Philosophical Transactions/Volume 2/Number 25

Contents:

Numb. 25

PHILOSOPHICAL

TRANSACTIONS.


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Monday, May 6. 1667


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The Contents.


An Account of an Easier and Safer Way of Transfusing Blood, vid, by the Veins onely. An Experiment of bleeding a Mangy, into a Sound Dog. An Extract of a Letter written by a French philosopher, concerning the same Subject of Transfusion. Observations touching the Uniting of Barks of Trees cut, to the Tree it self. An Experiment of making Cherry-Trees, that have wither'd fruit, to bear good and full fruit. An Experiment on Aloe Americana Serratifolia weiqh'd; seeming to infer a Circulation of the Sappe in Plants. An Extract of a Letter, about the Invention of Dividing a Foot into many thousand parts, for Mathematical purpose. More Wayes proposed, for the same purpose. Observations of the Star called Nebulosa, and of that in the Neck of the Whale. Extract of a Letter, concerning a New Discovery of the Communication of the Ductus Thoracicus with the Emulgent Vein. A Description of several sorts of Granaries, as those of London, Dantzick, Muscovy. Inquiries for Hungary, Transilvania, Egypt, Guiny.

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An Account

Of an easier and safer Way of Transfusing Blood, out of one Animal into another, viz. by the Veins, without opening any Artery of either.


THis Way was first practised (for ought we know) by Doctor Edmond King, and the success thereof in two Experiments, communicated by him to the Royal Society, as follows, 1. I took a Calf and a Sheep, both of the larger sort, and having prepared a Jugular Vein in each, I planted my Pipes and Quills, as usual, both in the Jugular Vein of the Calf (designed to be the Emittent) and in that of the Sheep (intended for the Recipient.) Then I took out of the Sheep 49 ounces (Haver de pois weight) of blood, before any other blood was let in; about which time, the company concluding the Sheep to be very faint, and finding the blood to run very slowly, I stopp'd the Vein of the Sheep, and unstopp'd the Pipe in the Calf, letting run out 10 ounces into a Porringer, which was done in about 40 seconds of a Minute. Then I convey'd Pipes from the Emittent Calves Vein, into the Recipient Sheeps Vein, and there ran a good free stream of blood for the space of 5 minutes (though perhaps lesse swift than the first 10 ounces.) And not to be deceived in the running, I did often strike with my finger the upper part of the emitting Vein, and thereby easily felt every stroke answered on the Recipient Vein, just like a Pulse, And now supposing that by this time (viz. the lapse of 5 minutes) the Sheep had received as much, if not more blood, than it had lost, we stopp'd the current of blood from the Calf, and closed also the Vein of the Sheep; and then having untied her, and set her down in the room, she went about and appeared to have as much strength, as she had before the loss of her own blood. Then resolving to bleed the Sheep to death, we bound her the second time, and open'd the emittent part of the Vein again; whereupon having bled about 60 ounces, she fell into Convulsions; and after the loss of about 5 ounces more, she died upon the place: and being dress'd by the Butcher, there did not, in all the usual places, appear above 3 ounces of blood; and the whole Sheep look'd of a lovely white; and the meat of it (to the taste of those, that eat of it) was very sweet.

The Sheep being dead, we resolv'd likewise to see the Calf bleed to death; but he having bled 10 ounces, and then for the space of 5 minutes more into the Sheep, and rested a good while, the blood by that time began to coagulate in the Vein; which made me open the Carotid Artery, letting thence run out about 25 ounces of blood, of a very lovely and vivid colour, vastly excelling therein the blood of the Vein. The Calf, when dress'd, had, by the information of the Butcher, as little blood as the Sheep; and we saw him look whiter, than usually they do in the ordinary way of killing,

2, I took out 45 ounces and better, of blood, out of the Jugular Vein of a Sheep, of a lesser size than the former; by which time, the Spectators, as well as my self, found her exceeding faint, and some thought her pass'd recovery, without a supply of blood. Then I convey'd blood from the Jugular Vein of a Calf into that of the Sheep, for the space of 7 minutes, when we did believe, by the continuance of a good stream from the Calf, that the Sheep had already received more blood, than she had lost, Whereupon we set her free, and she had no sooner got her liberty, but seeing a Dog near her (which was a Spaniel, that had formerly suffered the transmission of Sheeps-blood into him) she butted with great violence at him three or four times, not appearing at all concern'd at what she had endured in the Experiment. We keep this Sheep alive, she being sent to grass again, and seeming hitherto very strong and lusty.

The Calf was much larger than the Sheep. We bled the Calf to death, and received from him fix Porringers full of blood, after the Sheep had been suppleid, each Porringer containing 11½ ounces of water. The Sheep lost four of the same measures full of blood; which being supply'd by that of the Calf, we reckon, that the Calf lost 10 such measures in all.

An Account
Of another Experiment of
Transfusion, viz. of Bleeding a Mangy into a Sound Dog.

This was made by Mr. Thomas Coxe, and imparted likewise to the Royal Society in manner following.

I procured an old Mungrell Curr, all over-run with the Mainge, of a middle size, and having, some hours before, fed him plentifully with Cheese-parings and Milk, I prepared the Jugular Vein, as we use to do the Carotidal Artery of the Emittent Animal, not designing any thing further, than to determine by Experiment the Infection of the Recipient's blood. Then I made as strong a Ligature upon the Dogs Neck, as I durst, for fear of choaking him, to the end that the Venal blood, which is much more sluggish in its motion and evacuation, than the Arterial, might be emitted with the greater advantage of Impetus.

Then I took a young Land-Spaniel, of about the same bigness, and prepared his Jugular Vein, as is usually done in the Recipient Animal; the heart-ward part of the Vein to receive the Maingy Dogs blood, and the head-ward part of it to discharge his own into a Dish.

Having thus prepared them both, and placed them in a convenient posture one to the other, I let slip the running knots, and by frequent compression of the Neck (besides the Ligature I had made) by reason of the tardy running of the Venal blood out of the Emittent, transfused about 14 or 16 ounces of the blood of the Infected, into the Veins of the Sound Dog, as neer as I could guess by the quantity of blood, which ran into a Dish from the Recipient; supposing the Recipient Animal to lose near about the same proportion to what the Emittent supplies.

The effect of which Experiment was, no alteration at all, any way, to be observed in the Sound Dog. But for the Maingy Dog, he was in about 10 dayes or a fortnights space perfectly cured: which might with probability enough, I think, have been expected from the considerable evacuation, he made; (perhaps the quickest and surest remedy for the cure of that sort of disease, he was infected with, both in Man and Beast.)

An Extract

Of a Letter of M. Denis Prof. of Philosophy and Mathematicks to M. * * * touching the Transfusion of Blood, of April 2, 1667.

This we English out of the 8th Journal des Scavans of 1667.
Viz.

SInce the Experiments, of which I wrote to you the 9th of March, we have transfused the blood of three Calves into three Dogs, to assure our selves, what the mixture of two such differing sorts of blood might produce, I shall hereafter acquaint you at large with the particulars; at present I shall onely inform you, that the Animals, into whom the blood hath been transmitted, do all of them eat as well as before, and that one of these three Dogs, from whom the day before so much blood had been drawn, that he could hardly stir any more, having been supplied the next morning with the blood of a Calf, recover'd instantly his strength, and shew'd a surprizing vigor.

We have found new wayes of making this Transfusion with so much facility, that M. Emmerez, undertakes to perform it without any Ligature, onely by pricking, like that, which is used in Letting of blood.

Observations

Concerning the Uniting of Barks of Trees cut, to the Tree it self; made by Christopher Merret M. D. and read before the Royal Society January 9, 1666.

IN the midst of March An. 1664. I made a Section of the Rinds of Ash, and of the Tree, falsly called Sycamore. The first Section of each of the Rinds was square, whereof three sides were cut, the fourth uncut. The success was, that the whole Bark did unite, by binding it with pack-thred, leaving a scar in each of the sides cut.

Then I cut off and separated entirely from the Tree, several parts of the Bark, some shallower, leaving part of the Bark on; others to the very wood it self, both in the Trunk and Branches; from an inch square to less dimensions; and some of them I bound close with pack-thred: all which were separated, a new Rind succeeding in their place, Some I cover'd over, beyond the place of Incision, with Diachylon-plaister, and tied them fast with pack-thred. All which, thus bound and plaister'd, did within the space of three weeks, firmly unite to the Tree, not without some shriveling of the outward skin of the Bark, and also with some shrinking in each side, where the Incision was made; Where also appear'd in each of the Interstices a scar.

The like Experiment I made, some years before, about the same time of the year, and succeeded as before related. But tying the same about Michaelmas, and in the Winter-season, at neither of these times any Union could be made of the Bark to the Tree. I suppose, it was, because the Sappe mounted not so vigorously and in such plenty, as in the Spring-season.

Some Branches of the fore-mentioned Trees were decorticated round, and where no Union was, there certainly follow'd a withering of the Branch beyond the place, where the Section was made.

I also separated a Twig from the Branch, by cutting of it sloping, for the better fastning of it to the Branch again, This Twig I exactly fitted to the Branch, from whence 'twas cut, in the same posture, it before grew in: I firmly bound it, and cover'd it with Diachylon-plaister. The success was, that in 3 dayes time, the Twig, that was cut off, withered.

An Experiment

Of making Cherry-Trees, that have witherd fruit, to bear full and good fruit; and of Recovering the almost withered fruit.

Communicated by the same, as follows:

Anno. 1665, I made the following Experiment with 3 May-Cherry-Trees (planted in a rich Mould) which lay to a South-wall, shaded 4 Winter-Moneths from the Sun by a high Building, so that the Sun came not on them, till the beginning of March, when being high, and shining somewhat fiercely upon them, the fruit constantly withered for some years before. Now this year, the season being very hot and dry, I bared the roots of one of them, by making a hole about it, and watered it every Morning and Evening with about a Gallon of water, for about a fortnight before the Cherries came to redness, and the fruit was full and good. The other two Trees, left without this ordering, had most of their fruit withered, having onely skin and stones. Now to try this Experiment farther, I made a hole round about one of the other Trees, and fed it with water daily, as the former: In a Weeks time, those that were quite withered, fell off, and the rest, that were not so, grew and increased exceedingly; the other Tree, that was not used after this manner, had not any of its fruit come to perfection.

An Experiment

On Aloe Americana Serrati-folia weighed; seeming to import a Circulation of the Sappe in Plants, by the same Dr. Merret.

August 4, 1656, this Aloes weighed 21 Ounces, 6 Drams, 2 Grains. Its colour was of a pale-green, consisting of 11 Leaves; it was bound about with a red dry Cloth, and was hung up without Oil, as is usual, in the Kitchin.

Weight. Loss.
Ounc. Dram. Scrup. Grains. Scruples. Grains.
August 19. 21 3 0 24  3 27
Septemb. 6. 21 0 1 14
February 20. 21 1 0 12  0 11
March 16. 21 0 2 0 32
April 8. 21 0 0 0 40
May 1. 20 7 0 1 0
May 28. 20 0 0
June 12. 20 4 0 2 26
July 1. 20 1 0 2 18
July 20. 19 6 0 3 7
August 4. 19 3 0 12  2 49

So that in at whole year it lost 2 Ounces, 3 Drams, 24 Grains. The succeeding year being drier and hotter, it lost 3 Ounces, 2½ Scruples, and more than double in the 6 colder, than the 6 hotter Moneths. I kept it about 5 years, and it decreased much about the same proportion. And in the year 1660, hanging it in a colder Garret, it perished.

The Observables I had about it, that every Year two of the greater Leaves first changed Colour, and wither'd; and in the Spring-time, there grew out two very fresh and green ones, never amounting to the bignes of any of the precedent; insomuch, that all this time I had the same number of Leaves. And then, these new Leaves were more fresh and green, and not serrated, and thicker also in proportion to their other Dimensions. Whence perhaps it may probably be inferr'd, vid. from the growth of these latter Leaves, that there is a Circulation in this Plant of the Succus nutritius, For, how is it possible, that the Roots, continuing as firm and solid as at first, should supply so much nourishment, as to procreate new Leaves, unless it were from the return of the said Succus, from the old and decaying Leaves; into the Root, and there protruded for the production of new ones? For, all Bulbous Roots, as Garlick, Onions, Tulips, and especially Squils; who protrude their Leaves, placed in a Shop or House, have their Roots lighter, and more spungy; the Leaves being formed onto the substance of the Root, as a Chick out of the Albumen; in the mean while the whole decreasing in weight, as in the aforesaid Aloe; as 'tis manifest by many Experiments made by me.

An Extract

Of a Letter, written by Mr. Richard Towneley to Dr. Croon, touching the Invention of Dividing a Foot into many thousand parts, for Mathematical purposes.
Finding in one* * Vid. Numb. 21. p. 373. of the last Philosophical Transactions, how much M. Auzout esteems his Invention of dividing a Foot into near 30000 parts, and taking thereby Angles to a very great exactness; I am told, I shall be look't upon as a great Wronger of our Nation, should I not let the World know, that I have, out of some scatter'd Papers and Letters; that formerly came to my hands of a Gentleman of these Parts, one Mr, Gascoigne, found out, That before our late Civil Wars, he had not only devised an Instrument of as great a power, as M. Auzout's, but had also for some Years made use of it, not only for taking the Diameters of the Planets, and Distances upon Land; but had farther endeavour'd, out of its preciseness, to gather many Certainties in the Heavens; amongst which, I shall only mention one, viz. The finding the Moons Distance, from two Observations, of her Horizontal and Meridional Diameters: Which I the rather mention, because the French Astronomer esteems himself the first that took any such Notice, as thereby to settle the Moons Parallax. For, our Countrey-man fully consider'd it before, and imparted it to an Acquaintance of his, who thereupon proposed to him the Difficulties that would arise in the Calculation; with considerations upon the strange Niceties, necessary to give him a certainty of what he desired. The very Instrument he first made I have now by me, and two others more perfected by him; which doubtless he would have infinitely mended, had he not been slain unfortunately in His late Majesties Service. He had a Treatise of Opticks ready for the Press; but though I have used my utmost endeavour to retrieve it, yet I have in that point been totally unsuccessful: But some loose Papers and Letters I have, particularly about this Instrument for taking of Angles, which was far from perfect. Nevertheless, I find it so much to exceed all others, that I have used my Endeavors to make it exact, and easily tractable; which above a Year since I effected to my own desire, by the help of an Ingenious and Exact Watchmaker in these Parts: Since which time, I have not altogether neglected it, but employed it particularly in taking the Distances (as occasion served) of the Circum-jovialists, towards a perfect setling their Motion, I shall only say of it, That it is small, not exceeding in weight, nor much in bigness, an ordinary Pocket-Watch, exactly marking above 40000 Divisions in a Foot, by the help of two Indexes; the one shewing hundreds of Divisions, the other, Divisions of the hundred; every last Division, in my small one, containing, of an Inch; and that so precisely, that, at I use it, there goes above 2½ Divisions to a Second. Yet I have taken Land-Angles several times to one Division, though (for the Reason mention'd by M. Auzout) it be very hard to come to that Exactness in the Heavens, Viz. The swift motion of the Planets. Yet, to remedy that Fault, I have devised a Rest, in which I find no small advantage, and not a little pleasing those persons who have seen it, being so easie to be made, and by the Observer manag'd without the help of another: Which second Convenience, my yet nameless Instrument hath in great perfection, and is, by reason of its smalness and shape, easily appliable to any Telescope. Sir, 'If you think this Invention, thus improv'd, worthy to be taken notice of by the Curious, you may ** Care is taken, to get both his Description, and the Observations, from M. Townly. command a more perfect Description of it, or any of the Observations, either M. Gascoigne, or my self have made with it.

More Wayes

For the same Purpose, Intimated by M. Hook

I have by me (saith Mr. H.) two or three several wayes of Measuring the Diameters of the Planets, whether Horizontal, Perpendicular, or Inclined, to the exactness of a Second, by the help of a Telescope: As also, of taking the Position and Distance of the Small Fixt Stars one from another, or from any of the less bright Planets, if the Distance be not above two or three Degrees.

The Particulars hereof, the Author refers to the next Opportunity.

Observations

Of the Star, called Nebulosa, in the Girdle of Andromeda; and of the Wondrous Star in the Neck of the Whale: made and communicated by Monsieur Bullialdus.

Anno 1667. in January, when the Cloudy and Misty weather, which had continued for a good while, did permit us to observe, the Star Nebulosa, in the Girdle of Andromeda (which may well enough be seen by the bare Eye) appeared much obscurer than the Year before. In the Months of February and March I did not see it.

Anno 1667, January 20. at Night, h. 6.30. the Sky being pretty serene, the Star in the Neck of the Whale, did approach to the bigness of a Star of the Sixth Magnitude, and grew bigger afterwards.

February 12, h. 6.30. I saw the same again equalling now a Star of the Fourth Magnitude at least.

February 24. h. 7. This Star was equal to those of the Third Magnitude, shining very bright.

February 26, The same appeared yet to increase; as also February 27, But after this time I could not see it, by reason of the ill weather.

The same Astronomer did subjoin the following Extract of a Letter he received from Monsieur Hevelius, March 15. 1667. concerning such another Star; viz.

I have watched the New Star in the Neck of the Whale, as often as the weather would give me leave, which it hath done but seldom this Winter. In January, the 3, 4, 5, 7, and 13 dayes, it did not yet appear. From this time, the Sky was continually overcast, till January 23. on which day, I found a little Star of the Sixth or Seventh Magnitude, about the same place where the said New Star uses to appear, But it then seemed to me not the genuine New Star, but another, to wit, preceding the New; whose Longitude hath been defined by me in Mercurius in Sole visus in Aries. gr. 25. 43′. 3″. and the Latitude gr. 14. 41′. 32″. South, Anno 1660. Then from January 23, to February 2, it was Cloudy weather again; but this second of February, it appear'd very bright, and that when the Moon shone, of the bigness of that in the Mouth of the Whale, or Nodo Lini: from which time I alwayes observed it to grow bigger. March 13, I did still find it extreamly bright, but could not by my naked Eye, because of the vivid Crepuscle, and the low site of the Star, accurately determine its Magnitude.

I have received (saith he further) your two Monita ad Astronomos;See Numb. 22. of these Transactions, p. 381, 382. where an account is given of these two Monita of M. Bullialdus. and the Discourse hath much pleased me, you having not much deviated from the Truth, in respect of the Appearance. Heretofore I had of this, and other New Stars, another Hypothesis; but I cannot thereby so accurately divine the Appearances, as you will read more largely in its due place.

An Extract

Of a Letter of M. Pecquet to M. Carcavi, concerning a New Discovery of the Communication of the Ductus Thoracicus with the Emulgent Vein: Taken out of the Journal des Scavans, N. VII. 1667.

I cannot forbear longer to inform you of the Experiments, which M. Perrault, M. Gayant, and I, made last Night upon the Corps of a Woman, that died some few dayes after she was brought to bed.

Our Design was to continue the Discovery of the Vessels, that carry the Chyle to the Breasts, of which I have indicated the Way, pag. 134. of the Second Edition of my Anatom. Experiments, printed 1654. But the Body being not fit for that, we referred the search thereof to another time; and we have had the good fortune to make another Discovery, which may prove not less useful to Physick; it is the Communication af the Milky Channel, now call'd the Ductus Thoracicus, with the Emulgent Vein. The Experiments were these:

1. M. Gayant having discovered the Ductus Thoracicus upon the 7th and 8th of the Vertebra's descending from the Back, inserted a Quill into the said Ductus, and having tied it upon the Quill, he did blow into it: whereupon the Ductus was fill'd with wind from the Quill unto the Subclavial Vein. This wind issued at the Ascending Cava, which had been cut, when he, whose the Corps was, had lifted up the heart to make the demonstration of it, M. Gayant would tie this Cava, but it was cut so short, that the Ligature could not hinder the wind to issue out of it; which was the cause, that it could not be thrust as far as the Breasts. I would supply this defect, by compressing with my finger that place of the Vein, at which the wind came out (which was at about the third Vertebra, descending from the Back) and M. Gayant having blown afresh into it, I compressed with my fingers the Vena Cava and the Ductus Thoraticus together; but the wind, that was thrust into this Channel, shewed us, that it had another way to escape And indeed we saw as often as we did blow, that the Emulgent Vein was on the left side filled with wind, and that thereupon the body of the Vena Cava also filled itself from the Emulgent unto the Iliaques. 'This wind seem'd to us to come from the Left Kidney, and to insinuate it self into the Emulgent Vein, and thence into the Cava, The Right Kidney had been removed, so that we could say nothing of its communication with the said Ductus: That shall be for another time.

The Question was made, Whether the wind, that seem'd to enter into the Emulgent, and the Cava, did there enter indeed; or, whether it did not slide, betwixt the proper coat of this Vein, and that common one, which comes to it on the Peritoneum? This Question did oblige us to slit the Cava at the place of the Emulgent; and then blowing into the Ductus Thoracicus, we saw, that the wind, which had swelled the Emulgent, did escape at the opening, just now made in the Cava.

This Experiment made us judge, there was a communication of the Ductus Thoracicus with the Left Kidney, or at least with the Emulgent Vein, in the Body of this Woman. And to clear it the more, we made the following Experiment.

2. We lifted with the hand the Lungs, that filled the left Cavity of the Thorax, and having cleansed this Cavity with a Spunge, M. Gayant did blow into the Ductus Thoracicus, whilst I compressed the Vein and the Ductus with my fingers upon the third Vertebra, descending from the Back: And we saw the wind insinuate it self under the Pleura, by a trace, which raised it suddenly as often as we did blow, This trace appeared from the 4th Vertebra descending unto the Diaphragme, and made us conclude, that there was under the Pleura a Channel of Commerce coming from the Ductus Thoracicus, and passing to the Emulgent Vein by this Cavity of the Thorax. We could not doubt, but that this Channel, which passed under the Pleura; went as far as to the Kidney, because we saw, that the wind did get in on the side of the Kidney into the Emulgent Vein, and came out at the hole of the Cava, that had been made in the first Experiment. We perceived, that this Channel of Communication came from the Ductus Thoracicus, at the lace of the fourth Vertebra of the Back. But to be the surer of it, we made the following Experiment.

3. I compressed with my fingers the Ductus upon the fifth descending Vertebra of the Back; and M. Gayant having blown into the Quill, which was upon the seventh, the wind passed not to the Kidney, nor to the Emulgent Vein. Which made us conclude, that the Communication was not beneath the fifth Vertebra, Then I compressed with my fingers the Ductus Thoracicus and the Vena Cava upon the third descending Vertebra; and the Emulgent swelled, when M. Gayant blowed into the Quill: Which gave us more strongly to believe, That the place of the Ductus Thoracicus, whence goes the Channel of Commerce with the Emulgent, was between the third and fifth Vertebra of the Back, as the wind had informed us in the second Experiment.

To be yet more assured thereof, M. Gayant split the Ductus Thoracicus upon the third Vertebra of the Back, and having blown into it at the Quill, the wind came out at the Axillary Vein, and the Ascending Cava; but the Emulgent swelled not at all.

We made a fourth Experiment, which seemed very curious to us, and will not be miss to relate here; viz.

4. M. Gayant having blown into the Aorta, whereof all the branches, that had been cut, were tied up, it swelled immediately, and the Emulgent Artery grew tumid at the same time: but the wind, that was protruded thorow the Emulgent Artery into the Left Kidney, returned not into the Emulgent Vein; which taught us, that the Blood often passeth, where the Air does not.

We have an evident proof of it in the Kidney, since that the Blood of the Emulgent Artery, which goes to the Kidney, returns thorow the Emulgent Vein into the Vena Cava, pursuant to the Rules of the Circulation of the Blood; and that the Air propelled thorow the Emulgent Artery into the Kidney, comes not back thorow the Emulgent Vein into the Vena Cava.

We have yet another proof thereof in the Lungs, from the Experiment, we made of it in the Assembly upon the Corps of a Woman, that was there dissected in the beginning of February last; where we saw, that the Air, which was propelled thorow at Quill into the Vena Arteriosa (which is the Artery of the Lungs) returned not thorow the Arteria Venosa (which is the Vein thereof) into the Left Ventricle of the Heart; though, by the Circulation, the Blood pass there with ease, and even Milk, which having been let in by this Vena Arteriosa, returned easily thorow the Arteria Venosa, into the Left Ventricle of the Heart.

I draw no consequence from these Trials, as to the Channel of Communication; that passes from the Ductus Thoracicus into the Emulgent Vein; because one ought to infer nothing from one onely Body. When we shall be certain, that this Channel of Commerce is found in Men, as well, as we have found it in this Woman, we shall then judge better of itr We are therefore going to make frequent Operations upon divers Animals, to see whether we shall there meet with any thing like it, to the end we may impart it to the Publick.

A Description

Of several Kinds of Granaries, as those of London, of Dantzick, and in Muscovy.
Concerning the Granaries of London, the Inquisitive Dr. Merret, (who indeed, occafion'd the Inquiry into the rest, as a thing, which many were desirous to be informed about, for the better Preservation of Grain, in times of its Plenty) gives this Account of them.

All the Twelve Companies of London, and some other Companies and Private Persons, have their Granaries at the Bridge-House in Southwark (where are a Justice of the Peace, a Steward, and two Masters.) These Granaries are built on two sides of an Oblong; one whereof stands North and South, and is near 100 yards long, whose Lettice-windows respect North-East, the other side may be about 50 yards long; the Windows look to the North, and the opposite sides have no Apertures. All the Windows are about a yard high, without any shutters, and run on in a continued Series, with very small partitions, sufficient onely to nail the Lettices to; Each of them is three or four Stories high, The Garret-windows are Jetty-wise, with a yards distance one from another, glazed out of the Tiles. The Ground or lowermost Story, is foot from the ground, is used onely for a a Warehouse, &c. To settle the first Story upon strong Pillars, fortified with Spikes of Iron, that no Vermin might get up, would make that Story fitter for drying of Corn, and more perflatile; especially where there is no rise of the lower Rooms. The other Stories, made for Granaries, are in breadth some 6 yards, and in height 6 foot or somewhat more. The uppermost or Garret-Granary to the Top or Angle, made by the railing pieces, much more. They have each in the midst from the sides at 8 or 9 foot distance, a strong Post; and all the Timbers made very strong, to support and bear the great weight of the Grain. The Boards best made of sound Oak, two inches thick, and close joynted. In some places they put, in all the inside of their Rooms, Ironwire, of so narrow Mesches, that neither Rats nor Mice can get thorow them, two or three foot deep. Others erect, on all the sides, Boards of Timber, and fasten others to the top of the Perpendicular, one lying either parallel to the Horizon, or so that they make an acute Angle with the former, to the same purpose. For, besides the devouring of the Grain, the Excrements and Urin of that Vermine, moistning the Wheat or Rye, make them apt to corrupt and breed Weivels.

The two main Considerables in building these Granaries, are, To make them strong, and, To expose them to the most drying Winds.

The Ordering of their Corn is this, In Kent, to separate the dust and other impurities in it, when 'tis thrash'd, they throw it in Shovels from one side to the other, which the longer it is, the better: by which means all such impurities remain in the middle betwixt the two heaps of Corn; which they skreen, to part the Corn, that is good, from the said impurities; then, when they first bring the Grain into the Granaries, they lay it about half a foot thick, and turn it twice a week, and once in that time skreen it; and this for two Moneths space. After that, they lay it a foot thick for two Months more, turning it once or twice a Week, and skreen it proportionably, according as the drying season is, seldomer or oftner, After 5 or 6 Moneths, they raise it to two foot in height, and turn it once a Fortnight, and skreen it once a Moneth, as occasion is. After a Year, they lay it two and a half or three foot deep; and turn it once in three Weeks or a Moneth, and skreen it proportionably.

When it hath lain two Years or more, they turn it once in two Moneths, and skreen it once a Quarter, and so on, as they find it in brightness, hardness and driness, The oftner these two things are done, the better the Grain proves,

They leave an empty space about a yard wide on all sides of the Room, and at six foot distance, thorow the whole Area, empty of Corn; into which empty spaces they turn the Corn as often as 'tis needful.

In Kent they make two square holes in both the ends of the floor, and one round in the middle; by which they throw the Corn from the upper into the lower Rooms, & contra, to air and dry it the better.

The Skreens are made with two partitions, to separate the dust from the Corn; which falls into a Bag, and when sufficiently full, is cast away, the good Corn remaining behind.

Corn has been kept in London-Granaries, 32 Years; and the longer 'tis kept, the more flower it yields, in proportion to the quantity of the Corn; and makes the purer and whiter Bread, the superfluous humidity onely evaporating.

Dr. Pell mention'd at a Meeting of the R. Society, that they keep Corn at Zurich in Helvetia, 80 Years.

So far the Doctor.

As for the Granaries of Dantzick and Moscovia, some observing Merchants and Travellers, give this short Account of them.

First, That those of Dantzick are generally Seven Stories high, some, Nine Stories; having each of them a Funnel, to let the Corn run down from one Floor to another; thereby chiefly saving the labour and charges of carrying it down. And then, that they in that Town, are built altogether surrounded with water, whereby the Ships have the convenience of lying close to them, to take in their Lading. No Houses suffered to be built near them, to be thereby secured from the casualties of Fire.

Secondly, That those of Muscovy are made under Ground, by digging a deep Pit, of almost the Figure of a Sugar-loaf, broad below, and narrow at the top; the sides well-plaister'd round about, and the top very close cover'd with Stone, The people of that Countrey are so very careful, to have the Corn well dried, before they put it into those Subterraneous Granaries, that, when the weather of that Northern Climat serves not to dry it sufficiently, they heat their Barns, by the means of great Ovens, and thereby very well drying their Corn, supply the deficiency of their short Summer.

Inquiries

For Hungary and Transylvania.

In prosecution of the Engagement, published Numb. 23. p. 414, 422, we now subjoyn some other Inquiries, and first these, that were very lately recommended to a studious and inquisitive Transylvanian, who from London returned to his Countrey, and promised to procure good Answers to the following particulars, Viz.

1. What is observable in Hungary, Transylvania, and the Neighbouring parts, as to Minerals, Springs, Warm Baths, Earths, Qarries, Mettals, &c. (Reference was here given to the Inquiries concerning Mines, printed Num. 19.)

2. Particularly, To inquire into the several sorts of Antimony, or Antimony-core, to be found in Hungaria; and to inform us of the several places, whence they are digged, to the end, that they may be sent for?

3. To inquire, where the best Hungarian Vitriol is to be found, and the Cinnabaris nativa?

4. To give us a true account of the right Gold- and Silver-Earth or Ore, said to be found at Cranach in Hungary; whence the Gold is called Cranach-Gold, first lighted upon by the care of the Emperour Rudolphus, and chemically wrought by his order and inspection?

5. To inquire after, and send over some of that kind of Vitriol, which by credible persons is affirmed to be found chrystallized in Transylvania: As also, after the Vitriol of Tyrol, said to yield Gold.

6. To inform us of the Salt-pits in Transylvania, said to yield two sorts of perfect Salt, the one being a Sal Gemmæ, the other, a common Table-Salt. To observe how deep these Salt-mines lie from the surface of the Ground? How deep they are digg'd hitherto; and what Damps are met with in them, &c?

7, To inquire after the Veins of Gold and Quick-silver at Cremnitz in Hungary; and the Vein of Silver at Schemnitz in the same Kingdom: And to send over some of the best Ores of them?

8. To inquire, Whether the Waters of the Thermæ, that pass by Schemnitz, depose a certain sediment, which in time turns into a yellow Stone?

9. Whether in the Mines of Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron, Lead, in Hungary, there be generally found Quick-silver and Sulphur?

10. Whether it be true, that in the Copper-Mines of the place called Herren-ground in Hungary, there be found no Quick-silver at all?

11. Whether it be true, that in some parts of the Upper Hungary, the Ores of Copper, Iron, and Lead, be sometimes so commixed, that there is often found in the upper part of the Concrete, matter of Iron; in the midst, matter of Copper, and in the lowermost, Lead? And that in other places of the same Country, Copperish fluors are mixed with Leaden ones?

12. Whether it be true, what Athan. Kircher writes from Relation, That the Ductus's of Mettals do sometimes run North and South, sometimes Cross-wayes?

13. Whether there be in Hungary such a River, as is mentioned in Busbekius, whose water is so hot, and which is yet so ful of Fish, that he saith, one would expect, that all the Fish drawn thence, would come out boyled?

14. Whether there be Springs about Buda or Alba Regalis, that rise at the bottom of the River so hot, that those who go to bathe, dare not put their feet so low as the Sand, for fear of having them parboyled?

15. Whether there be in Hungary an Avernus, that exhaleth almost alwayes such poysonous Steams, that Birds flying over it, do often-times fall down, either stupified, or quite dead?

16. Whether the Iron, that is said to be turned into Copper, by the Vitriolate Springs at Cremnitz or Smolnitz, in Hungary, do after that Transmutation or Precipitation, contain a pretty deal of Gold?

17. Whether the Depth of the Gold-Mines of Hungary be 2400 feet?

18. Whether they find Trees, or any other Bodies in the solid Salt of their Salt-Mines,

19. Whether there be a great Lake in Moravia, whence of late years all the Waters were by accident drawn away, though formerly carrying Boats, and full of Fish?

30. Whether it be true, what is affirmed by Authors, That in some parts of Hungary near the Gold-Mines, the Leaves of the Trees have their lower superficies, if not their upper also, gilded over with yellowish Exhalations?

21. What is the way, said to be used in Austria and Hungary, of extracting the perfect Mettals out of their Minera's without Lead; performed by casting a Powder upon the Minera, which makes a quick and advantageous separation; Sulphur being supposed to be an Ingredient of it?

Inquiries
For
Ægypt, by Thomas Henshaw Esq;

1. Whether it rain there at any time, and if so, what time of the Year? Whether Rain make the Air wholsom, or pestilential, or otherwise unhealthful?

2. To consider the Niter that is commonly sold there, and what affinity there is betwixt that, and our common Saltpeeter: to try by dissolving it in warm water, filtring it well, then boyling almost half away, and putting the remainder in an earthen Pan, and setting it in a cool place for two dayes, to see whether it will shoot into Chrystals of Peeter. To send some quantity of it into Europe.

3. Whether the Earth of Ægypt, adjoining to the River Nilus, presev'd and weigh'd daily, keeps the same weight, till the 17th of June, and then grows daily heavier with the increase of the River?

4. Whether, if the Plague be never so great before, yet on the first day of the Nile's increase, it not only increaseth, but absolutely ceaseth, not one dying of it after?

5. To inquire particularly into the manner of Hatching Eggs in Ægypt; How the Camel-dung is prepar'd, wherein they are laid? how often, the Eggs are turn'd? how cover'd? Whether they hatch in Twenty one dayes, as they do with us under a Hen? Whether the Chickens be as perfect as ours? If imperfect, Whether that may not happen to them by rough handling, while they are remov'd, being very tender, out of the place where they are hatch'd? To take the design of the manner, how by the Pipes the heat is convey'd into several Rooms. How they treat them betwixt the time of their hatching, and taking away by the Owners? Whether they do not also use to hatch Eggs under Hens?

6. To inquire, Whether the great quantity of Yellow Amber, which is sold at Cairo, be by reason that it is the Gum of a certain Tree growing in Ægypt, or Æthiopia, as Bellonius after Diodorus Siculus affirms? And whether, besides several Animals that are found inclosed in that Amber, there is very frequently some part of the Bark of a Tree found sticking to it?

7. To inquire of a certain Tree, growing not far from Cairo, which bears a Fruit stuffed with Wooll, that is finer than Silk, of which the Arabs make Linnen that is softer than Silk, and whiter than Cotton?

8. Whether Crocodiles, that are found to be sometimes Thirty foot long, are hatched of an Egge, no bigger than a Turkeys?

9. Whether the Ichneumon, or Ægyptian Water-Rat can kill a Crocodile, by skipping into his Mouth, and gnawing his way out, as Old Writers affirm?

10. Whether it be true, That the Arabs can Charm the Crocodiles; or, Whether there be on the Nile's side any Talismans, or Constellated Figures, beyond which the Crocodiles cannot pass, as some would make us believe?

11. To inquire at Cairo for several Drogues, which are common there, and much in use, yet not brought into Europe, as Acacia, Calamus Odoratus, Amomum, Costus, Ben Album, and divers such others.

12. Whether the Female Palm-Tree be not fruitful, unless she grow by the Male, as some would bear us in hand?

13. To inquire, Whether the Appearance of the Leggs and Arms of Men, related to stand out of the ground, to a great number, at a place five Miles from Cairo, on Good-Friday, do still continue? And how that Imposture is performed?

14. Whether Children born there in the Eighth Month, do usually live, contrary to what is believed to happen in other Countries?

15. To take an Account of the Wooden Locks there, which are said to be made with as great Art, as those of Iron, with us.

16. To observe the Course of the Waters, both of the Mediterranean, and the Red-Sea?

Inquiries
For Guiny, by Abraham Hill Esq;

1. VVhether the River Niger overflows the Countrey yearly, like Nilus?

2. Whether the Rain, when it falls, be often very hot, rotting the Cloaths, if not presently dryed, and breeding Worms in them?

3. Whether the Gold there, be of very different fineness, and that which is uppermost in the Mine be the finest?

4. Whether the Palm affords them Wine, Oyl, Vinegar, Soap, Bread; and out of the Leaves they pick Threds, making thereof very curious Works?

5. Whether they have, besides their Palm-Wine, a Drink made of Grain, like our Ale? What Grain that is, and how prepar'd?

6. Whether their Arrows, they make, be poysonous? By what Tree and how prepar'd?

7. Whether some People on the River Gambra, be only Tawny, as others very Black?

8. Whether the Negroes have such sharp sights, that they discover a Ship at Sea much farther off, than the Europeans can?

9. VVhat Reason there is to conclude, That the Common People being accustomed to drink VVater, is the cause, that they are troubled with VVorms in their Bodies, very, painful to them, and difficult to get out?

FINIS.


In the SAVOY,

Printed by T. N. for John Martyn at the Bell, a little without Temple-Bar, Printer to the Royal Society, 1667.