Popular Science Monthly/Volume 13/September 1878/Literary Notices
Lessons in Cookery: Hand-Book of the National Training-School for Cookery (South Kensington, London). To which is added The Principles of Diet in Health and Disease, by Thomas K. Chambers, M.D. Edited by Eliza A. Youmans. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 382. Price, $1.50.
Two things closely connected are much and justly complained of in this country—the everlasting multiplication of new cook-books and the general badness of cookery. Publications of every form and variety abound upon this subject, with no corresponding improvement in the art by which food is prepared. It would be going too far to ascribe the low state of our culinary practice to the qualities of the literature that deals with it, for in many cases cook-books have no influence at all upon kitchen operations; but it is equally certain that the current manuals do much to perpetuate the bad methods to which they are conformed. The reason of their failure to effect much improvement is obvious enough, for our popular manuals of cookery make no provision for learning the business in the way all other arts have to be learned if they are to be successfully prosecuted. They proceed upon the false principle that a practical vocation, depending upon a knowledge of the properties of numerous substances, involving constant manipulation and the production of delicate and complicated effects, can be learned by simply reading about it. This mischievous error, however, is beginning to be recognized in various quarters, and it is seen that cookery, like all other subjects, must be studied in a rational way, in accordance with the nature of the subject. England has the honor of taking the lead in a vigorous movement to make the art of practical cookery a branch of common education. The effort has been successful in so eminent a degree that it promises to be permanent and to become of immense advantage to the community. But no important step of advancement can be taken in this direction without a wide diffusion of its advantages; whatever has been gained by English experience is ours as well as theirs. One of the fruits of the establishment of the London Training-School is that we have at last got a hand-book of cookery upon the right method, and which, if used as it can be everywhere, will be certain to elevate this hitherto neglected branch of domestic economy. The claims of this work upon American households are so important, and so clearly presented by the editor in her preface to the American edition, that we cannot better serve the interested readers of the Monthly than by quoting the main portions of the statement:
"The present work on cookery appeared in England under the title of 'The Official Hand-Book of the National Training-School for Cookery,' and it contains the lessons on the preparation of food which were practised in that institution. It has been reprinted in this country with some slight revision, for the use of American families, because of its superior merits as a cookbook to be consulted in the ordinary way, and also because it is the plainest, simplest, and most perfect guide to self-education in the kitchen that has yet appeared. In this respect it represents a very marked advance in an important domestic art hitherto much neglected.
"A glance at its contents will show the ground it covers, and how fully it meets the general wants. The dishes for which it provides have been selected with an unusual degree of care and judgment. They have been chosen to meet the needs of well-to-do families, and also those of more moderate means, who must observe a strict economy. Provision is made for an ample and varied diet, and for meals of a simple and frugal character. Receipts are given for an excellent variety of soups, for cooking many kinds of fish in different ways, for the preparation of meats, poultry, game, and vegetables, and for a choice selection of entrées, souffles, puddings, jellies, and creams. Besides the courses of a well-ordered dinner, there are directions for making rolls, biscuits, bread, and numerous dishes for breakfast and tea, together with a most valuable set of directions how to prepare food for the sick. The aim has been to meet the wants of the great mass of people who are not rich enough to abandon their kitchen to the management of professional cooks, and who must keep a careful eye to expense. But, while the costly refinements of artistic and decorative cookery are avoided, there has been a constant reference to the simple requirements of good taste in the preparation of food for the table.
"But the especial merit of this volume, and the character by which it stands alone among cook-books, is the superior method it offers of teaching the art of practical cookery. It is at this vital point that all our current cook-books break down; they make no provision for getting a knowledge of this subject in any systematic way. So much in them is vague, so much taken for granted, and so much is loose, careless, and misleading, in their receipts, that they are good for nothing to teach beginners, good for nothing as guides to successful practice, and only of use to those who already know enough to supply their deficiencies and protect themselves against their errors. In fact, the hand-book required to teach cookery effectually cannot be made by any single person in the usual manner, but it must be itself a product of such teaching.
"The present volume originated in this way, and embodies a tried and successful method of making good practical cooks. The lessons given in the following pages came from a training-kitchen for pupils of all grades, and the directions of its receipts are so minute, explicit, distinct, and complete, that they may be followed with ease by every person of common-sense who has the slightest desire to learn. They are the results of long and careful practice in teaching beginners how to cook, and have grown out of exercises often repeated with a view of making them as perfect as possible. It is commonly regarded as a good thing in a cook-book that its compiler has tested some of its receipts, and points out the troubles and failures likely to occur in early trials. But the completeness of the instructions in this work was attained through the stupidities, blunders, mistakes, questionings, and difficulties, of hundreds of learners of all capacities, doing the work over and over again under the critical direction of intelligent, practical teachers, who were bent upon finding out the best method of doing each thing, and the best method of teaching others how to do it. Not a single item necessary to perfect the required process is omitted. The steps are separated, and given in numerical order, so as to enforce attention to one thing at a time, and the right thing at the right time, while the precautions against mistakes are so careful that even the dullest can hardly go wrong. Each receipt in the volume is not only the formula for a dish, but it is also a lesson in a practical process, so that in the preparation of every article of food something is gained toward greater proficiency in the art of cooking well.
"A few words in regard to the origin of the school in which it was produced will still further illustrate the character of this work. A vigorous movement has been made in England to elevate this branch of domestic economy by establishing schools for training pupils in the art of cookery. These schools have grown immediately out of the need of greater general economy among the working-classes, as it was seen that the high prices of provisions were seriously aggravated by not knowing how to make the most of them in their kitchen preparation. The attention of the managers of the South Kensington Museum of Arts in West London was several years ago drawn to the subject; and, feeling that something required to be done, they established public lectures on the preparation of food, with platform demonstrations of various culinary operations. But it was quickly found that mere exposition and illustration, though not without use, were wholly inadequate to the object in view; because a cooking school, to be thorough, must provide for practice. Lecturing, and explaining to pupils, and barely showing them how things are done, are sure to fail, because cookery, like music, can only be learned by actually doing it. As well undertake to teach the piano by talking and exhibiting its capabilities as to teach a person how to make a dish properly by only listening and looking on. Provision had therefore to be made for forming classes to do themselves what they at first only saw others do.
"But this task-was by no means an easy one. There were no preexisting plans to follow; qualified teachers and suitable textbooks were wanting; it was an expensive form of education; the public thought it a doubtful innovation; and educational authorities discouraged it. But the parties interested decided that the time had come for a systematic and persistent effort. They felt their way cautiously, and in 1874 organized classes for graded courses of practice. The object was to give women the best possible instruction in practical cookery and for this purpose the school was open to all. But, to make its work most largely useful, it was constituted as a normal school for training teachers to go out and establish other cooking-schools in different parts of the country. This has been since done with the most encouraging success, so that there are already a large number of cooking-schools in England connected with the national or common school system.
"As no cook-book to be found was worth anything to aid the practical instruction proposed, the teachers had to take this matter in hand at the outset. They began by drawing up a careful set of directions to be followed by the learners in doing their work. For each lesson in all the grades each pupil was furnished with a printed sheet of these directions, stating the ingredients of each dish to be prepared, the quantities and separate cost of these ingredients, what was to be done first, what next, and so on through the whole series of operations, nothing being assumed as known, and all the minute steps being indicated in the order that was found best. These guides were necessarily imperfect at first, and were subject to constant revision and extension as experience suggested corrections; in fact, they embodied the progress of the school in the successful attainment of its object. At each new printing the improvements that had been made were incorporated, and only after years of trial were these guides to practice at length combined and issued in a book-form. The lessons or receipts of this volume were all slowly elaborated in this painstaking manner, and the mode of working proved perfectly successful with the pupils. It was easy and pleasant, yet careful and thorough, and secured a rapid and gratifying proficiency.
"In saying that the South Kensington Cooking-School has been successful, I speak from direct knowledge of it. I was a pupil there for several weeks, and carefully observed its operations. The classes showed the most extraordinary mental and social diversity. There were cultivated ladies, the daughters of country gentlemen, old housekeepers, servants, cooks, and colored girls from South Africa, together with a large proportion of intelligent young women who were preparing to become teachers. They worked together with a harmony and good feeling that, I confess, somewhat surprised me, but they were all closely occupied and thoroughly interested in a common object. There were teachers to provide materials, to plan the daily work, to direct operations, and to be consulted when necessary; but the admirable method adopted left each learner to go through her task with but a small amount of assistance. Indeed, the completeness of the directions in hand seemed to assure the success of every pupil from the start. There was, of course, a difference in dexterity, and in facility of work previously acquired; but raw beginners went on so well that they were astonished at what they found themselves able to do.
"American ladies, when looking over these lessons, are apt to smile at their extreme simplicity and triviality, but it must be remembered that the difference between good and bad cookery is very much a matter of attention to trifles. Slight mistakes, small omissions, little things done at the wrong time, spoil dishes. The excellence of these lessons consists in their faithfulness in regard to minutæ, and the habits they enforce of attention to trifling particulars. They make no claim to literary merit. The receipts are homely, direct, and meant only to be easily and distinctly understood. They are full of repetitions, because processes are constantly repeated, and it was necessary that the directions in each receipt should be full and complete. They are not enticing reading, because they were made to work by. The book, in fact, belongs in the kitchen where cookery is done; and it is now republished because its success there has been demonstrated. Many hundred persons totally ignorant of the subject have become efficient and capable cooks by pursuing the mode of practice here adopted—by going through these lessons—and the same results can be obtained by pursuing the same method anywhere. American housekeepers who have any real interest in home improvement, and are willing to take a little pains to instruct their daughters or their servants in the art of cooking well, will find the volume an adequate and invaluable help toward the attainment of this object. It will prove a useful text-book in the cooking-schools that are springing up in this country, and classes could be advantageously formed in it for kitchen practice in every female seminary in the land."
Appended to the volume is an admirable essay on "The Principles of Diet in Health and Disease," by Dr. Thomas K. Chambers, one of the highest living authorities upon that subject. This is a most valuable addition to the work. As food is prepared in order to be eaten, as the subject of cookery is therefore in close relations with that of diet, and commonly receives too little attention on the part of housekeepers, it was an excellent idea to furnish an authoritative summary of the facts and rules of the most recent dietetical science. Good cookery and rational diet are equal conditions of healthful enjoyment.
Annual Record of Science and Industry, for 1877. By S. F. Baird. New York: Harper & Brothers. Pp. 494. Price, $2.
The "Record" for 1877 is considerably less voluminous than its predecessors, and the reduction in size has been effected by summarily omitting one of the two main divisions of the work, namely, that containing abstracts of notable scientific papers. In truth, it would be simply impossible to compress within the limits of an ordinary volume an intelligible synopsis of the important scientific papers annually contributed to the proceedings of learned societies and the periodical press. Hence, we cannot but approve the action of Prof. Baird in omitting that feature of the "Annual Record." By so doing, he is enabled to give more space and fuller treatment to the "Summary of Scientific Progress," and the result is a remarkably satisfactory review of the scientific work of the year in the various departments of research. Each particular science, and, in some instances, particular departments of a science, are treated by writers eminent in their respective specialties.
The Ethics of Positivism: A Critical Study. By Giacomo Barzellotti, Professor of Philosophy at the Liceo Dante, Florence. New York: Charles P. Somerby. Pp. 327. Price, $2.
This book, the first edition of which appeared in Florence a few years ago, and is now translated into English and printed in this country with a new introduction by the author, is a study of those more recent aspects of philosophy which have culminated in the British school of psychologists. It seems to have been written with a principal view of instructing the Italians in regard to the great modern movements of thought that are going on most actively outside the limits of that country. But the writer's object is by no means purely expository of current thought: he dips into controversy with opinions of his own, and avows his aim to be to defend "the principles of morality against the attacks of an empirical utilitarianism." The appellation of positivism, which the author connects with his discussion, he informs us has been criticised by leading authorities as inexact, and we think the objection was certainly well taken. At any rate, the propriety of the term, as designating the English school of thinkers with which he is chiefly dealing, has been so strenuously contested as misleading by prominent members of that school, that it seems somewhat assuming in Prof. Barzellotti to persist in this questionable or disputed application of the word in the title of his book.
The work is similar in scope to Masson's "Recent British Philosophy," and its topics are discussed in an excellent spirit and in an intelligent and instructive manner; but it will be more valued as a delineation of a system of ideas than for any contribution it offers toward their further development. We notice that Prof. Barzellotti differs very widely from President Porter in his estimate of the philosophical position and influence of Herbert Spencer. For, while to the President of Yale College Spencer is little better than a pretender and a verbal trickster, whose illusive reputation is destined to vanish so speedily that the world will wonder how the delusion lasted so long, the Italian professor, on the other hand, accords to him a regnant place as the commanding mind of the most vigorous and powerful philosophical school of the present age. He says, "Modern psychological inquiry reaches its highest degree of development in Herbert Spencer." He closes an elaborate account of the doctrines and methods of this thinker as follows:
Elements of Dynamic. An Introduction to the Study of Motion and Rest in Solid and Fluid Bodies. By W. K. Clifford, F. R. S. Part I., Kinematic. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 221. Price, $2.50.
This little book plunges into depths where only mathematicians can follow; but its opening sentences are so characteristic of the author's clearness of perception and statement, that, as they involve no formula, and are withal instructive, we quote them:
"Motions are generally very complicated. To fix the ideas, consider the case of a man sitting in one corner of a railway-carriage, who gets up and moves to the opposite corner. He has gone from one place to another; he has turned round; he has continually changed in shape, and many of his muscles have changed in size during the process.
"To avoid this complication we deal with the simplest motions first, and gradually go on to consider the more complex ones. In the first place, we postpone the consideration of changes in size and shape by treating only of those motions in which there are no such changes. A body which does not change its size or shape during the time considered is called a rigid body.
"The motion of rigid bodies is of two kinds; change of place, or translation, and change of direction or aspect, which is called rotation. In a motion of pure translation, every straight line in the body remains parallel to its original position; for, if it did not, it would turn round, and there would be a motion of rotation mixed up with the motion of translation. By a straight line in the body we do not mean merely a straight line indicated by the shape or marked upon the surface of the body; thus, if a box have a movement of translation, not only will its edges remain parallel to their original positions, but the same will be true of every straight line which we can conceive to be drawn, joining any two points of the box.
"When a body has a motion of translation, it is found, that every point of it moves in the same; bo that to describe the motion of the whole body it is sufficient to describe that of one point. When a body is so small that there is no need to take account of the differences in position and motion of its different parts, the body is called a particle. Thus the only motion of a particle that we take account of is the motion of translation of any point in it.
"A motion of translation mixed up with a motion of rotation is like that of a corkscrew entering into a cork, and is called a twist.
"Bodies which change their size or shape are called elastic bodies. Changes in size or shape are called strains."The science which teaches how to describe motion accurately and how to compound different motions together is called kinematic."
The volume is a college text-book, and the genius and position of its author are a sufficient guarantee of its originality and excellence. Prof. Clifford has broken down so sadly in health that he has been compelled to suspend work at University College, in London, and leave England for the more genial climate of Southern Europe. His work on the "Fundamental Ideas of Mathematics and Physics explained to the Non-Mathematical," with which he has been long occupied for the "International Scientific Series," is well advanced, and it is to be hoped that he will recover his health to complete it, and carry out the other important intellectual projects of which his teeming head is full.
Physical Technics. By Dr. J. Frick. Translated by J. D. Easter, Ph. D. With 797 Illustrations. Philadelphia: Lippincott. Pp. 467. Price, $2.50.
Teachers of physical science and students who are without the aid of competent instructors and good laboratory apparatus will find this a very useful manual. The volume, in the first place, contains a great deal of valuable, practical instruction for making experiments in physics. The manipulation of apparatus, the construction of apparatus at the least possible cost, the points to be considered in the purchase of instruments, on these and many other like topics the author supplies a good deal of common-sense information, gathered in the course of his own experience as a teacher of science, and selected from technical manuals. Having aided the student in choosing his apparatus or constructing it, and given him some insight into the secrets of physical manipulation, the author, in the second part of the book, gives directions for making experiments illustrative of the principal laws of physics, as the equilibrium of forces, motion, acoustics, light, magnetism, heat, etc. The work appears to be very well adapted to meet the wants of the reader for whom it is intended.
Current Discussion: A Collection from the Chief English Essays of Questions of the Time. Edited by Edward L. Burlingame. Vol. II., Questions of Belief. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 360. Price, $1.50.
The first volume of this new series of reprinted contemporary discussion was devoted to international politics, and very naturally gave special prominence to the treatment of the Oriental question which has latterly excited so much attention. It consisted of a judicious selection of the most important papers that have appeared in the English reviews by distinguished writers on the various aspects of Eastern politics. The second volume, devoted to what the editor terms, somewhat vaguely, "Questions of Belief," is occupied with radical speculations in theology, most of the space being taken up by the Symposiums from the Nineteenth Century that have appeared in The Popular Science Supplement. There is an article on "The Course of Modern Thought," by G. H. Lewes; one on "The Condition and Prospects of the Church of England," by Thomas Hughes; and the paper of W. H. Mallock entitled "Is Life worth living?" Nothing needs to be said in commendation of these able discussions, and they are brought out in a neat and attractive shape by the publishers.
Ferns of Kentucky. By J. Williamson. Louisville: J. P. Morton & Co. Pp. 154. $2.
The collector of ferns in Kentucky will find in this neat little volume a guide to the principal localities in which the different kinds occur, and a key for determining the different species which he meets in his rambles. The volume further contains hints on the cultivation of ferns, and on the proper method of drying and preserving them. Sixty full-page etchings and six woodcuts serve to illustrate the ferns of Kentucky.
Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, F. V. Hayden, Geologist-in Charge. Vol. IV., No. I. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 311.
The memoirs contained in this number of the Bulletin are all on zoölogical subjects, viz.: "The Ornithology of the Lower Rio Grande of Texas;" "Fishes from the Cretaceous and Tertiary, west of the Mississippi;" three papers on "Tineina;" "Noctuidæ, chiefly from California;" "The North American Species of Alpheus;" "Mammals of Fort Sisseton, Dakota;" "American Herodiones;" "Butterflies from Southern Utah;" "Herpetology of Dakota and Montana;" "Consolidation of the Hoofs in the Virginian Deer;" "A Breed of Solid Hoofed Pigs;" "Prof. Owen on the Pythonomorpha."
Manual of the Apiary. By A. J. Cook, Professor of Entomology in the Michigan State Agricultural College. Chicago: T. G. Newman & Son. Pp. 286. Price, cloth, $1.25; paper, $1.
A large edition of this "Manual" having been sold within two years of its first publication, Prof. Cook was encouraged to revise the work and make it more complete in both its scientific and practical aspects. The result is a handsome volume, elegantly illustrated, and containing all the information needed by those who desire to keep bees. We have received, from the same author, a pamphlet on "The Hessian Fly," giving its natural history and habits, and describing the methods of protecting the wheat-plants against its ravages.
Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern United States. By David Starr Jordan, Ph. D., M. D. Second edition, revised and enlarged. Chicago: Jansen, McClurg & Co. 1878. Price, $2.50.
It speaks well for this book, and for the growing activity in natural history studies, that it has grown to become so useful an apparatus in its own line. It is barely four years since that novel brochure appeared of Jordan and Van Vleck, "A Popular Key to the Birds, Reptiles, Batrachians, and Fishes, of the Northern United States, east of the Mississippi River." Soon came as an outgrowth the "Manual of the Vertebrates;" and now comes its second edition. To Elliott Coues must always be given the merit of leading grandly on this line by the "Key to American Birds." Prof. Jordan has, in this new book of over 400 pages, put the amateur student in the classification of the home vertebrates under a great debt of gratitude. The manual is a very efficient analyst of animal forms. It is truly multum in parvo, but perhaps a little too condensed.
Twenty-five-Cent Dinners for Families of Six. By Juliet Corson, Office of the New York Cooking-School, 35 East Seventeenth Street, Union Square. 72 pages. Price, 15 cents.
Miss Corson has published various useful books on the subject of cookery, and, among others, a little brochure entitled "Fifteen-Cent Dinners for Working-Men's Families." This attracted a good deal of attention, and set many people to thinking about the possibilities of living cheaply and well, if they only knew how to do it. Having thus raised the question of economical diet in a practical way, Miss Corson was applied to by letters from numerous parties to show what could be done on a little more liberal scale of expense, and "Twenty-five Cent Dinners" is the result. There is a large amount of valuable, well-digested information in this pamphlet. Miss Corson not only speaks from experience, both in cooking and teaching (as she is superintendent of the New York Cooking-School), but from a special study of culinary economics, or how to get good food in sufficient allowance at the lowest cost. Her results will excite some surprise in people of careless habits in these matters, and who would be astonished to be told that good cookery would give them better diet than they are in the habit of getting, at half the cost. Miss Corson begins with some serviceable hints on marketing, and the economical selection of articles of food, and then offers various valuable suggestions on the best methods of cooking to make them go the farthest. Several chapters follow of well-selected receipts for economical dishes, and the whole is fully indexed at the close. Besides her suggestive preface, addressed "To Economical Housewives," she offers at the outset the daily bills-of-fare for one week, with the price of each dish, of each meal, of the three daily meals, and the total meals of the week. The dishes are wholesome, attractive, and by no means stinted, and their very moderate cost conveys an instructive lesson to lax and thriftless housekeepers. Miss Corson's little work is opportune in these stringent times, and its wide circulation would be productive of much public benefit.
Bulletin of the Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences. (1877). Minneapolis: Young & Winn print. Pp. 126. Price, 50 cents.
This number of the Bulletin contains, besides the annual address of the president, a report on the "Mycological Flora of Minnesota," another on "Ornithology," a paper on "Tornadoes and Cyclones," and the Curator's "Report." The additions to the Academy's Museum were larger in 1877 than in any previous year, besides being much more valuable.
Short Studies of Great Lawyers. By J. Browne. Albany: Law Journal print. Pp. 382. $2.
The Nature of Things. By J. G. Macvicar, D.D. Edinburgh: Blackwood. Pp. 120.
How to take Care of our Eyes. By H. C. Angell, M. D. Boston: Roberts Brothers. Pp. 70. 50 cents.
Handbook of Modern Chemistry. By C. M. Tidy. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston. Pp. 795. $5.
Report of the Commissioner of Education (1876). Washington: Government Printing-office. Pp. 1152.
The Native Flowers and Ferns of the United States. Parts 3, 4, 5. Illustrated by Chromolithographs. Boston: L. Prang & Co. 50 cents each.
New Encyclopædia of Chemistry. Parts 31 to 35 inclusive. Philadelphia: Lippincott. 50 cents each.
The Dance of Death. By W. Herman. New York: American News Company. Pp. 131.
In the Wilderness. By C. D. Warner. Boston: Houghton, Osgood & Co. Pp. 176.
Dosia. By H. Greville. Boston: Estes & Lauriat. Pp. 260. $1 50.
Instructions for observing the Total Solar Eclipse of July, 1878. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 30, with Plates.
Report of the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association (1878). Madison: Atwood print. Pp. 150.
Sound and the Telephone. By C. J. Blake, M. D. Pp. 14.
True and False Experts. By E. Gissom, M. D. From American Journal of Insanity. Pp. 36.
Report of the New York Meteorological Observatory (1877). New York: Lees print. Pp. 32.
Follies of the Positive Philosophers. By T. L. Clingman. Raleigh, N.C.: Nichols print. Pp. 25.
Twenty-five Cent Dinners for Families of Six. By J. Corson. Pp. 72. 15 cents.
Separation and Subsequent Treatment of Precipitates. By F. A. Gooch. From "Proceedings of the American Academy." Pp. 8.
Vortrag über den Mexicanischen Calender-Stein. Von Prof. Ph. Valentine. New York: Marrer und Sohn. Pp. 33, with Plates.
Instinctive Operations of the Human System. By J. F. Hibberd, M.D. Cincinnati: Lancet print. Pp. 16.
Malaria and Struma. By L. P. Yandell, M.D. From American Practitioner. Pp. 15.
Honest Money. By T. M. Nichol. Chicago: The Honest Money League of the Northwest. Pp. 56.
Report of the Board of Schools, St. Louis (1876-'77). St. Louis: Daly & Co. print. Pp. 280.
Notes from the Chemical Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University. Nos. 9–12.
Duty of Literary Men. By Rev. T. A. Goodwin. New York: Burnz & Co. Pp. 16.
Spelling Reformer. Vol. I., No. 5. Same publishers. Pp. 6.
The Currency. By J. Johnston. Chicago: Honest Money League of the Northwest. Pp. 38.
Physical Exercise and Consumption. By Dr. R. B. Davy. Cincinnati: From the Lancet and Observer. Pp. 16.