Popular Science Monthly/Volume 42/April 1893/Literary Notices


The Life of Joshua R. Giddings. By George W. Julian. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. Pp. 473. Price, $2.50.

Hardly anything can strike the student of history more impressively than the realizing sense which he gains on reading the story of one of the old heroes of the antislavery controversy, such as Mr. Giddings was, of the utter unlikeness of the conditions of the present time in this country and the questions with which it is now occupied, to those which prevailed before the war, within the active memory of men still in the vigor of life. The review furnishes an astounding revelation of the extent to which we have made history within a generation, and of the completeness of the overthrow that has overtaken a force that was once autocratic in its dominance. Mr. Giddings entered the national House of Representatives in December, 1838, and served there continuously till March 4, 1859. When his service began, the "twenty-first (or 'gag') rule," which forbade the discussion of slavery in the House, and under which the hearing of petitions against it was refused, had been in force two years, and John Quincy Adams was beginning the war against it which he pursued to ultimate victory. Mr. Giddings's attention had only been directed to the national importance of the slavery question in the previous year, and he and Mr. Wade, his law partner, afterward famous in the Senate, had joined in the formation of an antislavery society of four members. In the House of Representatives, John Quincy Adams and William Slade, of Vermont, were the two members whose views on slavery were in harmony with his. After their retirement, Mr. Giddings for a time stood alone. He early perceived the shape which the question was destined to assume, and made it his mission, as Mr. Julian remarks, "to watch the encroachments of slavery upon the rights of the people of the free States, and to hold the slave masters strictly to their own avowed principle, that the existence and continuance of slavery depended solely on the authority of the States in which it existed. Wherever he saw this principle violated, he felt it to be his duty to lift up his voice in its defense." Recognizing the constitutional guarantees, while he construed them with the utmost strictness, he never suggested interference within the sphere of State jurisdiction. He began his "defense," during his first session, with an attack on the slave trade in the District of Columbia. The direct consideration of the subject being forbidden, a bill making an appropriation for building a bridge across the Potomac, and sundry memorials against antislavery petitions, furnished the occasion for his argument; and no opportunity was neglected afterward to press the forbidden sentiments upon the attention of the legislators. He was "cut" in society; attempts were made to engage him in quarrels; he was threatened with bodily violence; and he bore all bravely and with dignity. A resolution of censure was passed against him without his being given an opportunity to define his position. He resigned at once, went back to his constituents, and was triumphantly re-elected, to return with a new commission to deliver his message more earnestly and bravely than before. At last he missed a renomination—not too soon, Mr. Julian thinks, as he surveys the record in the light of history—and was succeeded by another, with principles like his own. The dominating fact in his life was moral earnestness, which was the master key to his character, inspired and invigorated all his faculties, and assured him the confidence of his constituents. In Mr. Julian, his son-in-law, and a Congressman who also participated for many years in the antislavery controversy, he has found a most competent and appreciative biographer. Experience since the war has shown that our country is threatened by other evils, hardly less aggressive and arrogant than the one which Mr. Giddings fought; but resistance against them, under all discouragements, can not be more hopeless than his contention seemed during most of the time he was making it. The final triumph of the cause he advocated, over apparently insurmountable obstacles, makes appear more practicable the contention of those who are warring upon the abuses and tyrannies of the present.

Psychology. By William James. New York: Henry Holt & Co. (American Science Series, briefer course). Pp. 478.

The author's chief aim in preparing this abridgment of his larger work on the Principles of Psychology has been to make it more directly available for class-room use. For that purpose he has omitted several chapters and rewritten others; has left out the polemical and historical matter, the metaphysical allusions and purely speculative passages, the book references, and most of the quotations of the larger work; and has added brief chapters on the various senses. By these changes he believes that his presentation of the subject as a "natural science" has gained in clearness by its extrication from so much critical matter and its more simple and dogmatic statement. His definition of psychology is "the description and explanation of states of consciousness as such." As a natural science it, in common with the other natural sciences and in spite of the fact that further reflection leads to idealism, assumes that a world of matter exists altogether independently of the perceiving mind. Besides this it assumes additional data peculiarly its own, and leaves it to more developed parts of philosophy to test their ulterior significance and truth. These data are thoughts and feelings, or transitory states of consciousness, and knowledge, by these states of consciousness, of other things. Mental facts can not be properly studied apart from the physical environment of which they take cognizance. Mind and world have been evolved together, and in consequence are something of a mutual fit. The special interactions between the outer order and the order of consciousness, by which this harmony has been brought about, have been the subject of evolutionary speculations, which, though they can not so far be said to be conclusive, have refreshed and enriched the subject, and brought all sorts of new questions to the light. The conception that the immediate condition of a state of consciousness is an activity of some sort in the cerebral hemispheres, which underlies the physiological psychology of recent years, is the working hypothesis of this book. After the chapters on the senses, structure and function of the brain, and general conditions of neural activity, the subjects of habit, the stream of consciousness, the self, attention, conception, association, the sense of time, memory, imagination, perception, the perception of space, reasoning, emotion, instinct, will, and psychology and philosophy are discussed; and the conclusion is reached that psychology does not yet stand on solid ground, but is waiting for its Galileo and Lavoisier.

Abraham Lincoln. The True Story of a Great Life. By William H. Herndon and Jesse W. Weik, with an Introduction by Horace White. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Two vols. Pp. 331 and 348. Price, $3.

Mr. Herndon's theory of a biography is that it should tell the whole truth; not give prominence to certain traits or events which flatter a little or brighten the glory of the subject, and withhold others which may have been equally potent in determining the character and fortunes because they are of a darker nature, and may infuse a little unpleasantness into the picture; but to give both sides, and to each incident, whether pleasant or unpleasant, its due prominence, according to the magnitude of its effect on the life as a whole. To him the biographies in the Bible are models, in which none of the faults and offenses of those who are otherwise held up as noble characters are extenuated, but each is related in all its enormity. Mr. Herndon was the life-long intimate friend of Mr. Lincoln and his law partner for many years. He regarded him with a genuine, enthusiastic, personal admiration. He contemplated the book for twenty years, but not being a literary man made little progress in composing it till he put it into the hands of Mr. Weik, whose habits and training were favorable to its successful execution. His purpose is to deal with Mr. Lincoln individually and domestically—as a lawyer, as citizen, and as statesman. Especial attention is given to the history of his youth and early manhood; and in this to give some things that other biographies do not have. "The endeavor is to keep Lincoln in sight all the time; to cling close to his side all the way through—leaving to others the more comprehensive task of writing a history of his times. I have no theory of his life to establish or destroy. Mr. Lincoln was my warm, devoted friend. I always loved him, and I revere his name to this day. My purpose to tell the truth need occasion no apprehension, for I know that 'God's naked truth,' as Carlyle puts it, can never injure the fame of Abraham Lincoln. It will stand that or any other test, and at last untarnished will reach the loftiest niche in American history." Of Mr. Herndon's fitness for this task, Mr. Horace White says, in the introduction which he contributes: "What Mr. Lincoln was after he became President, can be best understood by knowing what he was before. The world owes more to William H. Herndon for this particular knowledge than to all other persons put together. It is no exaggeration to say that his death, which took place at his farm near Springfield, Ill., March 18, 1891, removed from earth the person who of all others had most thoroughly searched the sources of Mr. Lincoln's biography, and had most intelligently and also lovingly studied his character. He was generous in imparting his information to others. Almost every life of Lincoln published since the tragedy at Ford's Theatre has been enriched by his labors. He was nine years the junior of Mr. Lincoln. Their partnership began in 1843, and it continued until it was dissolved by the death of the senior member. Between them there was never an unkind word or thought." Mr. Weik, the co-author, was for several years indefatigable in exploring by personal investigation the course of Lincoln's life, never satisfied with taking anything at second hand, but following everything up to its source. Mr. Horace White has enriched the book by contributing personal recollections of his association with Mr. Lincoln during the debates with Douglas—by which Mr. Lincoln's fame was established.

How Shall my Child be Taught? pp. 276. The Spirit of the New Education. Pp. 282. By Louisa P. Hopkins. Boston: Lee & Shepard.

The material of these volumes consists of various papers and addresses written by a supervisor of the Boston public schools. They are not merely theoretical, but embody the results of a fruitful experience in primary teaching and in the training of teachers. Altogether they present a plea for the natural method of education, which, although the oldest form of instruction, is now called "new," as opposed to the prevailing mode of memorizing from text-books. No better comment can be made on this reform in teaching than that of Colonel Higginson: "The difference between a natural and an arbitrary method of acquiring knowledge is simply the difference between rowing with the current or against it." The desire of the child sent to school is generally to observe, to question, and to construct. He is for the most part taught to look only at his books, to be quiet, and to make nothing. It is in the primary and preparatory schools that learning by rote still flourishes. At the beginning and end of our educational system we have given up artificial culture; we have object lessons in the kindergarten, the laboratory, and lecture in the university. Meanwhile, manual and industrial training act as wedges for the introduction of freedom in the intermediate schools.

The new method is not only the better way to educate, it also helps to mold character. The object of education is even more important than the form. The way in which the school thrusts aside responsibility for moral development is exemplified in the boy who "could lie, steal, and swear unchecked, but, if he chewed gum in school, got an awful thrashing." Here the method of teaching is morally operative. If the child's activities are not repressed, but directed toward some absorbing work, there will be little occasion for misconduct. In any case, petty discipline defeats itself and corporal punishment is the resource of the teacher who has failed.

How shall my Child be taught contains discourses upon primary teaching, an account of a year's experiment in training, parables on Nature and life, and oral lessons in arithmetic and science. In illustrating mental action there is an astonishing note to teachers. The author directs that the distinction between mind and brain shall be fully shown by citing cases of unconscious cerebration: "They will then know that the mind is quite distinct from the brain, and the soul can live without this body"!

In The New Education there are practical papers upon physical and manual training, the moral problem, Froebel's theories, the school curriculum, elementary science, character and school education, citizenship, and industrial reform. More speculative are those upon the education of the soul, our divine relationships, and woman as an educator. From the latter we learn that "woman is provided with sensitive, man with muscular tissue," and also that "woman looks into the mystical unseen." Possibly this does not include clairvoyance or spirit-rapping, but is only a poetical phrase for some indefinable power contingent upon the finer feminine structure.

The Nationalization of Health. By Havelock Ellis. London: T. Fisher Unwin. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 244. Price, $1.25.

The author pleads in this book that the primary conditions of health should be recognized as of first importance to the community; and he regards it as a blot on modern civilization, setting it in an unfavorable light as compared with such civilizations as the Roman and Moorish, that they are so neglected, as the chief element of rottenness in it. "We postpone," he says, "laying the foundations of our social structure in order to elaborate its pinnacles. We are acquainted with all possible openings for commerce through the world; we have explored the psychological ramifications of sentiment; and we do not know the course of the main sewers in our city, and we pollute the sources of the water we drink. We have not yet learned that a great civilization is all built upon the bodies of men and women enfeebled and distorted by overwork, filth, and disease." The present is regarded as a peculiarly favorable time for taking in hand seriously the organization and socialization of the elementary conditions of health, on account of the public and official attention that has been given to the matter in recent years. We also possess to-day, the author affirms, a closer grip of the conditions of health than has ever been possible before, and are better able to unravel their complexity and to show clearly what a man should do who would live a healthy life. "The key-word of our modern methods is not cure but prevention, and while this task is more complex it is also far easier. It is to a gigantic system of healthy living by a perpetual avoidance of the very beginnings of evil that our medical science is now leading us." The present condition of the new movement for the prevention of disease, here referred to, is sketched; then the present position of the more ancient system of the treatment of disease—by the medium of friendly societies, in private practice, in hospitals, and infirmaries, with respect to special classes of disease; the registration of disease; and industries as related to health are discussed; the evils of the laissez-faire system are exposed, as illustrated now in Russia; and the conclusion is reached that the maintenance of the conditions of health is not a merely national question, but calls for international co-operation and action. The recognition of this fact is already seen in the holding of International Congresses of Hygiene, which have done much to consolidate, unify, and stimulate the various movements connected with public health.

The Great Enigma. By William Samuel Lilly. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 334. Price, $4.

Mr. Lilly may always be trusted to present the broadest comprehension and ablest exposition of the Roman Catholic view of controverted questions. The present work, which is composed chiefly of articles already published in leading English reviews, where they have been read widely and appreciated, is an inquiry, supposed by the author to be from the point of view of a class of readers "practically outside the Christian pale," into the tenableness of the religion "which for more than a thousand years has supplied the foremost nations of the world with an answer to the great enigma of human existence." It presents, in aid of the solution of that question, certain considerations which have been helpful to Mr. Lilly, with special reference to the religious difficulties peculiar to these times. "Possibly they may be of use to some who find themselves unable to employ the old theological symbols." In the first article, or chapter, which is entitled The Twilight of the Gods, the present conditions of religious doubt are described; it is assumed, for the purpose of the argument, that the solution of the enigma presented by theistic belief, and especially by Christianity, is discredited; and the intention is announced to consider the other solutions offered in their theoretical and practical aspects, and to inquire whether Theism in general, and the Christian religion in particular, are so utterly untenable as is very generally contended. The two answers, besides Theism, to the great enigma are atheism and agnosticism. Atheism is described as teaching that the answer to the great enigma is not moral but material; that faith in the Divine must be put aside as a senseless and servile superstition; that the rule of right and wrong is to be found in self-interest; that ethics is only a regulation of police; that physical fatality must be acquiesced in; and as holding out the practice of a "brutal egoism." Of that kind of agnosticism which is merely critical and negative, and is content with professing nescience of God, M. Renan's career and writings are held up as a type. His criticism, after examination, is pronounced inadequate to support the vast edifice of doubt which he reared upon it. The other kind of agnosticism, scientific or affirmative, which asserts the existence of God but denies that he can be known, is considered best represented by the philosophy of Herbert Spencer—"Mr. Spencer's portentous generalities." This is examined in detail, criticised unsparingly, and is declared to leave the mystery of "the immeasurable world" precisely where it found it. The inquiry is next made whether Theism is, in fact, so hopelessly discredited as is frequently and confidently alleged. Mysticism, or the doctrine of the inner light, is then examined in the four chief systems—Hindu, Greek, Moslem, and Christian—in which it has been clothed, and the conclusion is reached that while, in the more vulgar manifestations of religion, it may assume most unlovely forms, it is still there, "potent in its divine virtue to slake the thirst of human nature for a great good transcending sense." Finally, the claims of the Christian synthesis are considered, with the conclusion that, "while no one pretends that Christianity offers us a complete explanation of the scheme of things, there is no more reason in the nineteenth century than there was in the first why its message should not be received by cultivated and intelligent men, who feel their need of it, and who will carefully and candidly examine its claims for themselves." We think Mr. Lilly has failed to appreciate the importance of the contributions which Mr. Spencer and the exponents of scientific inquiry into the questions he discusses have made to a clearer understanding of the subject. By enlarging the sources of knowledge and broadening the lines of thought, they have made it possible to regard the questions from different sides, and thereby to take more comprehensive views of them; by more plainly defining the essential points, they have enabled us to discern them unencumbered by minor features and the rubbish which tradition and superstition have heaped around them; and by presenting them distinct, in strong light, they have enabled us to apprehend them undisturbed by the perplexing excrescences which made conception of them difficult and embarrassed faith; and have thus augmented rather than diminished respect for the fundamental principles of Christianity and their hold upon candid minds.

Metal Coloring and Bronzing. By Arthur H. Hiorns. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 336. Price, $1.

It is surprising to find that the Japanese still surpass us in artistic metal coloring, notwithstanding our chemical knowledge of alloys. This is acknowledged to be the case by the author of this volume, who asserts that even "the bloom of fruit is faithfully reproduced" by them, and inharmonious coloring is unknown in their work.

Some advance, however, may be expected among us now, as we begin to realize that metal is beautiful when finished as metal, and not when perverted to an imitation of wood or glass.

This book is the result of experiments in bronzing which have been most carefully conducted. Many old recipes have been tested, as well as methods now commonly used in France. The first part of the work is devoted to the chemical and general relations of the subject; the preliminary treatment of metals follows; and the three remaining sections contain chemical metal coloring, electrochemical processes, and mechanical metal coloring. Some remedies to be used in case of accident and suggestions for preventing ill effects are given, and an index is appended. The text is concise and clear, and the book can not fail to be of use to those interested in the art of bronzing, or to students of metallurgy.

A History of Modern Philosophy, from the Renascence to the Present. By H. C. Burt. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. Two volumes. Pp. 368 and 321. Price, $4.

This work aims to present in considerable fullness, yet with suitable brevity, the principal content of the leading systems and partial systems of philosophy in modern times, together with a reasonable amount of information regarding philosophical authors and works. It aims to show, in a general way at least, the historical connections of systems, or to exhibit the historical continuity of modern philosophical thought, and further, to furnish materials and stimulus to the student for the study of the higher genesis and final values of ideas and systems. Modern philosophy, according to the author's definition, as distinguished from mediæval philosophy, is occupied with the immanent and concrete rather than the transcendent and abstract; with the natural and the human rather than with the unnatural and the superhuman. As distinguished from ancient philosophy, it is occupied with the subject rather than with the object; with thought, rather than with being. It may be divided into three great periods, of which the first was one predominantly of reception and appropriation—though with considerable self-assertion as against mediævalism; the second, a period of original effort, very largely destructive or negative—toward previous philosophy as well as toward the object of thought generally; and the third as a period of equal originality and more constructive or synthetic effort. Psychologically speaking, those periods are periods of sense (receptive), understanding (analytic), and reason (synthetic); logically they are regarded as periods of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. Their dates are from the middle of the fifteenth to the beginning of the seventeenth century, thence to the third quarter of the eighteenth century, and thence down to the present. An apparently disproportionate amount of space is given to certain recent systems, because they have not as yet become commonly known through other histories of philosophy. Closing with a brief glance at American philosophy, the author finds that the study of the science has been more seriously undertaken than ever before in our higher institutions—for its own sake and independently of theological influences; and that it seems safe to predict a vigorous future for it here.

The Beauties of Nature. By Sir John Lubbock. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 429. Price, $1.50.

Such lovers of Nature as Thoreau, Ruskin, and the poets give us exquisite pictures of her varied moods and phases; but men of science vie with them in their enthusiasm and even in charm of expression. Throughout this volume are found many fine descriptions of natural scenery culled from various sources, and most vivid and glowing of all are those of the naturalists. For the introduction, the author has prepared a calendar of the special charms of each month, and encourages us to closer observation by premising that the lover of Nature is always young and can never be dull! None can gainsay his claim that science has given us a greater possibility of enjoyment in revealing two new worlds of beauty—the infinitely great and the infinitely little.

Animal life offers many problems for our study—the extremes of temperature at which animals can exist, their metamorphoses, modifications of growth, mimetic coloring, and modes of communication. Not only do many animals possess in a more acute degree the senses known to us, but it is possible that they also have others of which we can form no conception. It has been proved that the ultra-violet rays which are invisible to us are perceived by some of the lower species, while others have organs richly endowed with nerves indicative of uses wholly unlike those of man. Curious questions arise in considering the development of gnats and the reproduction of zoöphytes and infusoria. We can no longer define individuality with them, and some species are theoretically immortal.

Among plants it is found that the reasons for their variation are more wonderful than the old myths invented to explain them. The woods and fields are full of mysteries. Trees, like human beings, may have chosen associates; the larch and arolla grow together in Siberia and in the Swiss valleys. Some species have their familiar parasites, others find food purveyors in certain fungi. The ruthless destruction of forests has occasionally involved that of nations, while the planting of pines has brought prosperity to barren lands. The subsidence and shriveling of the earth's crust result in mountain ridges; the lofty cones of volcanoes, however, are formed from accumulations of lava, and the causes of eruption are local. Rivers are older than mountains; to trace their origin involves a study of geological changes and the folding of the strata. When the slope is acute, they widen their valleys through the rocks; with a slight fall they may run upon an elevated bed of their own sediment. While the land undergoes constant change, the sea remains the same for us, and contains all manner of strange creatures—enormous cuttlefish, and medusæ which color leagues of ocean. The fauna of the depths differ entirely from those of the surface, and species which are found in both situations undergo modifications in the great abyss. Some possess luminous organs, in others the eyes are absent.

Science has given to us a fuller idea of the immensity and beauty of the starry heavens. Not only have our own planetary relations been unfolded to us, but innumerable systems have been made visible. The distant stars shine upon us through the telescope with multicolored light, and by their spectra we detect their movements and chemical constitution.

So, through this pleasant and instructive discourse on "the wonders of the world we live in," does Sir John Lubbock fully persuade us that science is a fairy godmother with untold treasures at her command.

Mr. David T. Day's Report on the Mineral Resources of the United States for 1889 and 1891, its contributors having been nearly all engaged in preparing the volume on the mineral industries for the eleventh census, contains substantially the statistics of the Census Office. A few minor exceptions consist of the cases in which the mineral report for the Census Office did not consider certain industries which are usually included in the reports of this series. The statistical tables of former years have been carried forward. The scope of the present volume has been lessened slightly in the effort to include more complete and accurate statistics from all producers in the subjects of coal, iron ores, and other important products. The total product indicated for 1890 was $654,604,698, an increase far beyond the total of any previous year.

Chemists and sanitarians will find in The Coal-tar Colors, with Especial Reference to their Injurious Qualities, by Theodore Weyl (Blakiston, $1.50), definite information as to how far these substances are poisonous. The book tells what colors have been found to injure the health of workmen employed in making them, what regulations concerning the use of poisonous colors have been made in Europe, what results have been obtained from experiments with various colors on animals, and other related facts. The essay was translated by Dr. Henry Leffmann.

Dr. Franklin H. Martin has prepared for medical students and practitioners a treatise on Electricity in Diseases of Women and Obstetrics (Keener). It embraces a statement of the general principles of electricity, fully illustrated descriptions of electrical apparatus designed for the physician's use, and accounts of the author's mode of using electricity in his specialty, with notes of cases. The volume contains seventy-nine illustrations and has an alphabetical index.

The treatise on Rectal and Anal Surgery, by Edmund and Edward W. Andrews (Keener), which has now reached its third edition, has the two objects of instructing physicians in its special subject, and of exposing the methods of a class of itinerant pile-curers that has flourished in the West. In the new edition nearly every part of the work has been rewritten and enlarged, a compact formulary has been added, and other additions have been made. The volume contains fifty-three illustrations.

In a well-written little volume entitled Fermentation, Infection, and Immunity, Dr. J. W. McLaughlin, of Austin, Texas, reviews the chief known facts concerning these subjects, and advances a new theory to account for them. His book is based upon partial statements of his theory in medical journals, which have received encouraging attention, and will doubtless prove of interest to biologists.

There is in Chicago an organization known as the Sunset Club, which holds meetings fortnightly for the discussion of social topics. Some of the addresses prepared for these discussions are printed in a volume with the title Echoes of the Sunset Club. The subjects treated are such as freedom of the press, subsidies and the tariff, the Sunday question, pensions, money and its functions, nationalism, anarchy, etc. Something of the customs and success of the club is told in a few preliminary pages. Those wishing to know if the book is on sale should address the secretary, at 154 Lake Street.

Under the title Where is my Dog? the Rev. Charles J. Adams presents a plea for belief in the immortality of the lower animals. His argument is briefly that because animals possess so much intelligence and morality as they frequently exhibit, they "ought" to be rewarded by immortality. Their masters, too, "ought" to be allowed to meet their lowly friends in another world. (Fowler & Wells Co., $1.)


Anderson, Winslow. Mineral Springs and Health Resorts of California. San Francisco: The Bancroft Co. Pp. 384.

Barber, E. A.. Westchester, Pa. List of Papers, Pamphlets, and Books. Pp. 8.

Boies, Henry M. Prisoners and Paupers. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 318. $1.50.

Bonney, G. E. Electrical Experiments. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp.252. 75 cents.

Bottome, S. R. How to manage the Dynamo. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 63. 60 cents.

Booth, Charles. Life and Labor of the London People. Volumes I and III. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 300 each. $1.50 per vol.

Bowker, William H. Relation of Fishes to Agriculture. Boston: Wright and Potter Printing Co. Pp. 29.

Bulletin from the Laboratories of Natural History, State University of Iowa. Volume H. No. 3. Iowa City. Pp. 98. 35 cents.

Campbell, H. J. Text-book of Elementary Biology. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 234. $1.60.

Chicago Daily News Almanac for 1893. Pp. 424. 25 cents.

Childs, G. W. Public Ledger Almanac for 1893. Pp.77.

Clarke, Isaac Edwards. Industrial and Manual Training in Public Schools. Washington: Bureau of Education. Pp. 1338.

Commonwealth, The. A Weekly Magazine of Sociology. New York. Commonwealth Co. $1 a year.

De Beye, Baron J. Industrial Arts of the Anglo-Saxons. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 135. With Plates. $7.

Densmore, Emmett. How Nature cures. New York: Stillman & Co. Pp. 413.

Densmore, Helen. The Mavbrick Case. New York. Stillman & Co. Pp. 118. 25 cents.

Dodell, Arnold. Moses or Darwin? New York: Commonwealth Co. Pp. 326.

Dreyspring, A. The Cumulative Method French Reader. New York: American Book Company. Pp. 171. 75 cents.

Duffy, Terence. From Darkness to Light. San Francisco: The Author. Pp. 280.

Employer and Employed. Boston: Quarterly. Pp. 16. 40 cents a year.

Engle Sanitary and Cremation Company. New York. Pp. 32.

Errors in School Books. Boston: Albert A. Pope. Pp. 24.

Evans, Elizabeth E. A History of Religions. New York: Commonwealth Co. Pp. 128.

Evermann, Benton W. Description of a New Sucker. Washington: Government Printing Office. Pp.6.

Fewkes, J. Walter. Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology. Volume III. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 144.

Foster, Michael, M. D.. and others, Editors. The Journal of Physiology. Volume XIV, No. 1. Cambridge, Eng. Pp. 130.

Gould, George M. The Antiseptic Dropper. Pp. 2.—A Case of Homatropine Susceptibility.—P. 1—Amblyopiatrics. Pp. 15. Reprints.

Gray, Andrew. Absolute Measurement in Electricity and Magnetism. New York: Macmillan & Co. Two Volumes. Pp. 868. $6.25.

Griswold, W. M. The Reader. Weekly. Cambridge, Mass. Pp. 12. 50 cents a year.

Hasty, E. E. What is Christianity? Richards, Lucas County, Ohio. Pp. 16. 2 cents.

Herrick, C. L. Mammals of Minnesota. Minneapolis. Pp. 299.

Hodges, C. F. Microscopical Study of Changes in Nerve Cells. Boston: Ginn & Co. Pp. 168. Reprint.

Holt, Thomas M. Biennial Message to the General Assembly of North Carolina. Raleigh: Pp. 68.

Jessopp, Augustus. Studies of a Recluse. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 281. $2.50.

Jones, G. W. Logarithmic Tables. Ithaca, N. Y. Pp. 16.

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Volume XIX, No 8. New York. Pp. 70.

Journal of the United States Artillery. Fort Monroe, Va. Volume H, No. 1. Pp. 176.

Keeler, Charles A. Evolution of the Colors of Birds. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences. Pp. 361. With 19 Colored Plates. $5.

Keen, W. W. Umbilical Hernia, etc. Pp. 13. Reprint.

Kuh, Edwin J. Is Medicine a Science? Pp. 8. Reprint.

Kunz, G. F. Meteoritenstndien (Studies of Meteorites). Pp. 11. With Plates.—Brookite, Octahedite, Quartz, and Ruby. Pp. 2.—Farmington (Kansas) Aerolite. Pp. 3.—Fine New American Aerolites. Pp. 12.—On Two Meteoric Irons. Pp. 4.—Bohemian Garnets. Pp. 8.—Precious Stones. Pp. 9. Reprints.

Macfarlane, J. Muirhead. Minute Structure of Plant Hybrids. London: Williams & Norgate. Pp. 80. With 8 Plates.

Maryland Hospital for the Insane, Report for 1892. Baltimore. Pp. 88.

Miles, Manly. Heredity of Acquired Characters. Pp. 10. Reprint.

Monroe, Will S. Comenius Pp. 7. Reprint.

Motherhood. Monthly. February, 1893. Pp. 68. $1 a year.

Nason. Frank L. Iron Ores of Missouri. Jefferson City, Mo. (State Geological Survey). Pp. 366. With Map.