by the smell and Taste appeared to be a spirit of salt. In which operation, the mixture, by working a great change of Texture, did so alter the nature of the compounding Bodies, that the sea-salt, though a considerably fixt Body, was distill'd over in a moderate Fire of sand, whilst the Oyl of Vitriol, though no such gross salt, was by the same operation so fixt, as to stay behind: Besides that the same, by a competent heat yielded a substance, though not insipid, yet not at all of the taste of Sea-salt, or of any other pungent one, much less having the highly corrosive acidity of oyl of Vitriol, &c.

7.A dissolvent, made by pouring a strong spirit of Nitre on the rectified Oyl of the Butter of Antinomy, and then distilling off all the liquor, that would come over, &c. This Menstruum (called by the Author Peracutum) being put to highly refined Gold, destroyed its Texture, and produced, after the method prescribed in the book, a true Silver, as its whiteness in colour, dissolublenes in Aqua fortis, and odious Bitterness, did manifest: which change of a Mettal, commonly esteemed to be absolutely indestructible by Art, though it be far from being Lucriferous, is yet exceedingly Instructive; as is also the way, the Author here adds, of Volatilizing Gold, by the power of the same Dissolvent.

8.Aqua fortis, concoagulated with differing bodies, produced very differing Concretes: And the same Numeral Saline Corpuscles, that being associated with those of one Mettal, had already produced a Body eminent in one Taste, did afterwards being freed from that Body, compose a Liquor of a very differing taste; and after that too, being combin'd with the parties of another Mettal, did with them constitute a Body of a very eminent Taste, as opposite as any one can be to both the other Tasts; and yet these Saline Corpuscles, being instead of this second Mettal, associated with such a one as that, they are driven from, did therewith exhibite again the first of the three mention'd Tasts.

9.Water transmuted into Earth, though the Author saith of this Transmutation, that it was not so perfect, as he wish'd, and as he hopes to make it.

10.A mixture of Oyle of Vitriol and Spirit of Wine. These two Liquors, being of odd Textures in reference to each other, their conjunction and distillation made them exhibite these Phænomena: vid. That, whereas Spirit of Wine has no great, nor good scent, and moderately dephlegm'd Oyl of Vitriol is wont to be inodorous; the Spirit, that first came over from their mixture, had a scent not only very differing from Spirit of Wine, but from all things else, that the Author ever smelt; the Odor being very fragrant & pleasant, and so subtle, that in spight of the care taken in luting the Glasses exactly together, it would perfume the neighbouring parts of the Laboratory, and afterwards smell strongly at some distance from the Viol, wherein it was put, though stopt with a close Cork, covered with two or three several Bladders. But, after this volatile and odoriferous Spirit was come over, and had been follow'd by an Acid Spirit, it was at last succeeded by a strongly stinking Liquor, &c.

But Manum de Tabula: the Book it self will certainly give a satisfaction far beyond what here can be said of it.

Some New Observations about the Planet Mars, communicated since the the Printing of the former sheets.

There was very lately produced a Paper, containing some observations, made by Mr. Hook about the Planet Mars; in the Face whereof he affirmed to have discovered, in the late months of February and March, that there are several Maculæ or Spotted parts, changing their place, and not returning to the same Position, till the next ensuing night near about the same time. Whence it may be collected, that Mars (as well as Jupiter, and the Earth, &c.) does move about his own Axis, of which a fuller account will be given hereafter, God permitting. This short and hasty intimation of it, is intended onely to invite others, that have opportunity, timely to make Observations, (either to confirm, or rectify) before Mars gets out of sight.

Printed with Licence for John Martyn and James Allestry, Printers to the Royal Society. 1666.