Popular Science Monthly/Volume 31/May 1887/Literary Notices


Outlines of Classification and Special Morphology of Plants. By Dr. K. Goebel, Professor in the University of Rostock. A new edition of Sachs's Text-Book of Botany. Book II. Authorized English translation. By Henry E. F. Garnsey, M.A. Revised by Isaac Bayley Balfour, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., Sherardon Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford. With 407 Woodcuts. New York: Macmillan & Co. 1887. Pp. 500. Price, $5.25.

As stated above, this work is a new edition of Part II of Professor Sachs's "Morphological and Physiological Botany." It was prepared at the desire of Professor Sachs because of the rapid growth of discovery in this field since the publication of his work in 1873. Although the researches of Professor Sachs were largely confined to the lower groups of the vegetable kingdom, especially to the vascular cryptogams, and were here first given to the world, in Part II of his text-book. Of its 850 pages 250 sufficed for the treatment of morphology and classification. Such, however, has been the activity of investigators in this field in the last few years, that Professor Goebel has taken 500 pages for its present treatment. Of these 500 pages three fourths of the space is given to that section of the vegetable world popularly known as flowerless plants; for it is here, where so much was uncertain, that research has been most active.

Professor Goebel is himself an original investigator in botany, and the present volume contains not only the changes required by the recent literature of the science, but the results of his own research. Under the circumstances, it will be no matter of surprise that the provisional classification of the past has given place to considerable and important changes. Among these it may be mentioned in the first place, that the division of the vegetable kingdom into cryptogams and phanerogams is out of date. The discovery of the true relations between phanerogams (gymnosperms and angiosperms) and the vascular cryptogams has revealed that the gymnosperms, mosses, and vascular cryptogams form a natural group aptly described as Archægonatæ. "It would be thoroughly in accordance with our present knowledge to divide the forms of the vegetable kingdom into thallophytcs, Archægonatæ, and angiosperms." For the sake of simplicity of statement, however, the gymnosperms and angiosperms still form one division called seed-plants (spermaphytes). The vegetable kingdom is divided into four groups: Thallophytes, briophytes (mosses), vascular cryptogams, and seed-plants. In classifying the lowest group, or thallophytes, it is now established that lichens do not form a special class distinct from algæ and fungi, but must be ranked with fungi. In consequence of the present transitional character of botanical terminology, Professor Goebel has found it difficult to explain the relations of the different groups to each other, and has been obliged to modify the terminology of previous editions. But he has given a very full "Explanation of Terms" at the end of the volume. A prominent feature of the book is an attempt to make use of a consistent terminology based upon homology; and Professor Goebel expresses the hope that the work of improvement will continue until "we shall no longer call the same object in one place a 'placenta,' in another a 'receptacle' or a 'columella,' or use the term 'frons' for the thallus of a Marchantia or a Pellia, or apply the term pro-embryo alike to the protonema of the mosses, the prothallium of ferns, and the suspensor of spermaphytes." This volume will be indispensable to teachers who care to give their pupils the latest product of scientific inquiry.

History of the Pacific States of North America. By Hubert Howe Bancroft. Vol. XXVII. British Columbia. San Francisco: The History Company. Pp. 792. Price, $5.

There is little in this book to remind one of the times when "54° 40' or fight" was the political cry of the day, and of the great excitement which our country suffered over the Oregon question. Yet the subject of the dispute is the precise territory that was involved in that controversy. That the memory of that dispute should have so lapsed in forty years that it should be only incidentally referred to, if at all, in this volume of nearly eight hundred pages, is a silent comment on the changes that may be wrought in a generation, and a sign of the growing civilization of the age. The period covered by this history is from 1792 to 1887. It is divided by the author into six divisions: First, the discoveries, claims, disputations, and diplomacies relative to the ownership and division of the domain, commonly referred to as Nootka affairs. The second epoch began with the coming of the fur-traders by land, and continued until 1849, when colonization and colonial government began on Vancouver Island. The third term, during which the Hudson Bay Company was still everywhere dominant, lasted till 1858, when the gold discovery overturned the existing order of things, and raised the mainland into a colony. The fourth period, during which there were two colonies and two governors, concluded with the union of the island and mainland under one colonial government in 1866. The affairs of the confederated colony constitute the fifth era, terminating in confederation with Canada in 1871. The present may be regarded as the sixth period. At this time, or in 1886, we are informed that British Columbia, on account of the lack of money in circulation, is not adapted to any large immigration of poor families; but for men possessing even a small capital, there are few more profitable investments than a cereal farm or cattle-rancho within its borders. As an agricultural region the mainland is divided into sections by the Coast Range. The interior has a climate of extremes, and the coast a mild and equable temperature, while the southern portion, with its wide, trough-like valleys, requires irrigation during the summer months. Though it contains large tracts of good arable land, the entire province is better adapted for stock-raising than for the production of crops. Vancouver Island contains not more than 300,000 acres of farming-land, of which less than 15,000 acres were under cultivation in 1886. In the Queen Charlotte Islands there are some 15,000 acres of flat and unwooded land, but of this only a few hundred acres are suitable for agriculture. Public lands are vested in the provincial government, and the policy is followed of reserving them, in the main, for actual settlers. The exports in 1884 amounted to 3,099,814 and the imports to $4,142,286. The exports consisted mainly of coal and gold, fish and fish-oils, peltries, hides, and lumber. The population is described by the author as, if not among the richest, among the most contented, hopeful, and thrifty communities of the Pacific coast, and the colony as entitled to claim the distinction of being one of the most progressive regions of British North America.

Shoppell's Modern Houses: An Illustrated Architectural Quarterly. January, 1887. New York: Co-operative Building Plan Association, 191 Broadway. Pp. 12, with Colored Plates. Price, $1, $4 a year.

The design of this publication is to furnish, with views and plans, designs for houses, etc., in number, from which intending builders may select such as suit them or nearly suit them. "Working plans, specifications, etc., will be furnished on application, with plans of such alterations as may be desired, at fixed rates. Estimates of cost are based upon actual cost of structures, such as will be secured by buying the materials and having the labor performed by days' work. The Association represents that within six years eight thousand houses have been built from its plans. The present number of "Modern Houses" contains forty-nine designs for houses, with plans, descriptions, and costs, from $1,000 to $12,000; designs for a railroad-station, and for stables and carriage-houses; articles on "Axioms and Rules of Color"; "Plumbing and Draining"; "Planting a Large Plot"; "Sea-side Cottage Decoration"; and an installment of Viollet-le-Duc's "Habitations of Man in All Ages," which is in course of regular publication.

The Open Court. A Fortnightly Journal, devoted to the Work of establishing Ethics and Religion upon a Scientific Basis. Edited by B. F. Underwood and Sara A. Underwood. Chicago, 111. $3 per year, single copies fifteen cents.

The aim of this journal, established through the liberality of Mr. Edward C. Hegeler, is announced to be "to continue the work of 'The Index'—that is, to establish religion on the basis of science; and, in connection therewith, it will present the Monistic philosophy." The new journal starts out under good auspices; it is published in convenient form, its typography is very attractive, and, under the charge of the well-known editor of "The Index," we may reasonably expect a successful career.

The four numbers before us contain articles by William J. Pottor, upon "Society and the Individual"; Professor Thomas Davidson, upon "The Need for Free-Thought Education"; Edmund Montgomery, upon "Monism in Modern Philosophy and the Agnostic Attitude of the Mind"; by Moncure D. Conway, upon "Unitarianism and its Grandchildren" and "Jephthah's Daughter at Honolulu"; and by Anne Olcott Crommelin, upon "Flowers and Poets." There are also an editorial department, correspondence, discussions, and book-notices.

With the aims of "The Open Court" we are in full sympathy. There can be no more worthy nor more important object than that of establishing a scientific basis for ethics and religion. The times are ripe for labor in that direction, and able, well-directed efforts thereto ought to be welcomed and encouraged in every way. We trust "The Open Court" will become a potent influence favoring the reduction to a scientific platform of the principles and precepts of these great departments of human interest.

We do not understand that the presentation of the "Monistic philosophy" is intended to make the successor of "The Index" an organ of any theory of knowledge or being; for, while philosophy is not to be disparaged, it is far better to stand firmly upon science, and thence reach outward and onward to philosophy with much caution. If the prime object of the journal is the scientific study of morals and religion, it is not likely to become conspicuously a vehicle for the expression of speculation, but will, as "The Index" used to do, make the practical work of improving men's lives and promoting the organic growth of society its chief end, quite irrespective of philosophical or metaphysical doctrine.

The Chemistry of the Sun. By J. Norman Lockyer, F. R. S. Illustrated. London: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 457. Price, $4.50.

The general problem of the chemical constitution of the sun's atmosphere, to which the author has given a large share of his attention for many years, is among the newest and freshest, as well as one of the grandest and most fascinating, questions which science has yet attempted to answer. Although astonishing progress has already been made in this field, considering the difficulties encountered, yet the work is so vast that the time of many observers must be devoted to it before it can be said to be more than begun. The first step in the direction of spectrum analysis was taken by Kepler, who, one hundred and fifty years before Newton, observed the decomposition of white light by the prism. Nothing further was done till Newton took up the subject, and by reasoning and experiment greatly enlarged our knowledge of it. Another period of a century and a half elapsed, and then Wollaston discovered that the spectrum of sunlight is divided into several portions by dark lines. In 1814 and the following years the first great advances in spectrum examination were made. Fraunhofer constructed a map of the solar spectrum, on which he marked no less than five hundred and seventy-six dark lines, and these have ever since been known as Fraunhofer lines. His attempts to account for the lines satisfied him that they were not due to any terrestrial cause, but that "they have their origin in the nature of the light of the sun." He introduced the use of the telescope for observing the beam of light after its passage through the prism. He also introduced the method of observing stellar spectra which is still employed, and he investigated the spectra of artificial light-sources. Sir David Brewster discovered that dark lines were produced in the spectrum when nitrous-acid gas was interposed between the prism and the source of light. Many of these lines seemed to him to be identical in position with some of the Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum, and he accordingly felt himself justified in announcing the discovery of nitrous-acid gas in the atmosphere of the sun. This was the first chemical touch in solar inquiry. He also stated his belief that all the Fraunhofer lines were due to some absorption at the sun. Foucault then discovered that the bright lines from a colored light had the same places as the dark absorption bands from the same source. In 1852 Professor Stokes first proposed an explanation of this phenomenon, and the same idea was published by Ångström in the following year. The famous discoveries of Kirchhoff and Bunsen began to appear in 1859. Among the earliest of these was that the absorber must be cooler than the radiator. Stokes had suggested that the presence of many terrestrial elements might be detected in the sun's atmosphere by a comparison of the spectra of these elements with the Fraunhofer lines, in the way that sodium had already been detected. Kirchhoff attacked this problem vigorously and obtained abundant results, finding nine terrestrial metals present in the solar atmosphere. Ångström and his collaborator, Thalèn, were occupied with similar inquiries.

About this time Mr. Lockyer's work on solar phenomena began. He applied to the examination of sun-spots and faculæ the device of throwing an image of the sun, or of any desired part of the sun, on the slit of the spectroscope. Up to 1866 it had been possible to examine the solar prominences only during eclipses. In that year Mr. Lockyer devised a method of observation which can be used at other times, making for the observer what have been called "artificial eclipses." It was the illumination of our air that interfered with such observations, and he abolished this interference by using several prisms in the spectroscope, which, by successive dispersions, so greatly enfeebled the continuous spectrum of the light diffused in the air, that the bright lines due to the prominences could be readily seen. Current investigations were being made on the basis of Kirchhoff's hypotheses, that the absorption which produced the Fraunhofer lines took place at some distance above the photosphere, the spots being solar clouds, and that the chemical elements present in the solar atmosphere were identical with some of those existing on the earth, and their spectra were identical. The observations of Mr. Lockyer and his collaborator, Dr. Frankland, soon led them to propose modifications in Kirchhoff's theory, for they showed that the dark lines increased both in width and number as the photosphere was approached. Moreover, the lines in the spectra of the various terrestrial elements were found not to coincide so perfectly with the Fraunhofer lines as had been believed. Certain lines were found in the spectra of two or more substances, and the same substance was found to have more than one spectrum. Difficulties multiplied. The sun had been regarded as a type of what our earth once was, but spectrum analysis apparently showed it to have a chemical constitution widely different from that of the earth's crust. Only one terrestrial substance classed as non-metallic (hydrogen) had been found on the sun, while no trace of elements so common on the earth as oxygen, silicon, and chlorine, could be discovered. It had been noted by Ångström that spectral lines vary their intensities with the temperature. This is the starting-point from which Mr. Lockyer develops his theory of the chemical constitution of the solar atmosphere. When a metallic compound vapor is dissociated by the electric spark, the character of its spectrum changes from channeled and banded to lined. The effect of increasing degrees of heat within the limits known on the earth is to reduce compound bodies to simple ones. Now, on the sun occur temperatures immeasurably greater than we are able to produce on the earth, and it occurred to Mr. Lockyer to ask if iron, for example, were subjected to the heat of the sun, whether it would exhibit the spectrum of iron, or the spectra of some simpler substances—the constituents of iron. Many facts relating to terrestrial, solar, and stellar spectra unite to convince him that in the reversing layer of the sun a high degree of celestial dissociation is at work, which prevents the coming together of the atoms which at all temperatures yet attained on earth compose the metals, metalloids, and compounds. He has applied many and various tests to this theory, but the results of all serve only to confirm his belief. The theory also seems to him to conform satisfactorily to the observed physical phenomena of the sun. Mr. Lockyer has stated his views, and detailed the investigations which led up to them, in a way that will command the attention and respect of scientists, even where he does not produce conviction. Moreover, his work and that of his predecessors has been described in so clear and interesting a style, that the general reader will be able to go through the book with pleasure and profit.

Mineral Physiology and Physiography. A Second Series of Chemical and Geological Essays, with a General Introduction. By Thomas Sterry Bunt, M. A., LL. D. (Cantab.). Boston: Samuel E. Cassino. Pp. 710.

The essays of which this volume is made up have been written in accordance with a predetermined plan that is now accomplished. The first and second are intended to serve as a general introduction, and to show the relations of the natural sciences to each other, and to that complex study known as geology.

The first essay is entitled "Nature in Thought and Language," and gives historical and philosophical reasons for the use of the term physiology in relation to the mineral kingdom. The second embodies a simple scheme for the classification of the natural sciences, by which the sciences of inorganic and those of organic nature are divided into a descriptive and a philosophical group. In writing the six succeeding essays it was the author's design to bring together in a concise form the facts and the reasonings from which are deduced what he regards as the principia of geogeny, geognosy, and mineralogy. The chemistry of the atmosphere, and the relations of the earth's aerial envelope both to outer space and to the gases condensed, and the waters precipitated on the surface of the globe, are set forth in the third and fourth essays, as a preliminary to the study of rock-masses. In the next three essays the genesis and the geognostic relations of the various crystalline rocks are considered; and finally the decay of these, which has determined their present surface-outlines, and has given rise to the materials of the uncrystalline sedimentary strata. In the fifth essay, Professor Hunt attempts to show the defects of the several other proposed explanations of the origin of the crystalline rocks, and sets forth his crenitic hypothesis, according to which they have been derived—for the most part indirectly and by aqueous solution—from a single primary plutonic mass. These and other related points are more fully discussed in the sixth essay.

A system of classification for the mineral species composing the earth's crust, which should consider their physical characters in connection with their chemical composition, and the mode of formation of mineral species, has seemed to the author for many years to be a desideratum. What he believes to be a natural classification of the native silicates is included in this volume, and is followed by an outline of the system as applied to all other native minerals. Regarding the silicates as a natural order, Professor Hunt divides them into three sub-orders: those without alumina, which he calls protosilicates; those with alumina and containing combined protoxides, protopersilicates; and those with alumina, but no protoxides, persilicates. These suborders are divided each into five tribes, according to distinctions of structure, hardness, and density. Each tribe is made up directly of species. The silicates are included in the same class with the oxidates, titanates, niobates, tantalates, tungstates, molybdates, chromates, vanadates, antimonates, arsenates, phosphates, nitrates, sulphates, borates, carbonates, and oxalates. This class is numbered II; Class I comprises the metallates; Class III, the haloidates; and Class IV, the pyricaustates, or combustible species. The author has in preparation a treatise on mineralogy which will be a complete presentation of this system.

The next essay deals with the geological history of pre-Cambrian rocks, both in North America and in Europe, and is mainly a condensation from the account given in the author's volume on "Azoic Rocks." Intimately connected with this subject is the history of serpentines, which is sketched in the following essay. The various opinions as to the geognostical relations of serpentines which have been held by different writers are shown, and the author's reasons for maintaining their aqueous origin are given. In the concluding essay, the question of the Taconic rocks is discussed at some length. The eleven essays which are collected in this volume are papers which have been presented to American and British learned societies, and have been published in their transactions and in scientific journals. Changes have been made occasionally in revision, but all additions of importance are inclosed in brackets.

Annual Report of the Chief Signal-Officer of the Army for the Year 1885. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Two vols. Pp. 609, 440.

The course of instruction pursued at Fort Meyer has been enlarged and otherwise improved, and now provides for theoretical and practical instruction in the duties required of the Signal Corps in time of war. Lectures by professors of meteorology have been provided for; and a course of instruction in military surveying, field-sketching, and topographical drawing has been added. A text-book of meteorology has been prepared by Professor William Ferrel, and forms the second part of the present report. Professor Cleveland Abbe has in preparation a treatise on the theory of instruments used in meteorology. Translations of papers on temperatures and storms by Ragone and Wild are appended; and translations have been made of important treatises on meteorology; and other translations, giving the most recent and trustworthy results, are in course of execution. The special indications for particular localities have been largely increased. Of the "general indications," from 82·6 to 87·3 per cent monthly were verified during the year; of the Pacific coast indications, from 76·7 to 92·3 per cent; of the cautionary offshore signals, 93·6 per cent for direction, and 85·3 per cent for velocity; of the cold-wave signals, 86·2 per cent. Four hundred and eighty-nine stations were in operation on the 30th of June, 1885.

The Fall of Maximilian's Empire as seen from a United States Gunboat. By Seaton Schroeder, Lieutenant U.S.N. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 130. Price, $1.

"A letter-book and a log-book," says the author, "are the foundation upon which the fabric of this narrative rests." Lieutenant Schroeder was attached to the United States Steamer Tacony, Commander Roe, which was dispatched to Mexican waters in 1867, "to protect American interests" in those regions while the people were ridding themselves of the French and their Austrian mock-emperor. He was, therefore, more or less a personal observer of the events that occurred from that time till the intruders were finally expelled, and Maximilian was executed; and of all those transactions in which foreign agents could participate. Besides what he saw himself and heard from his intercourse with the officers of the fleets of other nations stationed in the same regions,"a scrutiny of various executive documents, departmental files, and volumes of diplomatic correspondence, has elicited from those musty sources certain interesting matters not presented in any history connected with the closing scenes of Prince Maximilian's short reign in Mexico." The result of the whole is a modest, straight-forward narrative which is a contribution to history.

Agriculture in some of its Relations with Chemistry. By F. N. Storer. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Two vols. Pp. 529, 509.

This book, the author says, has been written in the interest of persons fond of rural affairs, and of students of agriculture. It makes no special appeal to chemists or to students of chemistry. It is based upon lectures, suggestive rather than encyclopedic, which have been delivered annually by the author at the Bussey Institution during the past sixteen years (1871-1887). These lectures, which have been many times altered and revised, were addressed to small classes of students of two distinct types—viz., young farmers, and sons of farmers, familiar with the manual practice of agricultural operations, who were desirous of studying some of the sciences which bear most immediately upon the art of farming; and city-bred men, often graduates of the academic department of the university, who intended to establish themselves upon farms, or to occupy country-seats, or to become landscape-gardeners. The lectures are upon a considerable range of subjects, which may, perhaps, be only partly covered by such headings as the relations of soil, air, water, and the plant; tillage; manures (including the chemical action of the soil, the special manures in their variety, animal and vegetable refuse, green manuring, vegetable mold, farm-yard manure, composts, night-soil, etc.); rotation of crops; action of fire on soils; irrigation; sewage; the disposing of farms; various crops; and pastures. To such inspection as we have been able to give them, the practical value of the lectures appears high as compared with most other works of the class.

A quarterly journal is to be started at an early date, to be entitled the "American Journal of Psychology," and to be under the editorial control of G. Stanley Hall, Ph. D., of Johns Hopkins University. It will attempt to gather up and present, in a compact, accessible form, the results of scientific psychological research which are of value and are now widely scattered, and even have sometimes to be looked for in other departments of science. It will contain original contributions of a scientific character, recording experiments and studies in all branches of the subject; papers of importance from other journals; and digests and reviews, in which attempts will be made to give a conspectus of the more important psychological literature of the three months preceding publication. Each number will contain from sixty to one hundred pages, and the subscription price will be $3 a year.

Talks with Socrates about Life. Translations from the Gorgias and the Republic of Plato. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 173. Price, $1.

The character of the dialogues from which these selections are taken is too well known to require any special notice here. The text is preceded by an introductory analysis of the purpose of the "Talks" and accounts of the interlocutors, and is followed by annotations. The conversation is described as relating to the perpetual controversy between the material and the ideal, and concerning the real original existence of the moral law.

United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Report of the Commissioner for 1884. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 1204.

Besides its usual routine work, the commission directed a number of special undertakings, all of which are fully described in the report and the accompanying papers. Among them were the prosecution of the work on the pier, buildings, etc., at Wood's Holl; the construction of oyster-ponds at Wood's Holl and St. Jerome, and the investigation of the oyster-beds of Chesapeake Bay; the trip of the Albatross to the Caribbean Sea; the investigation of the Florida shad-fisheries, and the examination of the oyster-beds in Long Island Sound; the investigation of the fish-epidemic in Wisconsin lakes; the collection of specimens of cetaceans; the occupation of stations at Fort Washington on the Potomac, and at Weldon, North Carolina; efforts to hatch the codfish at Wood's Holl; the planting of lobsters in Chesapeake Bay; and the importation of the blue carp and of the European trout. The Appendix, which forms most of the volume, and is devoted to special papers and reports in full, contains the reports of steamers (the Albatross and FishHawk) and stations; fifteen papers of a general or statistical character on the fisheries of this country and Northern Europe; five papers on fish-culture, including a long one, by Carl Nicklas, on pond-culture; a series of statements from persons immediately engaged on some results of carp-culture in the United States; and papers on oyster-culture; five papers detailing scientific investigation; a statement by G. Brown Goode, of the status of the commission in 1884, etc.

Recent Advances in Meteorology. By William Ferrel. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 440.

This hand-book constitutes the second volume of the report of the Signal Service for 1885. It aims to present the principles of meteorological science and their applications as they have been developed up to this time, for the use of students, and especially for the purposes of a text-book to be used in the Signal-Service school of instruction at Fort Meyer, Virginia. The effort has been made to select, from the material on hand, that which bears most usefully upon practical meteorology. The mass of matter was, however, found to be too large to be compressed into a volume of the size this was intended to be, and selection was necessary. Plain clews are, nevertheless, given to all facts and observations not directly discussed in the book, by references to the works and papers in which they are treated of. Many researches and problems are subjected to mathematical treatment; and an important feature of the work is found in the formulæ and tables which are so frequently needed in meteorological computations and discussions of observations, with examples for their application.


Analyses and Commercial Values of Commercial Fertilizers and Chemicals. Atlanta, Ga. Pp. 13.

Nelson, N. O. Profit-Sharing. St. Louis, Mo. Pp. 40.

The Annual Index to Periodicals for 1886. London: Trubner & Co. Pp. 27.

Annual Report of the California State Mineralogist for 1836. Two vols. Sacramento, Cal. Pp. 141 and 222.

Report of the Alabama Weather Service. Auburn, Ala. Pp. 7.

Report of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station for 1886. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor. Pp. 168.

Report of the Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. Boston: Wright & Potter Printing Company. Pp. 136.

Putnam, Samuel P. The New God. New York: Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 31.

Brinton, Daniel G. . M. D. . Philadelphia. Critical Remarks on the Editions of Diego de Landa's Writings. Pp. 8.

The Truth-Seeker Annual, 1887. New York: Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 114

Report of the Ladies' Health Protective Association of New York. Pp. 15.

Report of the New York Skin and Cancer Hospital for 1886 and 1887. Pp. 24 and 28.

True, Frederick W., Washington. A New Study of the Genus Dipodomys. Pp. 5.

Tourtellot, L. A., M.D., Utica, N. Y. On Lunacy Reform in New York. Pp. 15.

Keyser, John H., 115 Beekman Street, New York. How to break Monopoly. Pp. 32.

Chapin. Henry Dwight, M.D., New York. Peripheral Neuritis and the Painful Paralyses of Early Life. Pp. 15.

Stuart, Frank R., Denver, Colo. Natural Rights, Natural Liberty, and Natural Law. Pp. 37.

United States Bureau of Education. Proceedings of Department of Superintendence, February, 1886. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 169.

Gould, B. A.. Cambridge, Mass. "The Astronomical Journal." Semi-monthly. Pp. 8. $5 a volume.

Sanders, Christ. B., Houston, Texas. The Physical Nature of the Earth and a New Philosophy of Light. Pp. 8.

Galton, Francis. A Descriptive List of Anthropometric Apparatus. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company. Pp. 11.

Yandell, David W.. M.D. Doctorate Address delivered at the Semi-Centennial Anniversary of the University of Louisville (Medical Department). Pp. 26.

Pearson, N. K. Our Common Cause. Omaha, Nebr. Pp. 148. 50 cents.

Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club. T. J. MacLaughlin, Treasurer, Ottawa, Cana. Transactions No. 7. Pp. 96.

Stowell. T. B., Ph.D. The Facial Nerve of the Domestic Cat Pp. 19.

Martin, H. Newell, and Brooks, W. K. Studies from the Biological Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, February, 1887. Baltimore: J. N. Murray. Pp. 24. 50 cents.

Foster, Michael. "The Journal of Physiology." Vol. VIII. No. 1. Cambridge, England. Pp. 43, with Plates. $5 a volume.

Dakota. Official Bulletin of the Commissioner of Immigration. January, 1887. Bismarck. Pp. 24.

Warren, Joseph H and Charles Everett, Boston. "Modern Life." Bi-weekly. Pp. 16. "Technics." Bi-weekly. Pp. 16. 10 cents each.

Comstock, Theodore B., Champaign. Ill. Oil and Natural Gas in Illinois. Pp. 16.

Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin for March. 1887. Pp. 12.

Spencer, Herbert. The Factors of Organic Evolution. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 76.

Rawlinson, George, and Gilman. Arthur. The Story of Ancient Egypt. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 408. $1.50.

Dos Passos, John R. The Interstate Commerce Act. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 125. $1.35.

Watson. John. Watson's Phonographic Instructor. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 144. $2.

Chamberlain. Basil Hail, and Batchelor, John. The Language, Mythology, and Geographical Nomenclature of Japan, viewed in tho Light of Aino Studies; including an Aino Grammar. Tokio. Japan: Imperial University. Pp. 174.

Ricker, George Hodgdon. Elements of English. Chicago: Tho Interstate Publishing Company. Pp. 100. 80 cents.

Gates, Charles O. Latin Word Building. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 160. 98 cents.

Reporter, Try-Square, or the Church of Practical Religion. New York: The Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 314. $1.

Marshall, A. Miles, and Hurst. H. C. A Junior Course of Practical Zoölogy. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 440.

Storer, F. H. Agriculture in some of its Relations with Chemistry. Two vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 519 and 509. $5.

Carroll, Lewis. The Game of Logic. New York: Macmillan &, Co. Pp. 96. $1.

Fyffe, C. A. A History of Modern Europe. Vol. II. New York: Henry Holt & Co. Pp. 513. $2.50.

Riley, Charles V. United States Entomological Report. Fourth edition. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 399.

Mendenhall. T. C. A Century of Electricity. New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 229. $1.25.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. History of the Pacific States. Vol. XXVII. British Columbia. San Francisco: The History Company. Pp. 792.

Ballou, Maturin M. Due North, or Glimpses of Scandinavia and Russia. Boston: Ticknor & Co. Pp. 373.

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