CABIROLLE, in charge of the stages of Minoret-Levrault, postmaster of Nemours. Probably a widower, with one son. About 1837, a sexagenarian, he married Antoinette Patris, called La Bougival, who was over fifty, but whose income amounted to twelve hundred francs. (Ursule Mirouet)

CABIROLLE, son of the preceding. In 1830 he was Dr. Minoret's coachman at Nemours. Later he was coachman for Savinien de Portenduere, after the vicomte's marriage with Ursule Mirouet. (Ursule Mirouet)

CABIROLLE (Madame), wife of Cabirolle senior. Born Antoinette Patris in 1786, of a poor family of La Bresse. Widow of a workman named Pierre alias Bougival; she was usually designated by the latter name. After having been Ursule Mirouet's nurse, she became Dr. Minoret's servant, marrying Cabirolle about 1837. (Ursule Mirouet)

CABIROLLE (Madame), mother of Florentine, the danseuse. Formerly janitress on rue Pastourelle, but living in 1820 with her daughter on rue de Crussol in a modest affluence assured by Cardot the old silk-dealer, since 1817. According to Girondeau, she was a woman of sense. (A Start in Life, A Bachelor's Establishment)

CABIROLLE (Agathe-Florentine), known as Florentine; born in 1804. In 1817, upon leaving Coulon's class, she was discovered by Cardot, the old silk-merchant, and established by him with her mother in a relatively comfortable flat on rue de Crussol. After having been featured at the Gaite theatre, in 1820, she danced for the first time in a spectacular drama entitled "The Ruins of Babylon."[1] Immediately afterwards she succeeded Mariette as premiere danseuse at the theatre of the Porte-Saint-Martin. Then in 1823 she made her debut at the Opera in a trio skit with Mariette and Tullia. At the time when Cardot "protected" her, she had for a lover the retired Captain Girondeau, and was intimate with Philippe Bridau, to whom she gave money when in need. In 1825 Florentine occupied Coralie's old flat, now for some three years, and it was at this place that Oscar Husson lost at play the money entrusted to him by his employer, Desroches the attorney, and was surprised by his uncle, Cardot. (A Start in Life, Lost Illusions, A Distinguished Provincial at Paris, A Bachelor's Establishment)

CABOT (Armand-Hippolyte), a native of Toulouse who, in 1800, established a hair-dressing salon on the Place de la Bourse, Paris. On the advice of his customer, the poet Parny, he had taken the name of Marius, a sobriquet which stuck to the establishment. In 1845 Cabot had earned an income of twenty-four thousand francs and lived at Libourne, while a fifth Marius, called Mougin, managed the business founded by him. (The Unconscious Humorists)

CABOT (Marie-Anne), known as Lajeunesse, an old servant of Marquis Carol d'Esgrignon. Implicated in the affair of the "Chauffeurs of Mortagne" and executed in 1809. (The Seamy Side of History)

CACHAN, attorney at Angouleme under the Restoration. He and Petit-Claud had similar business interests and the same clients. In 1830 Cachan, now mayor of Marsac, had dealings with the Sechards. (Lost Illusions, Scenes from a Courtesan's Life)

CADENET, Parisian wine-merchant, in 1840, on the ground-floor of a furnished lodging-house, corner of rue des Postes and rue des Poules. Cerizet also dwelt there at that time. Cadenet, who was proprietor of the house, had something to do with the transactions of Cerizet, the "banker of the poor." (The Middle Classes)

CADIGNAN (Prince de), a powerful lord of the former regime, father of the Duc de Maufrigneuse, father-in-law of the Duc de Navarreins. Ruined by the Revolution, he had regained his properties and income on the accession of the Bourbons. But he was a spendthrift and devoured everything. He also ruined his wife. He died at an advanced age some time before the Revolution of July. (The Secrets of a Princess) At the end of 1829, the Prince de Cadignan, then Grand Huntsman to Charles X., rode in a great chase where were also found, amid a very aristocratic throng, the Duc d'Herouville, organizer of the jaunt, Canalis and Ernest de la Briere, all three of whom were suitors for the hand of Modeste Mignon. (Modeste Mignon)

CADIGNAN (Prince and Princesse de), son and daughter-in-law of the preceding. (See Maufrigneuse, Duc and Duchesse de.)

CADINE (Jenny), actress at the Gymnase theatre, times of Charles X. and Louis Philippe. The most frolicsome of women, the only rival of Dejazet. Born in 1814. Discovered, trained and "protected" from thirteen years old on, by Baron Hulot. Intimate friend of Josepha Mirah. (Cousin Betty) Between 1835 and 1840, while maintained by Couture, she lived on rue Blanche in a delightful little ground-floor flat with its own garden. Fabien du Ronceret and Mme. Schontz succeeded her here. (Beatrix) In 1845 she was Massol's mistress and lived on rue de la Victoire. At this time, she apparently led astray in short order Palafox Gazonal, who had been taken to her home by Bixiou and Leon de Lora. (The Unconscious Humorists) About this time she was the victim of a jewelry theft. After the arrest of the thieves her property was returned by Saint-Esteve—Vautrin—who was then chief of the special service. (The Member for Arcis)

CADOT (Mademoiselle), old servant-mistress of Judge Blondet at Alencon, during the Restoration. She pampered her master, and, like him, preferred the elder of the magistrate's two sons. (Jealousies of a Country Town)

CALVI (Theodore), alias Madeleine. Born in 1803. A Corsican condemned to the galleys for life on account of eleven murders committed by the time he was eighteen. A member of the same gang with Vautrin from 1819 to 1820. Escaped with him. Having assassinated the widow Pigeau of Nanterre, in May, 1830, he was rearrested and this time sentenced to death. The plotting of Vautrin, who bore for him an unnatural affection, saved his life; the sentence was commuted. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life)

CAMBON, lumber merchant, a deputy mayor to Benassis, in 1829, in a community near Grenoble, and a devoted assistant in the work of regeneration undertaken by the doctor. (The Country Doctor)

CAMBREMER (Pierre), fisherman of Croisic on the Lower-Loire, time of Louis Philippe, who, for the honor of a jeopardized name, had cast his only son into the sea and afterwards remained desolate and a widower on a cliff near by, in expiation of his crime induced by paternal justice. (A Seaside Tragedy, Beatrix)

CAMBREMER (Joseph), younger brother of Pierre Cambremer, father of Pierrette, called Perotte. (A Seaside Tragedy)

CAMBREMER (Jacques), only son of Pierre Cambremer and Jacquette Brouin. Spoiled by his parents, his mother especially, he became a rascal of the worst type. Jacques Cambremer evaded justice only by reason of the fact that his father gagged him and cast him into the sea. (A Seaside Tragedy)

CAMBREMER (Madame), born Jacquette Brouin, wife of Pierre Cambremer and mother of Jacques. She was of Guerande; was educated; could write "like a clerk"; taught her son to read and this brought about his ruin. She was usually spoken of as the beautiful Brouin. She died a few days after Jacques. (A Seaside Tragedy)

CAMBREMER (Pierrette), known as Perotte; daughter of Joseph Cambremer; niece of Pierre and his goddaughter. Every morning the sweet and charming creature came to bring her uncle the bread and water upon which he subsisted. (A Seaside Tragedy)

CAMERISTUS, celebrated physician of Paris under Louis Philippe; the Ballanche of medicine and one of the defenders of the abstract doctrines of Van Helmont; chief of the "Vitalists" opposed to Brisset who headed the "Organists." He as well as Brisset was called in consultation regarding a very serious malady afflicting Raphael de Valentin. (The Magic Skin)

CAMPS (Octave de), lover then husband of Mme. Firmiani. She made him restore the entire fortune of a family named Bourgneuf, ruined in a lawsuit by Octave's father, thus reducing him to the necessity of making a living by teaching mathematics. He was only twenty-two years old when he met Mme. Firmiani. He married her first at Gretna Green. The marriage at Paris took place in 1824 or 1825. Before marriage, Octave de Camps lived on rue de l'Observance. He was a descendant of the famous Abbe de Camps, so well known among bookmen and savants. (Madame Firmiani) Octave de Camps reappears as an ironmaster, during the reign of Louis Philippe. At this time he rarely resided at Paris. (The Member for Arcis)

CAMPS (Madame Octave de), nee Cadignan; niece of the old Prince de Cadignan; cousin of the Duc de Maufrigneuse. In 1813, at the age of sixteen, she married M. Firmiani, receiver-general in the department of Montenotte. M. Firmiani died in Greece about 1822, and she became Mme. de Camps in 1824 or 1825. At this time she dwelt on rue du Bac and had entree into the home of Princesse de Blamont-Chauvry, the oracle of Faubourg Saint-Germain. An accomplished and excellent lady, loved even by her rivals, the Duchesse de Maufrigneuse, her cousin, Mme. de Macumer—Louise de Chaulieu—and the Marquise d'Espard. (Madame Firmiani) She welcomed and protected Mme. Xavier Rabourdin. (The Government Clerks) At the close of 1824 she gave a ball where Charles de Vandenesse made the acquaintance of Mme. d'Aiglemont whose lover he became. (A Woman of Thirty) In 1834 Mme. Octave de Camps tried to check the slanders going the rounds at the expense of Mme. Felix de Vandenesse, who had compromised herself somewhat on account of the poet Nathan; and Mme. de Camps gave the young woman some good advice. (A Daughter of Eve) On another occasion she gave exceedingly good counsel to Mme. de l'Estorade, who was afraid of being smitten with Sallenauve. (The Member for Arcis) Mme. Firmiani, "that was," shared her time between Paris and the furnaces of M. de Camps; but she gave the latter much the preference—at least so said one of her intimate friends, Mme. de l'Estorade. (The Member for Arcis)

CAMUSET, one of Bourignard's assumed names.

CAMUSOT, silk-merchant, rue des Bourdonnais, Paris, under the Restoration. Born in 1765. Son-in-law and successor of Cardot, whose eldest daughter he had married. At that time he was a widower, his first wife being a Demoiselle Pons, sole heiress of the celebrated Pons family, embroiderers to the Court during the Empire. About 1834 Camusot retired from business, and became a member of the Manufacturers' Council, deputy, peer of France and baron. He had four children. In 1821-1822 he maintained Coralie, who became so violently enamored of Lucien de Rubempre. Although she abandoned him for Lucien, he promised the poet, after the actress' death, that he would purchase for her a permanent plot in the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise. (A Distinguished Provincial at Paris, A Bachelor's Establishment, Cousin Pons) Later he was intimate with Fanny Beaupre for some time. (The Muse of the Department) He and his wife were present at Cesar Birotteau's big ball in December, 1818; he was also chosen commissary-judge of the perfumer's bankruptcy, instead of Gobenheim-Keller, who was first designated. (Cesar Birotteau) He had dealings with the Guillaumes, clothing merchants, rue Saint-Denis. (At the Sign of the Cat and Racket)

CAMUSOT DE MARVILLE, son of Camusot the silk-merchant by his first marriage. Born about 1794. During Louis Philippe's reign he took the name of a Norman estate and green, Marville, in order to distinguish between himself and a half-brother. In 1824, then a judge at Alencon, he helped render an alibi decision in favor of Victurnien d'Esgrignon, who really was guilty. (Cousin Pons, Jealousies of a Country Town) He was judge at Paris in 1828, and was appointed to replace Popinot in the court which was to render a decision concerning the appeal for interdiction presented by Mme. d'Espard against her husband. (The Commission in Lunacy) In May, 1830, in the capacity of judge of instruction, he prepared a report tending to the liberation of Lucien de Rubempre, accused of assassinating Esther Gobseck. But the suicide of the poet rendered the proposed measure useless, besides upsetting, momentarily, the ambitious projects of the magistrate. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life) Camusot de Marville had been president of the Court of Nantes. In 1844 he was president of the Royal Court of Paris and commander of the Legion of Honor. At this time he lived in a house on rue de Hanovre, purchased by him in 1834, where he received the musician Pons, a cousin of his. The President de Marville was elected deputy in 1846. (Cousin Pons)

CAMUSOT DE MARVILLE (Madame), born Thirion, Marie-Cecile-Amelie, in 1798. Daughter of an usher of the Cabinet of Louis XVIII. Wife of the magistrate. In 1814 she frequented the studio of the painter Servin, who had a class for young ladies. This studio contained two factions; Mlle. Thirion headed the party of the nobility, though of ordinary birth, and persecuted Ginevra di Piombo, of the Bonapartist party. (The Vendetta) In 1818 she was invited to accompany her father and mother to the famous ball of Cesar Birotteau. It was about the time her marriage with Camusot de Marville was being considered. (Cesar Birotteau) This wedding took place in 1819, and immediately the imperious young woman gained the upper hand with the judge, making him follow her own will absolutely and in the interests of her boundless ambition. It was she who brought about the discharge of young d'Esgrignon in 1824, and the suicide of Lucien de Rubempre in 1830. Through her, the Marquis d'Espard failed of interdiction. However, Mme. de Marville had no influence over her father-in-law, the senior Camusot, whom she bored dreadfully and importuned excessively. She caused, also, by her evil treatment, the death of Sylvain Pons "the poor relation," inheriting with her husband his fine collection of curios. (Jealousies of a Country Town, Scenes from a Courtesan's Life, Cousin Pons)

CAMUSOT (Charles), son of the preceding couple. He died young, at a time when his parents had neither land nor title of Marville, and when they were in almost straitened circumstances. (Cousin Pons)

CAMUSOT DE MARVILLE (Cecile). (See Popinot, Vicomtesse.)

CANALIS (Constant-Cyr-Melchior, Baron de), poet—chief of the "Angelic" school—deputy minister, peer of France, member of the French Academy, commander of the Legion of Honor. Born at Canalis, Correze, in 1800. About 1821 he became the lover of Mme. de Chaulieu, who was constantly aiding him to high positions, but who, at the same time, was always very exacting. Not long after, Canalis is seen at the opera in Mme. d'Espard's box, being presented to Lucien de Rubempre. From 1824 he was the fashionable poet. (Letters of Two Brides, A Distinguished Provincial at Paris) In 1829 he lived at number 29 rue Paradis-Poissoniere (now simply rue Paradis) and was master of requests in the Council of State. This is the time when he was in correspondence with Modeste Mignon and wished to espouse that rich heiress. (Modeste Mignon) Shortly after 1830, now a great man, he was present at Mlle. des Touches', when Henri de Marsay told of his first love affair. Canalis took part in the conversation and uttered a most vigorous tirade against Napoleon. (The Magic Skin, Another Study of Woman) In 1838 he married the daughter of Moreau (de l'Oise), who brought him a very large dowry. (A Start in Life) In October, 1840, he and Mme. de Rochefide were present at a performance at the Varietes theatre, where that dangerous woman was encountered again after a lapse of three years by Calyste du Guenic. (Beatrix) In 1845 Canalis was pointed out in the Chamber of Deputies by Leon de Lora to Palafox Gazonal. (The Unconscious Humorists) In 1845, he consented to act as second to Sallenauve in his duel with Maxime de Trailles. (The Member for Arcis)

CANALIS (Baronne Melchior de), wife of the preceding and daughter of M. and Mme. Moreau (de l'Oise). About the middle of the reign of Louis Philippe, she being then recently married, she made a journey to Seine-et-Oise. She went first to Beaumont and Presles. Mme. de Canalis with her daughter and the Academician, occupied Pierrotin's stage-coach. (A Start in Life)

CANE (Marco-Facino), known as Pere Canet, a blind old man, an inmate of the Hospital des Quinze-Vingts, who during the Restoration followed the vocation of musician, at Paris. He played the clarionet at a ball of the working-people of rue de Charenton, on the occasion of the wedding of Mme. Vaillant's sister. He said he was a Venetian, Prince de Varese, a descendant of the condottiere Facino Cane, whose conquests fell into the hands of the Duke of Milan. He told strange stories regarding his patrician youth. He died in 1820, more than an octogenarian. He was the last of the Canes on the senior branch, and he transmitted the title of Prince de Varese to a relative, Emilio Memmi. (Facino Cane, Massimilla Doni)

CANTE-CROIX (Marquis de), under-lieutenant in one of the regiments which tarried at Angouleme from November, 1807, to March, 1808, while on its way to Spain. He was a Colonel at Wagram on July 6, 1809, although only twenty-six years old, when a shot crushed over his heart the picture of Mme. de Bargeton, whom he loved. (Lost Illusions)

CANTINET, an old glass-dealer, and beadle of Saint-Francois church, Marais, Paris, in 1845; dwelt on rue d'Orleans. A drunken idler. (Cousin Pons)

CANTINET (Madame), wife of preceding; renter of seats in Saint-Francois. Last nurse of Sylvain Pons, and a tool to the interests of Fraisier and Poulain. (Cousin Pons)

CANTINET, Junior, would have been made beadle of Saint-Francois, where his father and mother were employed, but he preferred the theatre. He was connected with the Cirque-Olympique in 1845. He caused his mother sorrow, by a dissolute life and by forcible inroads on the maternal purse. (Cousin Pons)

CAPRAJA, a noble Venetian, a recognized dilettante, living only by and through music. Nicknamed "Il Fanatico." Known by the Duke and Duchess Cataneo and their friends. (Massimilla Doni)

CARABINE, assumed name of Seraphine Sinet, which name see.

CARBONNEAU, physician whom the Comte de Mortsauf spoke of consulting about his wife, in 1820, instead of Dr. Origet, whom he fancied to be unsatisfactory. (The Lily of the Valley)

CARCADO (Madame de), founder of a Parisian benevolent society, for which Mme. de la Baudraye was appointed collector, in March, 1843, on the request of some priests, friends of Mme. Piedefer. This choice resulted, noteworthily, in the re-entrance into society of the "muse," who had been beguiled and compromised by her relations with Lousteau. (The Muse of the Department)

CARDANET (Madame de), grandmother of Mme. de Senonches. (Lost Illusions)

CARDINAL (Madame), Parisian fish-vender, daughter of one Toupillier, a carrier. Widow of a well-known marketman. Niece of Toupillier the pauper of Saint-Sulpice, from whom in 1840, with Cerizet's assistance, she tried to capture the hidden treasure. This woman had three sisters, four brothers, and three uncles, who would have shared with her the pauper's bequest. The scheming of Mme. Cardinal and Cerizet was frustrated by M. du Portail—Corentin. (The Middle Classes)

CARDINAL (Olympe). (See Cerizet, Madame.)

CARDOT (Jean-Jerome-Severin), born in 1755. Head-clerk in an old silk-house, the "Golden Cocoon," rue des Bourdonnais. He bought the establishment in 1793, at the "maximum" moment, and in ten years had made a large fortune, thanks to the dowry of one hundred thousand francs brought him by his wife; she was a Demoiselle Husson, and gave him four children. Of these, the elder daughter married Camusot, who succeeded his father-in-law; the second, Marianne, married Protez, of the firm of Protez & Chiffreville; the elder son became a notary; the younger son, Joseph, took an interest in Matifat's drug business. Cardot was the "protector" of the actress, Florentine, whom he discovered and started. In 1822 he lived at Belleville in one of the first houses above Courtille; he had then been a widower for six years. He was an uncle of Oscar Husson, and had taken some interest in and helped the dolt, until an incident occurred that changed everything: the old man discovered the young fellow asleep one morning, on one of Florentine's divans, after an orgy wherein he had squandered the money entrusted to him by his employer, Desroches the attorney. (A Start in Life, Lost Illusions, A Distinguished Provincial at Paris, A Bachelor's Establishment) Cardot had dealings with the Guillaumes, clothiers, rue Saint-Denis. (At the Sign of the Cat and Racket) He and his entire family were invited to the great ball given by Cesar Birotteau, December 17, 1818. (Cesar Birotteau)

CARDOT, elder son of the preceding. Parisian notary, successor of Sorbier. Born in 1794. Married to a Demoiselle Chiffreville, of a family of celebrated chemists. Three children were born to them: a son who in 1836 was fourth clerk in his father's business, and should have succeeded him, but dreamed instead of literary fame; Felicie, who married Berthier; and another daughter, born in 1824. The notary Cardot maintained Malaga, during the reign of Louis Philippe. (The Muse of the Department, A Man of Business, Jealousies of a Country Town) He was attorney for Pierre Grassou, who deposited his savings with him every quarter. (Pierre Grassou) He was also notary to the Thuilliers, and, in 1840, had presented in their drawing-rooms, on rue Saint-Dominique d'Enfer, Godeschal an aspirant for the hand of Celeste Colleville. After living on Place du Chatelet, Cardot become one of the tenants of the house purchased by the Thuilliers, near the Madeleine. (The Middle Classes) In 1844 he was mayor and deputy of Paris. (Cousin Pons)

CARDOT (Madame) nee Chiffreville, wife of Cardot the notary. Very devoted, but a "wooden" woman, a "veritable penitential brush." About 1840 she lived on Place du Chatelet, Paris, with her husband. At this time, the notary's wife took her daughter Felicie to rue des Martyrs, to the home of Etienne Lousteau, whom she had planned to have for a son-in-law, but whom she finally threw over on account of the journalist's dissipated ways. (The Muse of the Department)

CARDOT (Felicie or Felicite). (See Berthier, Madame.)

CARIGLIANO (Marechal, Duc de), one of the illustrious soldiers of the Empire; husband of a Demoiselle Malin de Gondreville, whom he worshipped, obeyed and stood in awe of, but who deceived him. (At the Sign of the Cat and Racket) In 1819, Marechal de Carigliano gave a ball where Eugene de Rastignac was presented by his cousin, the Vicomtesse de Beauseant, at the time he entered the world of fashion. (Father Goriot) During the Restoration he owned a beautiful house near the Elysee-Bourbon, which he sold to M. de Lanty. (Sarrasine)

CARIGLIANO (Duchesse de), wife of the preceding, daughter of Senator Malin de Gondreville. At the end of the Empire, when thirty-six years of age, she was the mistress of the young Colonel d'Aiglemont, and of Sommervieux, the painter, almost at the same time; the latter had recently wedded Augustine Guillaume. The Duchesse de Carigliano received a visit from Mme. de Sommervieux, and gave her very ingenious advice concerning the method of conquering her husband, and binding him forever to her by her coquetry. (At the Sign of the Cat and Racket) In 1821-1822 she had an opera-box near Mme. d'Espard. Sixte du Chatelet came to her to make his acknowledgments on the evening when Lucien de Rubempre, a newcomer in Paris, cut such a sorry figure at the theatre in company with Mme. de Bargeton. (A Distinguished Provincial at Paris) It was the Duchesse de Carigliano who, after a great effort, found a wife suited to General de Montcornet, in the person of Mlle. de Troisville. (The Peasantry) Mme. de Carigliano, although a Napoleonic duchesse, was none the less devoted to the House of the Bourbons, being attached especially to the Duchesse de Berry. Becoming imbued also with a high degree of piety, she visited nearly every year a retreat of the Ursulines of Arcis-sur-Aube. In 1839 Sallenauve's friends counted on the duchesse's support to elect him deputy. (The Member for Arcis)

CARMAGNOLA (Giambattista), an old Venetian gondolier, entirely devoted to Emilio Memmi, in 1820. (Massimilla Doni)

CARNOT (Lazare-Nicolas-Marguerite), born at Nolay—Cote-d'Or—in 1753; died in 1823. In June, 1800, while Minister of War, he was present in company with Talleyrand, Fouche and Sieyes, at a council held at the home of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, rue du Bac, when the overthrow of First Consul Bonaparte was discussed. (The Gondreville Mystery)

CAROLINE (Mademoiselle), governess, during the Empire, of the four children of M. and Mme. de Vandenesse. "She was a terror." (The Lily of the Valley)

CAROLINE, chambermaid of the Marquis de Listomere, in 1827-1828, on rue Saint-Dominique-Saint-Germain, Paris, when the marquis received a letter from Eugene de Rastignac intended for Delphine de Nucingen. (A Study of Woman)

CAROLINE, servant of the Thuilliers in 1840. (The Middle Classes)

CARON, lawyer, in charge of the affairs of Mlle. Gamard at Tours in 1826. He acted against Abbe Francois Birotteau. (The Vicar of Tours)

CARPENTIER, formerly captain in the Imperial Army, retired at Issoudun during the Restoration. He had a position in the mayor's office. He was allied by marriage to one of the strongest families of the city, the Borniche-Hereaus. He was an intimate friend of the artillery captain, Mignonnet, sharing with him his aversion for Commandant Maxence Gilet. Carpentier and Mignonnet were seconds of Philippe Bridau in his duel with the chief of the "Knights of Idlesse." (A Bachelor's Establishment)

CARPI (Benedetto), jailer of a Venetian prison, where Facino Cane was confined between the years 1760 and 1770. Bribed by the prisoner, he fled with him, carrying a portion of the hidden treasure of the Republic. But he perished soon after, by drowning, while trying to cross the sea. (Facino Cane)

CARTHAGENOVA, a superb basso of the Fenice theatre at Venice. In 1820 he sang the part of Moses in Rossini's opera, with Genovese and La Tinti. (Massimilla Doni)

CARTIER, gardener in the Montparnasse quarter, Paris, during the reign of Louis Philippe. In 1838 he supplied flowers to M. Bernard—Baron de Bourlac—for his daughter Vanda. (The Seamy Side of History)

CARTIER (Madame), wife of the preceding; vender of milk, eggs and vegetables to Mme. Vauthier, landlady of a miserable boarding-house on Boulevard Montparnasse, and also to M. Bernard, lessee of real estate. (The Seamy Side of History)

CASA-REAL (Duc de), younger brother of Mme. Balthazar Claes; related to the Evangelistas of Bordeaux; of an illustrious family under the Spanish monarchy; his sister had renounced the paternal succession in order to procure for him a marriage worthy of a house so noble. He died young, in 1805, leaving to Mme. Claes, a considerable fortune in money. (The Quest of the Absolute, A Marriage Settlement)

CASTAGNOULD, mate of the "Mignon," a pretty, hundred-ton vessel owned by Charles Mignon, the captain. In this he made several important and prosperous voyages, from 1826 to 1829. Castagnould was a Provencal and an old servant of the Mignon family. (Modeste Mignon)

CASTANIER (Rodolphe), retired chief of squadron in the dragoons, under the Empire. Cashier of Baron de Nucingen during the Restoration. Wore the decoration of the Legion of Honor. He maintained Mme. de la Garde—Aquilina— and on her account, in 1821, he counterfeited the banker's name on a letter of credit for a considerable amount. John Melmoth, an Englishman, got him out of this scrape by exchanging his own individuality for that of the old officer. Castanier was thus all-powerful, but becoming promptly at outs with the proceeding, he adopted the same tactics of exchange, transferring his power to a financier named Claparon. Castanier was a Southerner. He had seen service from sixteen till nearly forty. (Melmoth Reconciled)

CASTANIER (Madame), wife of the preceding, married during the first Empire. Her family—that of the bourgeoisie of Nancy—fooled Castanier about the size of her dowry and her "expectations." Mme. Castanier was honest, ugly and sour-tempered. She was separated from her husband, to his relief, and for several years previous to 1821 lived in the suburbs of Strasbourg. (Melmoth Reconciled)

CASTERAN (De), a very ancient aristocracy of Normandy; related to William the Conqueror; allied with the Verneuils, the Esgrignons and the Troisvilles. The name is pronounced "Cateran." A Demoiselle Blanche de Casteran was the mother of Mlle. de Verneuil, and died Abbess of Notre-Dame de Seez. (The Chouans) In 1807 Mme. de la Chanterie, then a widow, was hospitably received in Normandy by the Casterans. (The Seamy Side of History) In 1822 a venerable couple, Marquis and Marquise de Casteran visited the drawing-room of Marquis d'Esgrignon at Alencon. (Jealousies of a Country Town) The Marquise de Rochefide, nee Beatrix Maximilienne-Rose de Casteran, was the younger daughter of a Marquis de Casteran who wished to marry off both his daughters without dowries, and thus save his entire fortune for his son, the Comte de Casteran. (Beatrix) A Comte de Casteran, son-in-law of the Marquis of Troisville, relative of Mme. de Montcornet, was prefect of a department of Burgundy between 1820 and 1825. (The Peasantry)

CATANEO (Duke), noble Sicilian, born in 1773; first husband of Massimilla Doni. Physically ruined by early debaucheries, he was a husband only in name, living only by and through the influence of music. Very wealthy, he had educated Clara Tinti, discovered by him when still a child and a simple tavern servant. The young girl became, thanks to him, the celebrated prima donna of the Fenice theatre, at Venice in 1820. The wonderful tenor Genovese, of the same theatre, was also a protege of Duke Cataneo, who paid him a high salary to sing only with La Tinti. The Duke Cataneo cut a sorry figure. (Massimilla Doni)

CATANEO (Duchess), nee Massimilla Doni, wife of the preceding; married later to Emilio Memmi, Prince de Varese. (See Princesse de Varese.)

CATHERINE, an old woman in the service of M. and Mme. Saillard, in 1824. (The Government Clerks)

CATHERINE, chambermaid and foster sister of Laurence de Cinq-Cygne in 1803. A handsome girl of nineteen. According to Gothard, Catherine was in all her mistress' secrets and furthered all her schemes. (The Gondreville Mystery)

CAVALIER, Fendant's partner; both were book-collectors, publishers and venders in Paris, on rue Serpente in 1821. Cavalier traveled for the house, whose firm name appeared as "Fendant and Cavalier." The two associates failed shortly after having published, without success, the famous romance of Lucien de Rubempre, "The Archer of Charles IX.," which title they had changed for one more fantastic. (A Distinguished Provincial at Paris) In 1838, a firm of Cavalier published "The Spirit of Modern Law" by Baron Bourlac, sharing the profits with the author. (The Seamy Side of History)

CAYRON, of Languedoc, a vender of parasols, umbrellas and canes, on rue Saint-Honore in a house adjacent to that inhabited by Birotteau the perfumer in 1818. With the consent of the landlord, Molineux, Cayron sublet two apartments over his shop to his neighbor. He fared badly in business, suddenly disappearing a short time after the grand ball given by Birotteau. Cayron admired Birotteau. (Cesar Birotteau)

CELESTIN, valet de chambre of Lucien de Rubempre, on the Malaquais quai, in the closing years of the reign of Charles X. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life)

CERIZET, orphan from the Foundling Hospital, Paris; born in 1802; an apprentice of the celebrated printers Didot, at whose office he was noticed by David Sechard, who took him to Angouleme and employed him in his own shop, where Cerizet performed triple duties of form-maker, compositor and proof-reader. Presently he betrayed his master, and by leaguing with the Cointet Brothers, rivals of David Sechard, he obtained possession of his property. (Lost Illusions) Following this he was an actor in the provinces; managed a Liberal paper during the Restoration; was sub-prefect at the beginning of the reign of Louis Philippe; and finally was a "man of business." In the latter capacity he was sentenced to two years' imprisonment for swindling. After business partnership with Georges d'Estourny, and later with Claparon, he was stranded and reduced to transcribing for a justice of the peace in the quartier Saint-Jacques. At the same time he began lending money on short time, and by speculating with the poorer class he acquired a certain competence. Although thoroughly debauched, Cerizet married Olympe Cardinal about 1840. At this time he was implicated in the intrigues of Theodose de la Peyrade and in the interests of Jerome Thuillier. Becoming possessed of a note of Maxime de Trailles in 1833, he succeeded by Scapinal tactics in obtaining face value of the paper. (A Man of Business, Scenes from a Courtesan's Life, The Middle Classes)

CERIZET (Olympe Cardinal, Madame), wife of foregoing; born about 1824; daughter of Mme. Cardinal the fish-dealer. Actress at the Bobino, Luxembourg, then at the Folies-Dramatiques, where she made her debut in "The Telegraph of Love." At first she was intimate with the first comedian. Afterwards she had Julien Minard for lover. From the father of the latter she received thirty thousand francs to renounce her son. This money she used as a dowry and it aided in consummating her marriage with Cerizet. (The Middle Classes)

CESARINE, laundry girl at Alencon. Mistress of the Chevalier de Valois, and mother of a child that was attributed to the old aristocrat. It was also said in the town, in 1816, that he had married Cesarine clandestinely. These rumors greatly annoyed the chevalier, since he had hoped at this time to wed Mlle. Cormon. Cesarine, the sole legatee of her lover, received an income of only six hundred livres. (Jealousies of a Country Town)

CESARINE, dancer at the Opera de Paris in 1822; an acquaintance of Philippe Bridau, who at one time thought of breaking off with her on account of his uncle Rouget at Issoudun. (A Bachelor's Establishment)

CHABERT (Hyacinthe), Count, grand officer of the Legion of Honor, colonel of a cavalry regiment. Left for dead on the battlefield of Eylau (February 7-8, 1807). He was healed at Heilsberg, then locked up in an insane asylum at Stuttgart. Returning to France after the downfall of the Empire, he lived, in 1818, in straitened circumstances, with the herdsman Vergniaud, an old lieutenant of his regiment, on rue du Petit-Banquier, Paris. After having sought without arousing scandal to make good his rights with Rose Chapotel, his wife, now married to Count Ferraud, he sank again into poverty and was convicted of vagrancy. He ended his days at the Hospital de Bicetre; they had begun at the Foundling Hospital. (Colonel Chabert)

CHABERT (Madame), nee Rose Chapotel. (See Ferraud, Comtesse.)

CHABOISSEAU, an old bookseller, book-lender, something of a usurer, a millionaire living in 1821-1822 on quai Saint-Michel, where he discussed a business deal with Lucien de Rubembre, who had been piloted there by Lousteau. ([[ A Distinguished Provincial at Paris]]) He was a friend of Gobseck and of Gigonnet and with them he frequented, in 1824, the Cafe Themis. (The Government Clerks) During the reign of Louis Philippe he had dealings with the Cerizet-Claparon Company. (A Man of Business)

CHAFFAROUX, building-contractor, one of Cesar Birotteau's creditors (Cesar Birotteau); uncle of Claudine Chaffaroux who became Mme. du Bruel. Rich and a bachelor, he showered much affection upon his niece; she had helped him to launch into business. He died in the second half of the reign of Louis Philippe, leaving an income of forty thousand francs to the former danseuse. (A Prince of Bohemia) In 1840 he did some work on an unfinished house in the suburbs of the Madeleine, purchased by the Thuilliers. (The Middle Classes)

CHAMAROLLES (Mesdemoiselles), conducted a boarding-school for young ladies at Bourges, at the beginning of the century. This school enjoyed a great reputation in the department. Here was educated Anna Grosetete, who later married the third son of Comte de Fontaine; also Dinah Piedefer who became Mme. de la Baudray. (The Muse of the Department)

CHAMPAGNAC, charman of Limoges, a widower, native of Auvergne. In 1797 Jerome-Baptiste Sauviat married Champagnac's daughter, who was at least thirty. (The Country Parson)

CHAMPIGNELLES (De), an illustrious Norman family. In 1822 a Marquis de Champignelles was the head of the leading house of the country at Bayeux. Through marriage this family was allied with the Navarreins, the Blamont-Chauvries, and the Beauseants. Marquis de Champignelles introduced Gaston de Nueil to Mme. de Beauseant's home. (The Deserted Woman) A M. de Champignelles presented Mme. de la Chanterie to Louis XVIII., at the beginning of the Restoration. The Baronne de la Chanterie was formerly a Champignelles. (The Seamy Side of History)

CHAMPION (Maurice), a young boy of Montegnac, Haute-Vienne, son of the postmaster of that commune; employed as stable-boy at Mme. Graslin's, time of Louis Philippe. (The Country Parson)

CHAMPLAIN (Pierre), vine-dresser, a neighbor of the crazy Margaritis, at Vouvray in 1831. (Gaudissart the Great)

CHAMPY (Madame de), name given to Esther Gobseck.

CHANDOUR (Stanislas de), born in 1781; one of the habitues of the Bargeton's drawing-room at Angouleme, and the "beau" of that society. In 1821 he was decorated. He obtained some success with the ladies by his sarcastic pleasantries in the fashion of the eighteenth century. Having spread about town a slander relating to Mme. de Bargeton and Lucien de Rubempre, he was challenged by her husband and was wounded in the neck by a bullet, which wound brought on him a kind of chronic twist of the neck. (Lost Illusions)

CHANDOUR (Amelie de), wife of the preceding; charming conversationalist, but troubled with an unacknowledged asthma. In Angouleme she posed as the antagonist of her friend, Mme. de Bargeton. (Lost Illusions)

CHANOR, partner of Florent, both being workers and dealers in bronze, rue des Tournelles, Paris, time of Louis Philippe. Wenceslas Steinbock was at first an apprentice and afterwards an employe of the firm. (Cousin Betty) In 1845, Frederic Brunner obtained a watch-chain and a cane-knob from the firm of Florent & Chanor. (Cousin Pons)

CHANTONNIT, mayor of Riceys, near Besancon, between 1830 and 1840. He was a native of Neufchatel, Switzerland, and a Republican. He was involved in a lawsuit with the Wattevilles. Albert Savarus pleaded for them against Chantonnit. (Albert Savarus)

CHAPELOUD (Abbe), canon of the Church of Saint-Gatien at Tours. Intimate friend of the Abbe Birotteau, to whom he bequeathed on his death-bed, in 1824, a set of furniture and a library of considerable value which had been ardently coveted by the naive priest. (The Vicar of Tours)

CHAPERON (Abbe), Cure of Nemours, Seine-et-Marne, after the re-establishment of religious worship following the Revolution. Born in 1755, died in 1841, in that city. He was a friend of Dr. Minoret and helped educate Ursule Mirouet, a niece of the physician. He was nicknamed "the Fenelon of Gatinais." His successor was the cure of Saint-Lange, the priest who tried to give religious consolation to Mme. d'Aiglemont, a prey to despair. (Ursule Mirouet)

CHAPOTEL (Rose), family name of Mme. Chabert, who afterwards became Comtesse Ferraud, which name see.

CHAPOULOT (Monsieur and Madame), formerly lace-dealers of rue Saint-Denis in 1845. Tenants of the house, rue de Normandie, where lived Pons and Schmucke. One evening, when M. and Mme. Chapoulot accompanied by their daughter Victorine were returning from the Theatre de l'Ambigu-Comique, they met Heloise Brisetout on the landing, and a little conjugal scene resulted. (Cousin Pons)

CHAPUZOT (Monsieur and Madame), porters of Marguerite Turquet, known as Malaga, rue des Fosses-du-Temple at Paris in 1836; afterwards her servants and her confidants when she was maintained by Thaddee Paz. (The Imaginary Mistress)

CHAPUZOT, chief of division to the prefecture of police in the time of Louis Philippe. Visited and consulted in 1843 by Victorin Hulot on account of Mme. de Saint-Esteve. (Cousin Betty)

CHARDIN (Pere), old mattress-maker, and a sot. In 1843 he acted as a go-between for Baron Hulot under the name of Pere Thoul, and Cousin Betty, who concealed from the family the infamy of its head. (Cousin Betty)

CHARDIN, son of the preceding. At first a watchman for Johann Fischer, commissariat for the Minister of War in the province of Oran from 1838 to 1841. Afterwards claqueur in a theatre under Braulard, and designated at that time by the name of Idamore. A brother of Elodie Chardin whom he procured for Pere Thoul in order to release Olympe Bijou whose lover he himself was. After Olympe Bijou, Chardin paid court in 1843 to a young premiere of the Theatre des Funambules. (Cousin Betty)

CHARDIN (Elodie), sister of Chardin alias Idamore; lace-maker; mistress of Baron Hulot—Pere Thoul—in 1843. She lived then with him at number 7 rue des Bernardins. She had succeeded Olympe Bijou in the old fellow's affections. (Cousin Betty)

CHARDON, retired surgeon of the army of the Republic; established as a druggist at Angouleme during the Empire. He was engrossed in trying to cure the gout, and he also dreamed of replacing rag-paper with paper made from vegetable fibre, after the manner of the Chinese. He died at the beginning of the Restoration at Paris, where he had come to solicit the sanction of the Academy of Science, in despair at the lack of result, leaving a wife and two children poverty-stricken. (Lost Illusions)

CHARDON (Madame), nee Rubempre, wife of the preceding. The final branch of an illustrious family. Saved from the scaffold in 1793 by the army surgeon Chardon who declared her enceinte by him and who married her despite their mutual poverty. Reduced to suffering by the sudden death of her husband, she concealed her misfortunes under the name of Mme. Charlotte. She adored her two children, Eve and Lucien. Mme. Chardon died in 1827. (Lost Illusions, Scenes from a Courtesan's Life)

CHARDON (Lucien). (See Rubempre, Chardon de).

CHARDON (Eve). (See Sechard, Madame David.)

CHARELS (The), worthy farmers in the outskirts of Alencon; the father and mother of Olympe Charel who became the wife of Michaud, the head-keeper of General de Montcornet's estate. (The Peasantry)

CHARGEBOEUF (Marquis de), a Champagne gentleman, born in 1739, head of the house of Chargeboeuf in the time of the Consulate and the Empire. His lands reached from the department of Seine-et-Marne into that of the Aube. A relative of the Hauteserres and the Simeuses whom he sought to erase from the emigrant list in 1804, and whom he assisted in the lawsuit in which they were implicated after the abduction of Senator Malin. He was also related to Laurence de Cinq-Cygne. The Chargeboeufs and the Cinq-Cygnes had the same origin, the Frankish name of Duineff being their joint property. Cinq-Cygne became the name of the junior branch of the Chargeboeufs. The Marquis de Chargeboeuf was acquainted with Talleyrand, at whose instance he was enabled to transmit a petition to First-Consul Bonaparte. M. de Chargeboeuf was apparently reconciled to the new order of things springing out of the year '89; at any rate he displayed much politic prudence. His family reckoned their ancient titles from the Crusades; his name arose from an equerry's exploit with Saint Louis in Egypt. (The Gondreville Mystery)

CHARGEBOEUF (Madame de), mother of Bathilde de Chargeboeuf who married Denis Rogron. She lived at Troyes with her daughter during the Restoration. She was poor but haughty. (Pierrette)

CHARGEBOEUF (Bathilde de), daughter of the preceding; married Denis Rogron. (See Rogron, Madame.)

CHARGEBOEUF (Melchior-Rene, Vicomte de), of the poor branch of the Chargeboeufs. Made sub-prefect of Arcis-sur-Aube in 1815, through the influence of his kinswoman, Mme. de Cinq-Cygne. It was there that he met Mme. Severine Beauvisage. A mutual attachment resulted, and a daughter called Cecile-Renee was born of their intimacy. (The Member for Arcis) In 1820 the Vicomte de Chargeboeuf removed to Sancerre where he knew Mme. de la Baudraye. She would probably have favored him, had he not been made prefect and left the city. (The Muse of the Department)

CHARGEBOEUF (De), secretary of attorney-general Granville at Paris in 1830; then a young man. Entrusted by the magistrate with the details of Lucien de Rubempre's funeral, which was carried through in such a way as to make one believe that he had died a free man and in his own home, on quai Malaquais. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life)

CHARGEGRAIN (Louis), inn-keeper of Littray, Normandy. He had dealings with the brigands and was arrested in the suit of the Chauffeurs of Mortagne, in 1809, but acquitted. (The Seamy Side of History)

CHARLES, first name of a rather indifferent young painter, who in 1819 boarded at the Vauquer pension. A tutor at college and a Museum attache; very jocular; given to personal witticisms, which were often aimed at Goriot. (Father Goriot)

CHARLES, a young prig who was killed in a duel of small arms with Raphael de Valentin at Aix, Savoy, in 1831. Charles had boasted of having received the title of "Bachelor of shooting" from Lepage at Paris, and that of doctor from Lozes the "King of foils." (The Magic Skin)

CHARLES, valet de chambre of M. d'Aiglemont at Paris in 1823. The marquis complained of his servant's carelessness. (A Woman of Thirty)

CHARLES, footman to Comte de Montcornet at Aigues, Burgundy, in 1823. Through no good motive he paid court to Catherine Tonsard, being encouraged in his gallantries by Fourchon the girl's maternal grandfather, who desired to have a spy in the chateau. In the peasants' struggle against the people of Aigues, Charles usually sided with the peasants: "Sprung from the people, their livery remained upon him." (The Peasantry)

CHARLOTTE, a great lady, a duchess, and a widow without children. She was loved by Marsay then only sixteen and some six years younger than she. She deceived him and he resented by procuring her a rival. She died young of consumption. Her husband was a statesman. (Another Study of Woman)

CHARLOTTE (Madame), name assumed by Mme. Chardon, in 1821 at Angouleme, when obliged to make a living as a nurse. (Lost Illusions)

CHATELET (Sixte, Baron du), born in 1776 as plain Sixte Chatelet. About 1806 he qualified for and later was made baron under the Empire. His career began with a secretaryship to an Imperial princess. Later he entered the diplomatic corps, and finally, under the Restoration, M. de Barante selected him for director of the indirect taxes at Angouleme. Here he met and married Mme. de Bargeton when she became a widow in 1821. He was the prefect of the Charente. (Lost Illusions, A Distinguished Provincial at Paris) In 1824 he was count and deputy. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life) Chatelet accompanied General Marquis Armand de Montriveau in a perilous and famous excursion into Egypt. (The Thirteen)

CHATELET (Marie-Louise-Anais de Negrepelisse, Baronne du), born in 1785; cousin by marriage of the Marquise d'Espard; married in 1803 to M. de Bargeton of Angouleme; widow in 1821 and married to Baron Sixte du Chatelet, prefect of the Charente. Temporarily enamored of Lucien de Rubempre, she attached him to her party in a journey to Paris made necessary by provincial slanders and ambition. There she abandoned her youthful lover at the instigation of Chatelet and of Mme. d'Espard. (Lost Illusions, A Distinguished Provincial at Paris) In 1824, Mme. du Chatelet attended Mme. Rabourdin's evening reception. (The Government Clerks) Under the direction of Abbe Niolant (or Niollant), Madame du Chatelet, orphaned of her mother, had been reared a little too boyishly at l'Escarbas, a small paternal estate situated near Barbezieux. (Lost Illusions)

CHATILLONEST (De), an old soldier; father of Marquise d'Aiglemont. He was hardly reconciled to her marriage with her cousin, the brilliant colonel. (A Woman of Thirty) The device of the house of Chatillonest (or Chastillonest) was: Fulgens, sequar ("Shining, I follow thee"). Jean Butscha had put this device beneath a star on his seal. (Modest Mignon)

CHAUDET (Antoine-Denis), sculptor and painter, born in Paris in 1763, interested in the birth of Joseph Bridau's genius. (A Bachelor's Establishment)

CHAULIEU (Henri, Duc de), born in 1773; peer of France; one of the gentlemen of the Court of Louis XVIII. and of that of Charles X., principally in favor under the latter. After having been ambassador from France to Madrid, he became Minister of Foreign Affairs at the beginning of 1830. He had three children: the eldest was the Duc de Rhetore; the second became Duc de Lenoncourt-Givry through his marriage with Madeleine de Mortsauf; the third, a daughter, Armande-Louise-Marie, married Baron de Macumer and, left a widow, afterwards married the poet Marie Gaston. (Letters of Two Brides, Modeste Mignon, A Bachelor's Establishment) The Duc de Chaulieu was on good terms with the Grandlieus and promised them to obtain the title of marquis for Lucien de Rubempre, who was aspiring to the hand of their daughter Clotilde. The Duc de Chaulieu resided in Paris in very close relations with these same Grandlieus of the elder branch. More than once he took particular interest in the family's affairs. He employed Corentin to clear up the dark side of the life of Clotilde's fiance. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life) Some time before this M. de Chaulieu made one of the portentous conclave assembled to extricate Mme. de Langeais, a relative of the Grandlieus, from a serious predicament. (The Thirteen)

CHAULIEU (Eleonore, Duchesse de), wife of the preceding. She was a friend of M. d'Aubrion and sought to influence him to bring about the marriage of Mlle. d'Aubrion with Charles Grandet. (Eugenie Grandet) For a long time she was the mistress of the poet Canalis, several years her junior. She protected him, helping him on in the world, and in public life, but she was very jealous and kept him under strict surveillance. She still retained her hold of him at fifty years. Mme. de Chaulieu gave her husband the three children designated in the duc's biography. Her hauteur and coquetry subdued most of her maternal sentiments. During the last year of the second Restoration, Eleonore de Chaulieu followed on the way to Normandy, not far from Rosny, a chase almost royal where her sentiments were fully occupied. (Letters of Two Brides)

CHAULIEU (Armande-Louise-Marie de), daughter of Duc and Duchesse de Chaulieu. (See Marie Gaston, Madame.)

CHAUSSARD (The Brothers), inn-keepers at Louvigny, Orne; old game-keepers of the Troisville estate, implicated in a trial known as the "Chauffeurs of Mortagne" in 1809. Chaussard the elder was condemned to twenty years' hard labor, was sent to the galleys, and later was pardoned by the Emperor. Chaussard junior was contumacious, and therefore received sentence of death. Later he was cast into the sea by M. de Boislaurier for having been traitorous to the Chouans. A third Chaussard, enticed into the ranks of the police by Contenson, was assassinated in a nocturnal affair. (The Seamy Side of History)

CHAVONCOURT (De), Besancon gentleman, highly thought of in the town, representing an old parliamentary family. A deputy under Charles X., one of the famous 221 who signed the address to the King on March 18, 1830. He was re-elected under Louis Philippe. Father of three children but possessing a rather slender income. The family of Chavoncourt was acquainted with the Wattevilles. (Albert Savarus)

CHAVONCOURT (Madame de), wife of the preceding and one of the beauties of Besancon. Born about 1794; mother of three children; managed capably the household with its slender resources. (Albert Savarus)

CHAVONCOURT (De), born in 1812. Son of M. and Mme. de Chavoncourt of Besancon. College-mate and chum of M. de Vauchelles. (Albert Savarus)

CHAVONCOURT (Victoire de), second child and elder daughter of M. and Mme. de Chavoncourt. Born between 1816 and 1817. M. de Vauchelles desired to wed her in 1834. (Albert Savarus)

CHAVONCOURT (Sidonie de), third and last child of M. and Mme. de Chavoncourt of Besancon. Born in 1818. (Albert Savarus)

CHAZELLE, clerk under the Minister of Finance, in Baudoyer's bureau, in 1824. A benedict and wife-led, although wishing to appear his own master. He argued without ceasing upon subjects and through causes the idlest with Paulmier the bachelor. The one smoked, the other took snuff; this different way of taking tobacco was one of the endless themes between the two. (The Government Clerks)

CHELIUS, physician of Heidelberg with whom Halpersohn corresponded, during the reign of Louis Philippe. (The Seamy Side of History)

CHERVIN, a police-corporal at Montegnac near Limoges in 1829. (The Country Parson)

CHESNEL, or Choisnel, notary at Alencon, time of Louis XVIII. Born in 1753. Old attendant of the house of Gordes, also of the d'Esgrignon family whose property he had protected during the Revolution. A widower, childless, and possessed of a considerable fortune, he had an aristocratic clientele, notably that of Mme. de la Chanterie. On every hand he received that attention which his good points merited. M. du Bousquier held him in profound hatred, blaming him with the refusal which Mlle. d'Esgrignon had made of Du Bousquier's proffered hand in marriage, and another check of the same nature which he experienced at first from Mlle. Cormon. By a dexterous move in 1824 Chesnel succeeded in rescuing Victurnien d'Esgrignon, though guilty, from the Court of Assizes. The old notary succumbed soon after this event. (The Seamy Side of History, Jealousies of a Country Town)

CHESSEL (De), owner of the chateau and estate of Frapesle near Sache in Touraine. Friend of the Vandenesses; he introduced their son Felix to his neighbors, the Mortsaufs. The son of a manufacturer named Durand who became very rich during the Revolution, but whose plebeian name he had entirely dropped; instead he adopted that of his wife, the only heiress of the Chessels, an old parliamentary family. M. de Chessel was director-general and twice deputy. He received the title of count under Louis XVIII. (The Lily of the Valley)

CHESSEL (Madame de), wife of the preceding. She made up elaborate toilettes. (The Lily of the Valley) In 1824 she frequented Mme. Rabourdin's Paris home. (The Government Clerks)

CHEVREL (Monsieur and Madame), founders of the house of the "Cat and Racket," rue Saint-Denis, at the close of the eighteenth century. Father and mother of Mme. Guillaume, whose husband succeeded to the management of the firm. (At the Sign of the Cat and Racket)

CHEVREL, rich Parisian banker at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Probably brother and brother-in-law of the foregoing. He had a daughter who married Maitre Roguin. (At the Sign of the Cat and Racket)

CHIAVARI (Prince de), brother of the Duke of Vissembourg; son of Marechal Vernon. (Beatrix)

CHIFFREVILLE (Monsieur and Madame), ran a very prosperous drug-store and laboratory in Paris during the Restoration. Their partners were MM. Protez and Cochin. This firm had frequent business dealings with Cesar Birotteau's "Queen of Roses"; it also supplied Balthazar Claes. (Cesar Birotteau, The Quest of the Absolute)

CHIGI (Prince), great lord of Rome in 1758. He boasted of having "made a soprano out of Zambinella" and disclosed the fact to Sarrasine that this creature was not a woman. (Sarrasine)

CHISSE (Madame de), great aunt of M. du Bruel; a grasping old Provincial at whose home the retired dancer Tullia, now Mme. du Bruel, was fortunate to pass a summer in a rather hypocritical religious penance. (A Prince of Bohemia)

CHOCARDELLE (Mademoiselle), known as Antonia; a Parisian courtesan during the reign of Louis Philippe; born in 1814. Maxime de Trailles spoke of her as a woman of wit; "She's a pupil of mine, indeed," said he. About 1834, she lived on rue Helder and for fifteen days was the mistress of M. de la Palferine. (Beatrix, A Prince of Bohemia) For a time she operated a reading-room that M. de Trailles had established for her on rue Coquenard. Like Marguerite Turquet she had "well soaked the little d'Esgrignon." (A Man of Business) In 1838 she was present at the "house-warming" to Josepha Mirah on rue de la Ville-l'Eveque. (Cousin Betty) In 1839 she accompanied her lover Maxime de Trailles to Arcis-sur-Aube to aid him in his official transactions relating to the legislative elections. (The Member for Arcis)

CHOIN (Mademoiselle), good Catholic who built a parsonage on some land at Blangy bought expressly by her in the eighteenth century; the property was acquired later by Rigou. (The Peasantry)

CHOLLET (Mother), janitress of a house on rue du Sentier occupied by Finot's paper in 1821. (A Distinguished Provincial at Paris)

CHRESTIEN (Michel), Federalist Republican; member of the "Cenacle" of rue des Quatre-Vents. In 1819 he and his friends were invited by the widow Bridau to her home to celebrate the return of her elder son Philippe from Texas. He posed as a Roman senator in a historic picture. The painter Joseph Bridau was a friend of his. (A Bachelor's Establishment) About 1822 Chrestien fought a duel with Lucien Chardon de Rubempre on account of Daniel d'Arthez. He was a great though unknown statesman. He was killed at Saint-Merri cloister on June 6, 1832, where he was defending ideas not his own. (A Distinguished Provincial at Paris) He became foolishly enamored of Diane de Maufrigneuse, but did not confess his love save by a letter addressed to her just before he went to his death at the barricade. He had saved the life of M. de Maufrigneuse in the Revolution of July, 1830, through love for the duchesse. (The Secrets of a Princess)

CHRISTEMIO, creole and foster-father of Paquita Valdes, whose protector and body-guard he constituted himself. The Marquis de San-Real caused his death for having abetted the intimacy between Paquita and Marsay. (The Thirteen)

CHRISTOPHE, native of Savoy; servant of Mme. Vauquer on rue Neuve-Saint-Genevieve, Paris, in 1819. He alone was with Rastignac at the funeral of Goriot, accompanying the body as far as Pere-Lachaise in the priest's carriage. (Father Goriot)

CIBOT, alias Galope-Chopine, also called Cibot the Great. A Chouan implicated in the Breton insurrection of 1799. Decapitated by his cousin Cibot, alias Pille-Miche, and by Marche-a-Terre for having unthinkingly betrayed the brigand position to the "Blues." (The Chouans)

CIBOT (Barbette), wife of Cibot, alias Galope-Chopine. She went over to the "Blues" after her husband's execution, and vowed through vengeance to devote her son, who was still a child, to the Republican cause. (The Chouans)

CIBOT (Jean), alias Pille-Miche; one of the Chouans of the Breton insurrection of 1799; cousin of Cibot, alias Galope-Chopine, and his murderer. Pille-Miche it was, also, who shot and killed Adjutant Gerard of the 72d demi-brigade at the Vivetiere. (The Chouans) Signalized as the hardiest of the indirect allies of the brigands in the affair of the "Chauffeurs of Mortagne." Tried and executed in 1809. (The Seamy Side of History)

CIBOT, born in 1786. From 1818 to 1845 he was tailor-janitor in a house in rue de Normandie, belonging to ClaudeJoseph Pillerault, where dwelt Pons and Schmucke, the two musicians, time of Louis Philippe. Poisoned by the pawn-broker Remonencq, Cibot died at his post in April, 1845, on the same day of Sylvain Pons' demise. (Cousin Pons)

CIBOT (Madame). (See Remonencq, Madame.)

CICOGNARA, Roman Cardinal in 1758; protector of Zambinella. He caused the assassination of Sarrasine who otherwise would have slain Zambinella. (Sarrasine)

CINQ-CYGNE, the name of an illustrious family of Champagne, the younger branch of the house of Chargeboeuf. These two branches of the same stock had a common origin in the Duineffs of the Frankish people. The name of Cinq-Cygne arose from the defence of a castle made, in the absence of their father, by five (cinq) daughters all remarkably fair. On the blazon of the house of Cinq-Cygne is placed for device the response of the eldest of the five sisters when summoned to surrender: "We die singing!" (The Gondreville Mystery)

CINQ-CYGNE (Comtesse de), mother of Laurence de Cinq-Cygne. Widow at the time of the Revolution. She died in the height of a nervous fever induced by an attack on her chateau at Troyes by the populace in 1793. (The Gondreville Mystery)

CINQ-CYGNE (Marquis de), name of Adrien d'Hauteserre after his marriage with Laurence de Cinq-Cygne. (See Hauteserre, Adrien d'.)

CINQ-CYGNE (Laurence, Comtesse, afterwards Marquise de), born in 1781. Left an orphan at the age of twelve, she lived, at the last of the eighteenth and the first of the nineteenth century, with her kinsman and tutor M. d'Hauteserre at Cinq-Cygne, Aube. She was loved by both her cousins, Paul-Marie and Marie-Paul de Simeuse, and also by the younger of her tutor's two sons, Adrien d'Hauteserre, whom she married in 1813. Laurence de Cinq-Cygne struggled valiantly against a cunning and redoubtable police-agency, the soul of which was Corentin. The King of France approved the charter of the Count of Champagne, by virtue of which, in the family of Cinq-Cygne, a woman might "ennoble and succeed"; therefore the husband of Laurence took the name and the arms of his wife. Although an ardent Royalist she went to seek the Emperor as far as the battlefield of Jena, in 1806, to ask pardon for the two Simeuses and the two Hauteserres involved in a political trial and condemned to hard labor, despite their innocence. Her bold move succeeded. The Marquise de Cinq-Cygne gave her husband two children, Paul and Berthe. This family passed the winter season at Paris in a magnificent mansion on Faubourg du Roule. (The Gondreville Mystery) In 1832 Mme. de Cinq-Cygne, at the instance of the Archbishop of Paris, consented to call on the Princesse de Cadignan who had reformed. (The Secrets of a Princess) In 1836 Mme. de Cinq-Cygne was intimate with Mme. de la Chanterie. (The Seamy Side of History) Under the Restoration, and principally during Charles X.'s reign, Mme. de Cinq-Cygne exercised a sort of sovereignty over the Department of the Aube which the Comte de Gondreville counterbalanced in a measure by his family connections and through the generosity of the department. Some time after the death of Louis XVIII. she brought about the election of Francois Michu as president of the Arcis Court. (The Member for Arcis)

CINQ-CYGNE (Jules de), only brother of Laurence de Cinq-Cygne. He emigrated at the outbreak of the Revolution and died for the Royalist cause at Mayence. (The Gondreville Mystery)

CINQ-CYGNE (Paul de), son of Laurence de Cinq-Cygne and of Adrien d'Hauteserre; he became marquis after his father's death. (The Gondreville Mystery)

CINQ-CYGNE (Berthe de). (See Maufrigneuse, Mme. Georges de.)

CIPREY of Provins, Seine-et-Marne; nephew of the maternal grandmother of Pierrette Lorrain. He formed one of the family council called together in 1828 to decide whether or not the young girl should remain underneath Denis Rogron's roof. This council replaced Rogron with the notary Auffray and chose Ciprey for vice-guardian. (Pierrette)

CLAES-MOLINA (Balthazar), Comte de Nourho; born at Douai in 1761 and died in the same town in 1832; sprung from a famous family of Flemish weavers, allied to a very noble Spanish family, time of Philip II. In 1795 he married Josephine de Temninck of Brussels, and lived happily with her until 1809, at which time a Polish officer, Adam de Wierzchownia, seeking shelter at the Claes mansion, discussed with him the subject of chemical affinity. From that time on Balthazar, who formerly had worked in Lavoisier's laboratory, buried himself exclusively in the "quest of the absolute." He expended seven millions in experiments, leaving his wife to die of neglect. From 1820 to 1825[2] he was a tax-collector in Brittany—duties performed by his elder daughter who had secured the position for him in order to divert him from his barren labors. During this time she rehabilitated the family fortunes. Balthazar died, almost insane, crying "Eureka!" (The Quest of the Absolute)

CLAES (Josephine de Temninck, Madame), wife of Balthazar Claes; born at Brussels in 1770, died at Douai in 1816; a native Spaniard on her mother's side; commonly called Pepita. She was small, crooked and lame, with heavy black hair and glowing eyes. She gave her husband four children: Marguerite, Felicie, Gabriel (or Gustave) and Jean-Balthazar. She was passionatley devoted to her husband, and died of grief over his neglect of her for the scientific experiments which never came to an end. (The Quest of the Absolute) Mme. Claes counted among her kin the Evangelistas of Bordeau. (A Marriage Settlement)

CLAES (Marguerite), elder daughter of Balthazar Claes and Josephine de Temninck. (See Solis, Madame de.)

CLAES (Felicie), second daughter of Balthazar Claes and of Josephine de Temninck; born in 1801. (See Pierquin, Madame.)

CLAES (Gabriel or Gustave), third child of Balthazar Claes and of Josephine de Temninck; born about 1802. He attended the College of Douai, afterwards entering the Ecole Polytechnique, becoming an engineer of roads and bridges. In 1825 he married Mlle. Conyncks of Cambrai. (The Quest of the Absolute)

CLAES (Jean-Balthazar) last child of Balthazar Claes and Josephine de Temninck; born in the early part of the nineteenth century. (The Quest of the Absolute)

CLAGNY (J.-B. de), public prosecutor at Sancerre in 1836. A passionate admirer of Dinah de la Baudraye. He got transferred to Paris when she returned there, and became successively the substitute for the general prosecutor, attorney-general and finally attorney-general to the Court of Cassation. He watched over and protected the misguided woman, consenting to act as godfather to the child she had by Lousteau. (The Muse of the Department)

CLAGNY (Madame de), wife of the preceding. To use an expression of M. Gravier's, she was "ugly enough to chase a young Cossack" in 1814. Mme. de Clagny associated with Mme. de la Baudraye. (The Muse of the Department)

CLAPARON, clerk for the Minister of the Interior under the Republic and Empire. Friend of Bridau, Sr., after whose death he continued his cordial relations with Mme. Bridau. He gave much attention to Philippe and Joseph on their mother's account. Claparon died in 1820. (A Bachelor's Establishment)

CLAPARON (Charles), son of the preceding; born about 1790. Business man and banker (rue de Provence); at first a commercial traveler; an aide of F. du Tillet in transactions of somewhat shady nature. He was invited to the famous ball given by Cesar Birotteau in honor of Cesar's nomination to the Legion of Honor and the release of French possessions. (A Bachelor's Establishment, Cesar Birotteau) In 1821, at the Bourse in Paris, he made a peculiar bargain with the cashier Castanier, who transferred to him, in exchange for his own individuality, the power which he had received from John Melmoth, the Englishman. (Melmoth Reconciled) He was interested in the third liquidation of Nucingen in 1826, a settlement which made the fortune of the Alsatian banker whose "man of straw" he was for some time. (The Firm of Nucingen) He was associated with Cerizet who deceived him in a deal about a house sold to Thuillier. Becoming bankrupt he embarked for America about 1840. He was probably condemned for contumacy on account of swindling. (A Man of Business, The Middle Classes)

CLAPART, employe to the prefecture of the Seine during the Restoration, at a salary of twelve hundred francs. Born about 1776. About 1803 he married a widow Husson, aged twenty-two. At that time he was employed in the Bureau of Finance, at a salary of eighteen hundred francs and a promise of more. But his known incapacity held him down to a secondary place. At the fall of the Empire he lost his position, obtaining his new one on the recommendation of the Comte de Serizy. Mme. Husson had by her first husband a child that was Clapart's evil genius. In 1822 his family occupied an apartment renting for two hundred and fifty francs at number seven rue de la Cerisaie. There he saw much of the old pensioner Poiret. Clapart was killed by the Fieschi attack of July 28, 1835. (A Start in Life)

CLAPART (Madame), wife of the preceding; born in 1780; one of the "Aspasias" of the Directory, and famous for her acquaintance with one of the "Pentarques." He married her to Husson the contractor, who made millions but who became bankrupt suddenly through the First Consul, and suicided in 1802. At that time she was mistress of Moreau, steward of M. de Serizy. Moreau was in love with her and would have made her his wife, but just then was under sentence of death and a fugitive. Thus it was that in her distress she married Clapart, a clerk in the Bureau of Finance. By her first husband Mme. Clapart had a son, Oscar Husson, whom she was bound up in, but whose boyish pranks caused her much trouble. During the first Empire Mme. Clapart was a lady-in-waiting to Mme. Mere—Letitia Bonaparte. (A Start in Life)

CLARIMBAULT (Marechal de), maternal grandfather of Mme. de Beauseant. He had married the daughter of Chevalier de Rastignac, great-uncle of Eugene de Rastignac. (Father Goriot)

CLAUDE, an idiot who died in the village of Dauphine in 1829, nursed and metamorphosed by Dr. Benassis. (The Country Doctor)

CLERETTI, an architect of Paris who was quite the fashion in 1843. Grindot, though decadent at this time, tried to compete with him. (Cousin Betty)

CLERGET (Basine), laundress at Angouleme during the Restoration, who succeeded Mme. Prieur with whom Eve Chardon had worked. Basine Clerget concealed David Sechard and Kolb when Sechard was pursued by the Cointet brothers. (Lost Illusions)

CLOUSIER, retired attorney of Limoges; justice of the peace at Montegnac after 1809. He was in touch with Mme. Graslin when she moved there about 1830. An upright, phlegmatic man who finally led the contemplative life of one of the ancient hermits. (The Country Parson)

COCHEGRUE (Jean), a Chouan who died of wounds received at the fight of La Pelerine or at the siege of Fourgeres in 1799. Abbe Gudin said a mass, in the forest, for the repose of Jean Cochegrue, and others slain by the "Blues." (The Chouans)

COCHET (Francoise), chambermaid of Modeste Mignon at Havre in 1829. She received the answers to the letters addressed by Modeste to Canalis. She had also faithfully served Bettina-Caroline, Modeste's elder sister who took her to Paris. (Modeste Mignon)

COCHIN (Emile-Louis-Lucien-Emmanuel), employe in Clergeot's division of the Bureau of Finance during the Restoration. He had a brother who looked after him in the administration. At this time Cochin was also a silent partner in Matifat's drug-store. Colleville invented an anagram on Cochin's name; with his given names it made up "Cochenille." Cochin and his wife were in Birotteau's circle, being present with their son at the famous ball given by the perfumer. In 1840, Cochin, now a baron, was spoken of by Anselme Popinot as the oracle of the Lombard and Bourdonnais quarters. (Cesar Birotteau, The Government Clerks, The Firm of Nucingen, The Middle Classes)

COCHIN, (Adolphe), son of the preceding; an employe of the Minister of Finance as his father had been for some years. In 1826 his parents tried to obtain for him the hand of Mlle. Matifat. (Cesar Birotteau, The Firm of Nucingen)

COFFINET, porter of a house belonging to Thuillier on rue Saint-Dominique-d'Enfer, Paris, in 1840. His employer put him to work in connection with the "Echo de la Bievre," when Louis-Jerome Thuillier became editor-in-chief of this paper. (The Middle Classes)

COFFINET, (Madame), wife of the preceding. She looked after Theodose de la Peyrade's establishment. (The Middle Classes)

COGNET, inn-keeper at Issoudun during the Restoration. House of the "Knights of Idlesse" captained by Maxence Gilet. A former groom; born about 1767; short, thickset, wife-led, one-eyed. (A Bachelor's Establishment)

COGNET (Madame), known as Mother Cognet, wife of the preceding; born about 1783. A retired cook of a good house, who on account of her "Cordon bleu" talents, was chosen to be the Leonarde of the Order which had Maxence Gilet for chief. A tall, swarthy woman of intelligent and pleasant demeanor. (A Bachelor's Establishment)

COINTET (Boniface), and his brother Jean, ran a thriving printing-office at Angouleme during the Restoration. He ruined David Sechard's shop by methods hardly honorable. Boniface Cointet was older than Jean, and was usually called Cointet the Great. He put on the devout. Extremely wealthy, he became deputy, was made a peer of France and Minister of Commerce in Louis Philippe's coalition ministry. In 1842 he married Mlle. Popinot, daughter of Anselme Popinot. (Lost Illusions, The Firm of Nucingen) On May, 1839, he presided at the sitting of the Chamber of Deputies when the election of Sallenauve was ratified. (The Member for Arcis)

COINTET (Jean), younger brother of the preceding; known as "Fatty" Cointet; was foreman of the printing-office, while his brother ran the business end. Jean Cointet passed for a good fellow and acted the generous part. (Lost Illusions)

COLAS (Jacques), a consumptive child of a village near Grenoble, who was attended by Dr. Benassis. His passion was singing, for which he had a very pure voice. Lived with his mother who was poverty-stricken. Died in the latter part of 1829 at the age of fifteen, shortly after the death of his benefactor, the physician. A nephew of Moreau, the old laborer. (The Country Doctor)

COLLEVILLE, son of a talented musician, once leading violin of the Opera under Francoeur and Rebel. He himself was first clarionet at the Opera-Comique, and at the same time chief clerk under the Minister of Finance, and, in additon, book-keeper for a merchant from seven to nine in the mornings. Great on anagrams. Made deputy-chief clerk in Baudoyer's bureau when the latter was promoted to division chief. He was preceptor at Paris six months later. In 1832 he became secretary to the mayor of the twelfth Arrondissement and officer of the Legion of Honor. At that time Colleville lived with his wife and family on rue d'Enfer. He was Thuillier's most intimate friend. (The Government Clerks, The Middle Classes)

COLLEVILLE (Flavie Minoret, Madame), born in 1798; wife of the preceding; daughter of a celebrated dancer and, supposedly, of M. du Bourguier. She made a love match and between 1816 and 1826 bore five children, each of whom resembled and may actually have had a different father: 1st. A daughter born in 1816, who favored Colleville. 2d. A son, Charles, cut out for a soldier, born during his mother's acquaintance with Charles de Gondreville, under-lieutenant of the dragoons of Saint-Chamans. 3d. A son, Francois, destined for business, born during Mme. Colleville's intimacy with Francois Keller, the banker. 4th. A daughter, Celeste born in 1821, of whom Thuillier, Colleville's best friend, was the godfather—and father in partibus. (See Phellion, Mme. Felix.) 5th. A son, Theodore, or Anatole, born at a period of religious zeal. Madame Colleville was a Parisian, piquant, winning and pretty, as well as clever and ethereal. She made her husband very happy. He owed all his advancement to her. In the interests of their ambition she granted momentary favor to Chardin des Lupeaulx, the Secretary-General. On Wednesdays she was at home to artists and distinguished people. (The Government Clerks, Cousin Betty, The Middle Classes)

COLLIN (Jacques), born in 1779. Reared by the Fathers of the Oratory. He went as far as rhetoric, at school, and was then put in a bank by his aunt, Jacqueline Collin. Accused, however, of a crime probably committed by Franchessini, he fled the country. Later he was sent to the galleys where he remained from 1810 to 1815, when he escaped and came to Paris, stopping under the name of Vautrin at the Vauquer pension. There he knew Rastignac, then a young man, became interested in him, and tried to bring about his marriage with Victorine Taillefer, for whom he procured a rich dowry by causing her brother to be slain in a duel with Franchessini. Bibi-Lupin, chief of secret police, arrested him in 1819 and returned him to the bagne, whence he escaped again in 1820, reappearing in Paris as Carlos Herrera, honorary canon of the Chapter of Toledo. At this time he rescued Lucien de Rubempre from suicide, and took charge of the young poet. Accused, with the latter, of having murdered Esther Gobseck, who in truth was poisoned, Jacques Collin was acquitted of this charge, and ended by becoming chief of secret police under the name of Saint-Esteve, in 1830. He held this position till 1845. He finally became wealthy, having an income of twelve thousand francs, three hundred thousand francs inherited from Lucien de Rubempre, and the profits of a green-leather manufactory at Gentilly. (Father Goriot, Lost Illusions, A Distinguished Provincial at Paris, Scenes from a Courtesan's Life, The Member for Arcis) In addition to the pseudonym of M. Jules, under which he was known by Catherine Goussard, Jacques Collin also took for a time the English name of William Barker, creditor for Georges d'Estourny. Under this name he hoodwinked the cunning Cerizet, inducing that "man of business" to endorse some notes for him. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life) He was also nick-named "Trompe-la-Mort."

COLLIN, (Jacqueline), aunt of Jacques Collin, whom she had reared; born at Java. In her youth she was Marat's mistress, and afterwards had relations with the chemist, Duvignon, who was condemned to death for counterfeiting in 1799. During this intimacy she attained a dangerous knowledge of toxicology. From 1800 to 1805 she was a clothing dealer; and from 1806 to 1808 she spent two years in prison for having influenced minors. From 1824 to 1830 Mlle. Collin exerted a strong influence over Jacques, alias Vautrin, toward his life of adventure without the pale of the law. Her strong point was disguises. In 1839 she ran a matrimonial bureau on rue de Provence, under the name of Mme. de Saint-Esteve. She often borrowed the name of her friend Mme. Nourrisson, who, during the time of Louis Philippe, made a pretence of business more or less dubious on rue Neuve-Saint-Marc. She had some dealings with Victorin Hulot, at whose instance she brought about the overthrow of Mme. Marneffe, mistress, and afterwards wife, of Crevel. Under the name of Asie, Jacqueline Collin made an excellent cook for Esther Gobseck, whom she was ordered by Vautrin to watch. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life, Cousin Betty, The Unconscious Humorists)

COLLINET, grocer at Arcis-sur-Aube, time of Louis Philippe. Elector for the Liberals headed by Colonel Giguet. (The Member for Arcis)

COLLINET (Francois-Joseph), merchant of Nantes. In 1814 the political changes brought about his business failure. He went to America, returning in 1824 enriched, and re-established. He had caused the loss of twenty-four thousand francs to M. and Mme. Lorrain, small retailers of Pen-Hoel, and father and mother of Major Lorrain. But, on his return to France, he restored to Mme. Lorrain, then a widow and almost a septuagenarian, forty-two thousand francs, being capital and interest of his indebtedness to her. (Pierrette)

COLONNA, aged Italian at Genoa, during the later part of the eighteenth century. He had reared Luigia Porta under the name of Colonna and as his own son, from the age of six until the time when the young man enlisted in the French army. (The Vendetta)

COLOQUINTE, given name of a pensioner who was "office boy" in Finot's newspaper office in 1820. He had been through the Egyptian campaign, losing an arm at the Battle of Montmirail. (A Bachelor's Establishment, A Distinguished Provincial at Paris)

COLORAT (Jerome), estate-keeper for Mme. Graslin at Montegnac; born at Limoges. Retired soldier of the Empire; ex-sergeant in the Royal Guard; at one time estate-keeper for M. de Navarreins, before entering Mme. Graslin's service. (The Country Parson)

CONSTANCE, chambermaid for Mme. de Restaud in 1819. Through her old Goriot knew about everything that was going on at the home of his elder daughter. This Constance, sometimes called Victorie, took money to her mistress when the latter needed it. (Father Goriot)

CONSTANT DE REBECQUE (Benjamin), born at Lausanne in 1767, died at Paris, December 8, 1830. About the end of 1821 he is discovered in Dauriat's book-shop at Palais-Royal, where Lucien de Rubempre noticed his splendid head and spiritual eyes. (A Distinguished Provincial at Paris)

CONTI (Gennaro), musical composer; of Neapolitan origin, but born at Marseilles. Lover of Mlle. des Touches—Camille Maupin—in 1821-1822. Afterwards he paid court to Marquise Beatrix de Rochefide. (Lost Illusions, Beatrix)

CONYNCKS, family of Bruges, who were maternal ancestors of Marguerite Claes. In 1812 this young girl at sixteen was the living image of a Conyncks, her grandmother whose portrait hung in Balthazar Claes' home. A Conyncks, also of Bruges but later established at Cambrai, was granduncle of the children of Balthazar Claes, and was appointed their vice-guardian after the death of Mme. Claes. He had a daughter who married Gabriel Claes. (The Quest of the Absolute)

COQUELIN (Monsieur and Madame), hardware dealers, successors to Claude-Joseph Pillerault in a store on quai de la Ferraille, sign of the Golden Bell. Guests at the big ball given by Cesar Birotteau. After getting the invitation, Mme. Coquelin ordered a magnificent gown for the occasion. (Cesar Birotteau)

COQUET, chief of bureau to the Minister of War, in Lebrun's division in 1838. Marneffe was his successor. Coquet had been in the service of the administration since 1809, and had given perfect satisfaction. He was a married man and his wife was still living at the time when he was displaced. (Cousin Betty)

CORALIE (Mademoiselle), actress at the Panorama-Dramatique and at the Theatre du Gymnase, Paris, time of Louis XVIII. Born in 1803 and brought up a Catholic, she was nevertheless of distinct Jewish type. She died in August, 1822. Her mother sold her at fifteen to young Henri de Marsay, whom she abhorred and who soon deserted her. She was then maintained by Camusot, who was not obnoxious. She fell in love with Lucien de Rubempre at first sight, surrendering to him immediately and being faithful to him until her dying breath. The glory and downfall of Coralie dated from this love. An original criticism of the young Chardon established the success of "L'Alcade dans l'Embarras," at the Marais, and brought to Coralie, one of the principals in the play, an engagement at Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle, with a salary of twelve thousand francs. But here the artist stranded, the victim of a cabal, despite the protection of Camille Maupin. At first she was housed on rue de Vendome, afterwards in a more modest lodging where she died, attended and nursed by her cousin, Berenice. She had sold her elegant furniture to Cardot, Sr., on leaving the apartment on rue de Vendome, and in order to avoid moving it, he installed Florentine there. Coralie was the rival of Mme. Perrin and of Mlle. Fleuriet, whom she resembled and whose destiny should have been her own. The funeral service of Coralie took place at noon in the little church of Notre-Dame de Bonne-Nouvelle. Camusot promised to purchase a plot of ground for her in the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise. (A Start in Life, A Distinguished Provincial at Paris, A Bachelor's Establishment)

CORBIGNY (De), prefect of Loire-et-Cher, in 1811. Friend of Mme. de Stael who authorized him to place Louis Lambert, at her expense, in the College of Vendome. He probably died in 1812. (Louis Lambert)

CORBINET, notary at Soulanges, Burgundy, in 1823, and at one time an old patron of Sibilet's. The Gravelots, lumber dealers, were clients of his. Commissioned with the sale of Aigues, when General de Montcornet became wearied with developing his property. At one time known as Corbineau. (The Peasantry)

CORBINET, court-judge at Ville-aux-Fayes in 1823; son of Corbinet the notary. He belonged, body and soul, to Gaubertin, the all-powerful mayor of the town. (The Peasantry)

CORBINET, retired captain, postal director at Ville-aux-Fayes in 1823; brother of Corbinet, the notary. The last daughter of Sibilet, the copy-clerk, was engaged to him when she was sixteen. (The Peasantry)

CORENTIN, born at Vendome in 1777; a police-agent of great genius, trained by Peyrade as Louis David was by Vien. A favorite of Fouche's and probably his natural son. In 1799 he accompanied Mlle. de Verneuil sent to lure and betray Alphonse de Montauran, the young chief of the Bretons who were risen against the Republic. For two years Corentin was attached to this strange girl as a serpent to a tree. (The Chouans) In 1803 he and his chief, Peyrade, were entrusted with a difficult mission in the department of Aube, where he had to search the home of Mlle. de Cinq-Cygne. She surprised him at the moment when he was forcing open a casket, and struck him a blow with her riding whip. This he avenged cruelly, involving, despite their innocence, the Hauteserres and the Simeuses, friends and cousins of the young girl. This was during the affair of the abduction of Senator Malin. About the same time he concluded another delicate mission to Berlin to the satisfaction of Talleyrand, the Minister of Foreign Affairs. (The Gondreville Mystery) From 1824 to 1830, Corentin was pitted against the terrible Jacques Collin, alias Vautrin, whose friendly plans in behalf of Lucien de Rubempre he thwarted so cruelly. Corentin it was who rendered futile the contemplated marriage of the aspirant with Clotilde de Grandlieu, bringing about as a consequence the absolute ruin of the "distinguished provincial at Paris." He rusticated at Passy, rue des Vignes, about May, 1830. Under Charles X., Corentin was chief of the political police of the chateau. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life) For more than thirty years he lived on rue Honore-Chevalier under the name of M. du Portail. He sheltered Lydie, daughter of his friend, Peyrade, after the death of the old police-agent. About 1840 he brought about her marriage with Theodose de la Peyrade, nephew of Peyrade, after having upset the plans of the very astute young man, greatly in love with Celeste Colleville's dowry. Corentin—M. du Portail—then installed the chosen husband of his adopted child into his own high official duties. (The Middle Classes)

CORMON (Rose-Marie-Victoire). (See Bousquier, Madame du.)

CORNEVIN, an old native of Perche; foster-father of Olympe Michaud. He was with the Chouans in 1794 and 1799. In 1823 he was servant at Michaud's. (The Peasantry)

CORNOILLER (Antoine), game-keeper at Saumur; married the sturdy Nanon then fifty-nine years old, after the death of Grandet, about 1827, and became general overseer of lands and properties of Eugenie Grandet. (Eugenie Grandet)

CORNOILLER (Madame). (See Nanon.)

COTTEREAU, well-known smuggler, one of the heads of the Breton insurrection. In 1799 he was principal in a rather stormy scene at the Vivetiere, when he threatened the Marquis de Montauran with swearing allegiance to the First Consul if he did not immediately obtain noteworthy advantages in payment of seven years of devoted service to "the good cause." "My men and I have a devilish importunate creditor," said he, slapping his stomach. One of the brothers of Jean Cottereau, was nick-named the "Chouan," a title used by all the Western rebels against the Republic. (The Chouans)

COTTIN (Marechal), Prince of Wissembourg; Duke of Orfano; old soldier of the Republic and the Empire; Minister of War in 1841; born in 1771. He was obliged to bring great shame upon his old friend and companion-in-arms, Marshal Hulot, by advising him of the swindling of the commissariat, Hulot d'Ervy. Marshal Cottin and Nucingen were witnesses at the wedding of Hortense Hulot and Wenceslas Steinbock. (Cousin Betty)

COTTIN (Francine), a Breton woman, probably born at Fougeres in 1773; chambermaid and confidante of Mlle. de Verneuil, who had been reared by Francine's parents. Childhood's friend of Marche-a-Terre, with whom she used her influence to save the life of her mistress during the massacre of the "Blues" at the Vivitiere in 1799. (The Chouans)

COUDRAI (Du), register of mortgages at Alencon, time of Louis XVIII. A caller at the home of Mlle. Cormon, and afterwards at that of M. du Bousquier, who married "the old maid." One of the town's most open-hearted men; his only faults were having married a rich old lady who was unendurable, and the habit of making villainous puns at which he was first to laugh. In 1824 M. du Coudrai was poverty-stricken; he had lost his place on account of voting the wrong way. (Jealousies of a Country Town)

COUPIAU, Breton courier from Mayenne to Fougeres in 1799. In the struggle between the "Blues" and the Chouans he took no part, but acted as circumstances demanded and for his own interests. Indeed he offered no resistance when the "Brigands" stole the government chests. Coupiau was nick-named Mene-a-Bien by Marche-a-Terre the Chouan. (The Chouans)

COUPIAU (Sulpice), Chouan and probably the father of Coupiau the messenger. Killed in 1799 in the battle of La Pelerine or at the seige of Fougeres. (The Chouans)

COURAND (Jenny), florist; mistress of Felix Gaudissart in 1831. At that time she lived in Paris on rue d'Artois. (Gaudissart the Great)

COURCEUIL (Felix), of Alencon, retired army surgeon of the Rebel forces of the Vendee. In 1809 he furnished arms to the "Brigands." Involved in the trial known as "Chauffeurs of Mortagne." Condemned to death for contumacy. (The Seamy Side of History)

COURNANT, notary at Provins in 1827; rival of Auffray, the notary; of the Opposition; one of the few public-spirited men of the little town. (Pierrette)

COURTECUISSE, game-keeper of the Aigues estate in Burgundy under the Empire and Restoration until 1823. Born about 1777; at first in the service of Mlle. Laguerre; discharged by General de Montcornet for absolute incapacity, and replaced by keepers who were trusty and true. Courtecuisse was a little fellow with a face like a full moon. He was never so happy as when idle. On leaving he demanded a sum of eleven hundred francs which was not due him. His master indignantly denied his claim at first, but yielded the point, however, on being threatened with a lawsuit, the scandal of which he wished to avoid. Courtecuisse, out of a job, purchased from Rigou for two thousand francs the little property of La Bachelerie, enclosed in the Aigues estate, and wearied himself, without gain, in the management of his land. He had a daughter who was tolerably pretty and eighteen years old in 1823. At this time she was in the service of Mme. Mariotte the elder, at Auxerre. Courtecuisse was given the sobriquet of "Courtebotte"—short-boot. (The Peasantry)

COURTECUISSE (Madame), wife of the preceding; in abject fear of the miser, Gregoire Rigou, mayor of Blangy, Burgundy. (The Peasantry)

COURTEVILLE (Madame de), cousin of Comte de Bauvan on the maternal side; widow of a judge of the Seine Court. She had a very beautiful daughter, Amelie, whom the comte wished to marry to his secretary, Maurice de l'Hostal. (Honorine)

COURTOIS, Marsac miller, near Angouleme during the Restoration. In 1821 rumor had it that he intended to wed a miller's widow, his patroness, who was thirty-two years old. She had one hundred thousand francs in her own right. David Sechard was advised by his father to ask the hand of this rich widow. At the end of 1822 Courtois, now married, sheltered Lucien de Rubempre, returning almost dead from Paris. (Lost Illusions)

COURTOIS (Madame), wife of the preceding, who cared sympathetically for Lucien de Rubempre, on his return. (Lost Illusions)

COUSSARD (Laurent). (See Goussard, Laurent.)

COUTELIER, a creditor of Maxime de Trailles. The Coutelier credit, purchased for five hundred francs by the Claparon-Cerizet firm, came to thirty-two hundred francs, seventy-five centimes, capital, interest and costs. It was recovered by Cerizet by means of a strategy worthy of a Scapin. (A Man of Business)

COUTURE, a kind of financier-journalist of an equivocal reputation; born about 1797. One of Mme. Schontz's earliest friends; and she alone remained faithful to him when he was ruined by the downfall of the ministry of March 1st, 1840. Couture was always welcome at the home of the courtesan, who dreamed, perhaps, of making him her husband. But he presented Fabien du Ronceret to her and the "lorette" married him. In 1836, in company with Finot and Blondet, he was present in a private room of a well-known restaurant when Jean-Jacques Bixiou related the origin of the Nucingen fortune. At the time of his transient wealth Couture splendidly maintained Jenny Cadine. At one time he was celebrated for his waistcoats. He had no known relationship with the widow Couture. (Beatrix, The Firm of Nucingen) The financier drew upon himself the hatred of Cerizet for having deceived him in a deal about the purchase of lands and houses situated in the suburbs of the Madeleine, an affair in which Jerome Thuillier was afterwards concerned. (The Middle Classes)

COUTURE (Madame), widow of an ordonnance-commissary of the French Republic. Relative and protectress of Mlle. Victorine Taillefer with whom she lived at the Vauquer pension, in 1819. (Father Goriot)

COUTURIER (Abbe), curate of Saint-Leonard church at Alencon, time of Louis XVIII. Spiritual adviser of Mlle. Cormon, remaining her confessor after her marriage with Du Bousquier, and influencing her in the way of excessive penances. (Jealousies of a Country Town)

CREMIERE, tax-collector at Nemours during the Restoration. Nephew by marriage of Dr. Minoret, who had secured the position for him, furnishing his security. One of the three collateral heirs of the old physician, the two others being Minoret-Levrault, the postmaster, and Massin-Levrault, copy-clerk to the justice of the peace. In the curious branching of these four Gatinais bourgeois families—the Minorets, the Massins, the Levraults and the Cremieres—the tax collector belonged to the Cremiere-Cremiere branch. He had several children, among others a daughter named Angelique. After the Revolution of July, 1830, he became municipal councillor. (Ursule Mirouet)

CREMIERE (Madame), nee Massin-Massin, wife of the tax-collector, and niece of Dr. Minoret—that is, daughter of the old physician's sister. A stout woman with a muddy blonde complexion splotched with freckles. Passed for an educated person on account of her novel-reading. Her lapsi linguoe were maliciously spread abroad by Goupil, the notary's clerk, who labelled them, "Capsulinguettes"; indeed, Mme. Cremiere thus translated the two Latin words. (Ursule Mirouet)

CREMIERE-DIONIS, always called Dionis, which name see.

CREVEL (Celestin), born between 1786 and 1788; clerked for Cesar Birotteau the perfumer—first as second clerk, then as head-clerk when Popinot left the house to set up in business for himself. After his patron's failure in 1819, he purchased for five thousand seven hundred francs, "The Queen of Roses," making his own fortune thereby. During the reign of Louis Philippe he lived on his income. Captain, then chief of battalion in the National Guard; officer of the Legion of Honor; mayor of one of the arrondissements of Paris, he ended up by being a very great personage. He had married the daughter of a farmer of Brie; became a widower in 1833, when he gave himself over to a life of pleasure. He maintained Josepha, who was taken away from him by his friend, Baron Hulot. To avenge himself he tried to win Mme. Hulot. He "protected" Heloise Brisetout. Finally he was smitten with Mme. Marneffe, whom he had for mistress and afterwards married when she became a widow in 1843. In May of this same year, Crevel and his wife died of a horrible disease which had been communicated to Valerie by a negro belonging to Montes the Brazilian. In 1838 Crevel lived on rue des Saussaies; at the same time he owned a little house on rue du Dauphin, where he had prepared a secret chamber for Mme. Marneffe; this last house he leased to Maxime de Trailles. Besides these Crevel owned: a house on rue Barbet de Jouy; the Presles property bought of Mme. de Serizy at a cost of three million francs. He caused himself to be made a member of the General Council of Seine-et-Oise. By his first marriage he had an only daughter, Celestine, who married Victorin Hulot. (Cesar Birotteau, Cousin Betty) In 1844-1845 Crevel owned a share in the management of the theatre directed by Gaudissart. (Cousin Pons)

CREVEL (Celestine), only child of the first marriage of the preceding. (See Hulot, Mme. Victorin.)

CREVEL (Madame Celestin), born Valerie Fortin in 1815; natural daughter of the Comte de Montcornet, marshal of France; married, first Marneffe, an employe in the War Office, with whom she broke faith by agreement with the clerk; and second, Celestin Crevel. She bore Marneffe a child, a stunted, scrawny urchin named Stanislas. An intimate friend of Lisbeth Fischer who utilized Valerie's irresistible attractions for the satisfying of her hatred towards her rich relatives. At this time Mme. Marneffe belonged jointly to Marneffe, to the Brazilian Montes, to Steinbock the Pole, to Celestin Crevel and to Baron Hulot. Each of these she held responsible for a child born in 1841, and which died on coming into the world. By prearrangement, she was surprised with Hulot by the police-commissioners, during this period, in Crevel's cottage on rue du Dauphin. After having lived with Marneffe on rue du Doyenne in the house occuped by Lisbeth Fischer—"Cousin Betty"—she was installed by Baron Hulot on rue Vaneau; then by Crevel in a mansion on rue Barbet-de-Jouy. She died in 1843, two days prior to Celestin. She perished while trying to "cajole God"—to use her own expression. She bequeathed, as a restitution, 300,000 francs to Hector Hulot. Valerie Marneffe did not lack spirit. Claude Vignon, the great critic, especially appreciated this woman's intellectual depravity. (Cousin Betty)

CROCHARD, Opera dancer in the second half of the eighteenth century. Director of theatrical evolutions. He commanded a band of assailants upon the Bastile, July 14, 1789; became an officer, a colonel, dying of wounds received at Lutzen, May 2, 1813. (A Second Home)

CROCHARD (Madame), widow of the preceding. Before the Revolution she had sung with her husband in the chorus. In 1815 she lived wretchedly with her daughter Caroline, following the embroiderer's trade, in a house on rue du Tourniquet-Saint-Jean, which belonged to Molineux. Wishing to find a protector for her daughter, Caroline, Mme. Crochard favored the attentions of the Comte de Granville. He rewarded her with a life-annuity of three thousand francs. She died, in 1822, in a comfortable lodging on rue Saint-Louis at Marais. She constantly wore on her breast the cross of chevalier of the Legion of Honor conferred on her husband by the Emperor. The widow Crochard, watched by an eager circle, received, at her last moments, a visit from Abbe Fontanon, confessor of the Comtesse de Granville, and was greatly troubled by the prelate's proceedings. (A Second Home)

CROCHARD (Caroline), daughter of the proceding; born in 1797. For several years during the Restoration she was the mistress of Comte de Granville; at that time she was known as Mlle. de Bellefeuille, from the name of a small piece of property at Gatinais given to the young woman by an uncle of the comte who had taken a liking to her. Her lover installed her in an elegant apartment on rue Taitbout, where Esther Gobseck afterwards lived. Caroline Crochard abandoned M. de Granville and a good position for a needy young fellow named Solvet, who ran through with all her property. Sick and poverty-stricken in 1833, she lived in a wretched two-story house on rue Gaillon. She gave the Comte de Granville a son, Charles, and a daughter, Eugenie. (A Second Home)

CROCHARD (Charles), illegitimate child of Comte de Granville and Caroline Crochard. In 1833 he was apprehended for a considerable theft, when he appealed to his father through the agency of Eugene de Granville, his half-brother. The comte gave the latter money enough to clear up the miserable business, if such were possible. (A Second Home) The theft in question was committed at the home of Mlle. Beaumesnil. He carried off her diamonds. (The Middle Classes)

CROISIER (Du). (See Bousquier, Du.)

CROIZEAU, former coachmaker to Bonaparte's Imperial court; had an income of about forty thousand francs; lived on rue Buffault; a widower without children. He was a constant visitor at Antonia Chocardelle's reading-room on rue Coquenard, time of Louis Philippe, and he offered to marry the "charming woman." (A Man of Business)

CROTTAT (Monsieur and Madame), retired farmers; parents of the notary Crottat, assassinated by some thieves, among them being the notorious Dannepont, alias La Pouraille. The trial of this crime was called in May, 1830. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life) They were well-to-do folk and, according to Cesar Birotteau who knew them, old man Crottat was as "close as a snail." (Cesar Birotteau)

CROTTAT (Alexandre), head-clerk of Maitre Roguin, and his successor in 1819, after the flight of the notary. He married the daughter of Lourdois, the painting-contractor. Cesar Birotteau thought for a time of making him his son-in-law. He called him, familiarly, "Xandrot." Alexandre Crottat was a guest at the famous ball given by the perfumer in December, 1818. He was in friendly relations with Derville, the attorney, who commissioned him with a sort of half-pay for Colonel Chabert. He was also Comtesse Ferraud's notary at this time. (Cesar Birotteau, Colonel Chabert) In 1822 he was notary to Comte de Serizy. (A Start in Life) He was also notary to Charles de Vandenesse; and one evening, at the home of the marquis, he made some awkward allusions which undoubtedly recalled unpleasant memories to his client and Mme. d'Aiglemont. Upon his return home he narrated the particulars to his wife, who chided him sharply. (A Woman of Thirty) Alexandre Crottat and Leopold Hannequin signed the will dictated by Sylvain Pons on his death-bed. (Cousin Pons)

CRUCHOT (Abbe), priest of Saumur; dignitary of the Chapter of Saint-Martin of Tours; brother of Cruchot, the notary; uncle of President Cruchot de Bonfons; the Talleyrand of his family; after much angling he induced Eugenie Grandet to wed the president in 1827. (Eugenie Grandet)

CRUCHOT, notary at Saumur during the Restoration; brother of Abbe Cruchot; uncle of President Cruchot de Bonfons. He as well as the prelate was much concerned with making the match between his nephew and Eugenie Grandet. The young girl's father entrusted M. Cruchot with his usurious dealings and probably with all his money matters. (Eugenie Grandet)

CURIEUX (Catherine). (See Farrabesche, Madame.)

CYDALISE, magnificent woman of Valognes, Normandy, who launched out in Paris in 1840 to make capital out of her beauty. Born in 1824, she was then only sixteen. She served as an instrument for Montes the Brazilian who, in order to avenge himself on Mme. Marneffe—now Mme. Crevel—inoculated the young girl with a terrible disease through one of his negroes. He in turn obtained it from Cydalise and transmitted it to the faithless Valerie who died as also did her husband. Cydalise probably accompanied Montes to Brazil, the only place where this horrible ailment is curable. (Cousin Betty)

  1. By Renee-Charles Guilbert de Pixerecourt; played for the first time at Paris in 1810.
  2. Given erroneously in original text as 1852.—J.W.M.