TABAREAU, bailiff of the justice of the peace in the eighth ward of Paris in 1844-1845. He was on good terms with Fraisier, the business agent. Madame Cibot, door-keeper, on the rue de Normandie, retained Tabareau to make a demand for her upon Schmucke for the payment of three thousand one hundred and ninety-two francs, due her from the German musician and Pons, for board, lodging, taxes, etc. (Cousin Pons)

TABAREAU (Mademoiselle), only child of Tabareau, the bailiff; a large, red-haired consumptive; was heir, through her mother, of a house on the Place Royale; a fact which made her hand sought by Fraisier, the business agent. (Cousin Pons)

TABOUREAU, formerly a day-laborer, and afterwards, during the Restoration, a grain-dealer and money-lender in the commune of Isere, of which Doctor Benassis was mayor. He was a thin man, very wrinkled, bent almost double, with thin lips, and a hooked chin that almost made connection with his nose, little gray eyes spotted with black, and as sly as a horse-trader. (The Country Doctor)

TAILLEFER (Jean-Frederic), born about 1779 at Beauvais; by means of a crime, in 1799, he laid the foundations of his fortune, which was considerable. In an inn near Andernach, Rhenish Prussia, Jean-Frederic Taillefer, then a surgeon in the army, killed and robbed, one night, a rich native tradesman, Monsieur Walhenfer, by name; however, he was never incommoded by this murder; for accusing appearances pointed to his friend, colleague and fellow-countryman, Prosper Magnan, who was executed. Returning to Paris, J.-F. Taillefer was from that time forth a wealthy and honored personage. He was captain of the first company of grenadiers of the National Guard, and an influencial banker; received much attention during the funeral obsequies of J.-B. d'Aldrigger; made successful speculations in Nucingen's third venture. He was married twice, and was brutal in his treatment of his first wife (a relative of Madame Couture) who bore him two children, Frederic-Michel and Victorine. He was owner of a magnificent mansion on the rue Joubert. In Louis Philippe's reign he entertained in this mansion with one of the most brilliant affairs ever known, according to the account of the guests present, among whom were Blondet, Rastignac, Valentin, Cardot, Aquilina de la Garde, and Euphrasie. M. Taillefer suffered, nevertheless, morally and physically; in the first place because of the crime that he had previously committed, for remorse for this deed came over him every fall, that being the time of its perpetration; in the second place, because of gout in the head, according to Doctor Brousson's diagnosis. Though well cared for by his second wife, and by his daughter of the first wife, Jean-Frederic died some time after a sumptuous feast given at his house. An evening passed in the salon of a banker, father of Mademoiselle Fanny, hastened Taillefer's end; for there he was obliged to listen to Hermann's story about the unjust martyrdom of Magnan. The funeral notice read as follows: "You are invited to be present at the funeral services of M. Jean-Frederic Taillefer, of the firm Taillefer & Company, formerly contractor for supplies, in his life-time Knight of the Legion of Honor and of the Golden Spur, Captain of the National Guard of Paris, died May 1st, at his mansion, rue Joubert. The services will be conducted at —, etc. In behalf of——," etc. (The Firm of Nucingen, Father Goriot, The Magic Skin, The Red Inn)

TAILLEFER (Madame), first wife of the preceding, and mother of Frederic-Michel and Victorine Taillefer. As the result of the harsh treatment by her husband, who unjustly suspected her of being unfaithful, she died of a broken heart, presumably at quite an early age. (Father Goriot)

TAILLEFER (Madame), second wife of Jean-Frederic Taillefer, who married her as a speculation, but even then made her happy. She seemed to be devoted to him. (The Red Inn)

TAILLEFER (Frederic-Michel), son of Jean-Frederic Taillefer by his first wife, did not even try to protect his sister, Victorine, from her father's unjust persecutions. Designated heir of the whole of his father's great fortune, he was killed, in 1819, near Clignancourt, by a dexterous and unerring stroke, in a duel with Colonel Franchessini, the duel being instigated by Jacques Collin, in the interest of Eugene de Rastignac, though the latter knew nothing of the matter. (Father Goriot)

TAILLEFER (Victorine), sister of the preceding, and daughter of Jean-Frederic Taillefer by his first wife; a distant cousin of Madame Couture; her mother having died in 1819, she wrongfully passed in her father's opinion for "the child of adulterous connections"; was turned away from her father's house, and sought protection with her kinswoman, Madame Couture, the widow of Couture the ordainer, on the rue Neuve-Saint-Genevieve, in Madame Vauquer's boarding-house; there she fell in love with Eugene de Rastignac; by the death of her brother she became heir to all the property of her father, Jean-Frederic Taillefer, whose death-bed she comforted in every way possible. Victorine Taillefer probably remained single. (Father Goriot, The Red Inn)

TALLEYRAND-PERIGORD (Charles-Maurice de), Prince de Benevent, Bishop of Autun, ambassador and minister, born in Paris, in 1754, died in 1838, at his home on the rue SaintFlorentin.[1] Talleyrand gave attention to the insurrectional stir that arose in Bretagne, under the direction of the Marquis de Montauran, about 1799. (The Chouans) The following year (June, 1800), on the eve of the battle of Marengo, M. de Talleyrand conferred with Malin de Gondreville, Fouche, Carnot, and Sieyes, about the political situation. In 1804 he received M. de Chargeboeuf, M. d'Hauteserre the elder, and the Abbe Goujet, who came to urge him to have the names of Robert and Adrien d'Hauteserre and Paul-Marie and Marie-Paul de Simeuse erased from the list of emigrants; some time afterwards, when these latter were condemned, despite their innocence, as guilty of the abduction and detention of Senator Malin, he made every effort to secure their pardon, at the earnest instance of Maitre Bordin, as well as the Marquis de Chargeboeuf. At the hour of the execution of the Duc d'Enghien, which he had perhaps advised, he was found with Madame de Luynes in time to give her the news of it, at the exact moment of its happening. M. de Talleyrand was very fond of Antoinette de Langeais. A frequent visitor of the Chaulieus, he was even more intimate with their near relative, the elderly Princesse de Vauremont, who made him executor of her will. (The Gondreville Mystery, The Thirteen, Letters of Two Brides) Fritot, in selling his famous "Selim" shawl to Mistress Noswell, made use of a cunning that certainly would not have deceived the illustrious diplomat; one day, indeed, on noticing the hesitation of a fashionable lady as between two bracelets, Talleyrand asked the opinion of the clerk who was showing the jewelry, and advised the purchase of the one rejected by the latter. (Gaudissart II)

TARLOWSKI, a Pole; colonel in the Imperial Guard; ordnance officer under Napoleon Bonaparte; friend of Poniatowski; made a match between his daughter and Bourlac. (The Seamy Side of History)

TASCHERON, a very upright farmer, in a small way, in the market town of Montegnac, nine leagues distant from Limoges; left his village in August, 1829, immediately after the execution of his son, Jean-Francois. With his wife, parents, children and grandchildren, he sailed for America, where he prospered and founded the town of Tascheronville in the State of Ohio. (The Country Parson)

TASCHERON (Jean-Francois), one of the sons of the preceding, born about 1805, a porcelain maker, working successively with Messieurs Graslin and Philippart; at the end of Charles X.'s reign, he committed a triple crime which, owing to his excellent character and antecedents, seemed for a long time inexplicable. Jean-Francois Tascheron fell in love with the wife of his first employer, Pierre Graslin, and she reciprocated the passion; to prepare a way for them to escape together, he went one night to the house of Pingret, a rich and miserly husbandman in the Faubourg Saint-Etienne, robbed him of a large sum of money, and, thinking to assure his safety, murdered the old man and his servant, Jeanne Malassis. Being arrested, despite his precautions, Jean-Francois Tascheron made especial effort not to compromise Madame Graslin. Condemned to death, he refused to confess, and was deaf to the prayers of Pascal, the chaplain, yielding somewhat, however, to his other visitors, the Abbe Bonnet, his mother, and his sister Denise; as a result of their influence he restored a considerable portion of the hundred thousand francs stolen. He was executed at Limoges, in August, 1829. He was the natural father of Francois Graslin. (The Country Parson)

TASCHERON (Louis-Marie), a brother of the preceding; with Denise Tascheron (afterwards Denise Gerard) he fulfilled a double mission: he destroyed the traces of the crime of Jean-Francois, that might betray Madame Graslin, and restored the rest of the stolen money to Pingret's heirs, Monsieur and Madame de Vanneaulx. (The Country Parson)

TASCHERON (Denise), a sister of the preceding. (See Gerard, Madame Gregoire.)

TAUPIN, cure of Soulanges (Bourgogne), co usin of the Sarcus family and Sarcus-Taupin, the miller. He was a man of ready wit, of happy disposition, and on good terms with all his parishioners. (The Peasantry)

TERNNICK (De), Duc de Casa-Real, which name see.

TERRASSE AND DUCLOS, keepers of records at the Palais, in 1822; consulted at that time with success by Godeschal. (A Start in Life)

THELUSSON, a banker, one of whose clerks was Lemprun before he entered the Banque de France as messenger. (The Middle Classs)

THERESE, lady's-maid to Madame de Nucingen during the Restoration and the reign of Louis Philippe. (Father Goriot, A Daughter of Eve)

THERESE, lady's-maid to Madame Xavier Rabourdin, on the rue Duphot, Paris, in 1824. (The Government Clerks)

THERESE, lady's-maid to Madame de Rochefide in the latter part of Charles X.'s reign, and during the reign of Louis Philippe. (Beatrix)

THERESE (Sister), the name under which Antoinette de Langeais died, after she had taken the veil, and retired to the convent of bare-footed Carmelites on an island belonging to Spain, probably the island of Leon. (The Thirteen)

THIBON (Baron), chief of the Comptoir d'Escompte, in 1818, had been a colleague of Cesar Birotteau, the perfumer. (Cesar Birotteau)

THIRION, usher to the closet of King Louis XVIII., was on terms of intimacy with the Ragons, and was invited to Cesar Birotteau's famous ball on December 17, 1818, together with his wife and his daughter Amelie, one of Servin's pupils who married Camusot de Marville. (The Vendetta, Cesar Birotteau) The emoluments of his position, obtained by the patronage that his zeal deservedly acquired, enabled him to lay by a considerable sum, which the Camusot de Marvilles inherited. (Jealousies of a Country Town)

THOMAS was owner of a large house in Bretagne, that Marie de Verneuil (Madame Alphonse de Montauran) bought for Francine de Cottin, her lady's maid, and a niece of Thomas. (The Chouans)

THOMAS (Madame) was a milliner in Paris towards the latter part of the reign of Charles X.; it was to her establishment that Frederic de Nucingen, after being driven to the famous pastry shop of Madame Domas, an error arising from his Alsatian pronunciation, betook himself in quest of a black satin cape, lined with pink, for Esther van Gobseck. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life)

THOMIRE contributed to the material splendors of the famous entertainment given by Frederic Taillefer, about 1831, at his mansion on the rue Joubert, Paris. (The Magic Skin)

THOREC, an anagram of Hector, and one of the names successively assumed by Baron Hector Hulot d'Ervy, after deserting his conjugal roof. (Cousin Betty)

THOREIN, a carpenter, was employed in making changes in Cesar Birotteau's apartments some days before the famous ball given by the perfumer on December 17, 1818. (Cesar Birotteau)

THOUL, anagram of the word Hulot, and one of the names successively assumed by Baron Hector Hulot d'Ervy, after his desertion of the conjugal roof. (Cousin Betty)

THOUVENIN, famous in his work, but an unreliable tradesman, was employed, in 1818, by Madame Anselme Popinot (then Mademoiselle Birotteau) to rebind for her father, the perfumer, the works of various authors. (Cesar Birotteau) Thouvenin, as an artist, was in love with his own works—like Servais, the favorite gilder of Elie Magus. (Cousin Pons)

THUILLIER was first door-keeper of the minister of finance in the second half of the eighteenth century; by furnishing meals to the clerks he realized from his position a regular annual income of almost four thousand francs; being married and the father of two children, Marie-Jeanne-Brigitte and Louis-Jerome, he retired from active duties about 1806, and, losing his wife in 1810, he himself died in 1814. He was commonly called "Stout Father Thuillier." (The Government Clerks, The Middle Classes)

THUILLIER (Marie-Jeanne-Brigitte), daughter of the preceding, born in 1787, of independent disposition and of obstinate will, chose the single state to become, as it were, the ambitious mother of Louis-Jerome, a brother younger than herself by four years. She began life by making coin-bags at the Bank of France, then engaged in money-lending; took every advantage of her debtors, among others Fleury, her father's colleague at the Treasury. Being now rich, she met the Lempruns and the Galards; took upon herself the management of the small fortune of their heir, Celeste Lemprum, whom she had selected specially to be the wife of her brother; after their marriage she lived with her brother's family; was also one of Mademoiselle Colleville's god-mothers. On the rue Saint-Dominique-d'Enfer, and on the Place de la Madeleine, she showed herself many times to be the friend of Theodose de la Peyrade, who vainly sought the hand of the future Madame Phellion. (The Government Clerks, The Middle Classes)

THUILLIER (Louis-Jerome), younger brother of the preceding, born in 1791. Thanks to his father's position, he entered the Department of Finance as clerk at an early age. Louis-Jerome Thuillier, being exempted from military service on account of weak eyes, married Celeste Lemprun, Galard's wealthy granddaughter, about 1814. Ten years later he had reached the advancement of reporting clerk, in Xavier Rabourdin's office, Flamet de la Billardiere's division. His pleasing exterior gave him a series of successes in love affairs, that was continued after his marriage, but cut short by the Restoration, bringing back, as it did, with peace, the gallants escaped from the battlefield. Among his amorous conquests may be counted Madame Flavie Colleville, wife of his intimate friend and colleague at the Treasury; of their relations was born Celeste Colleville—Madame Felix Phellion. Having been deputy-chief for two years (since January 5, 1828), he left the Treasury at the outbreak of the Revolution of 1830. In him the office lost an expert in equivocal jests. Having left the department, Thuillier turned his energies in another direction. Marie-Jeanne-Brigette, his elder sister, turning him to the intricacies of real estate, made him leave their lodging-place on the rue d'Argenteuil, to purchase a house on the rue Saint-Dominique-d'Enfer, which had formerly belonged to President Lecamus and to Petitot, the artist. Thuillier's conceit and vanity, now that he had become a well-known and important citizen, were greatly flattered when Theodose de la Peyrade hired apartments from him. M. Thuillier was manager of the "Echo de la Bievre," signed a certain pamphlet on political economy, was candidate for the Chamber of Deputies, purchased a second house, in 1840, on the Place de la Madeleine, and was chosen to succeed J.-J. Popinot as member of the General Council of the Seine. (The Government Clerks, The Middle Classes)

THUILLIER (Madame), wife of the preceding; born Celeste Lemprun, in 1794; only daughter of the oldest messenger in the Bank of France, and, on her mother's side, granddaughter od Galard, a well-to-do truck-gardener of Auteuil; a transparent blonde, slender, sweet-tempered, religious, and barren. In her married life, Madame Thuillier was swayed beneath the despotism of her sister-in-law, Marie-Jeanne-Brigitte, but derived some consolation from the affection of Celeste Colleville, and, about 1841, contributed as far as her influence permitted, to the marriage of this her god-daughter. (The Middle Classes)

TIENNETTE, born in 1769, a Breton who wore her native costume, was, in 1829, the devoted servant of Madame de Portenduere the elder, on the rue des Bourgeois (now Bezout), Nemours. (Ursule Mirouet)

TILLET (Ferdinand du), had legally a right only to the first part of his name, which was given him on the morning of SaintFerdinand's day by the curate of the church of Tillet, a town near Andelys (Eure). Ferdinand was the son of an unknown great nobleman and a poor countrywoman of Normandie, who was delivered of her son one night in the curate's garden, and then drowned herself. The priest took in the new born son of the betrayed mother and took care of him. His protector being dead, Ferdinand resolved to make his own way in the world, took the name of his village, was first commercial traveler, and, in 1814, he became head clerk in Birotteau's perfumery establishment on the rue Saint-Honore, Paris. While there he tried, but without success, to win Constance Birotteau, his patron's wife, and stole three thousand francs from the cash drawer. They discovered the theft and forgave the offender, but in such a way that Du Tillet himself was offended. He left the business and started a bank; being the lover of Madame Roguin, the notary's wife, he became involved in the business scheme known as "the lands of the Madeleine," the original cause of Birotteau's failure and of his own fortune (1818). Ferdinand du Tillet, now a lynx of almost equal prominence with Nucingen, with whom he was on very intimate terms, being loved by Mademoiselle Malvina d'Aldrigger, being looked up to by the Kellers also, and being further the patron of Tiphaine, the Provins Royalist, was able to crush Birotteau, and triumphed over him, even on December 17, 1818, the evening of the famous ball given by the perfumer; Jules Desmarets, Benjamin de la Billiardiere, and he were the only perfect types present of worldly propriety and distinction. (Cesar Birotteau, The Firm of Nucingen, The Middle Classes, A Bachelor's Establishment, Pierrette) Once started, M. du Tillet seldom left the Chaussee d'Antin, the financial quarter of Paris, during the Restoration and the reign of Louis Philippe. It was there that he received Birotteau, imploring aid, and gave him a letter of recommendation for Nucingen, the result of which was quite different from what the unfortunate merchant had anticipated. Indeed, it was agreed between the two business men, if the i's in the letter in question were not dotted, to give a negative answer; by this intentional omission, Du Tillet ruined the unfortunate Birotteau. He had his bank on the rue Joubert when Rodolphe Castanier, the dishonest cashier, robbed Nucingen. (Melmoth Reconciled) Ferdinand du Tillet was now a consequential personage, when Lucien de Rubempre was making his start in Paris (1821). (A Distinguished Provincial at Paris) Ten years later he married his last daughter to the Comte de Granville, a peer of France, and "one of the most illustrious names of the French magistracy." He occupied one of the elegant mansions on the rue Neuve-des-Mathurins, now rue des Mathurins; for a long time he kept Madame Roguin as his mistress; was often seen, in the Faubourg Saint-Honore, with the Marquise d'Espard, being found there on the day that Diane de Cadignan was slandered in the presence of Daniel d'Arthez, who was very much in love with her. With Massol and Raoul Nathan he founded a prominent newspaper, which he used for his financial interests. He did not hesitate to get rid of Nathan, who was loaded down with debts; but he found Nathan before him once more, however, as candidate for the Chamber of Deputies, to succeed Nucingen, who had been made a peer of France; this time, also, he triumphed over his rival, and was elected. (The Secrets of a Princess, A Daughter of Eve) M. du Tillet was no more sparing of Maxime de Trailles, but harassed him pitilessly, when the count was sent into Champagne as electoral agent of the government. (The Member for Arcis) He was present at the fete given by Josepha Mirah, by way of a house-warming, in her mansion on the rue de la Ville-l'Eveque; Celestin Crevel and Valerie Marneffe invited him to their wedding. (Cousin Betty) At the end of the monarchy of July, being a deputy, with his seat in the Left Centre, Ferdinand du Tillet kept in the most magnificent style Seraphine Sinet, the Opera girl, more familiarly called Carabine. (The Unconscious Humorists) There is a biography of Ferdinand du Tillet, elaborated by the brilliant pen of Jules Claretie, in "Le Temps" of September 5, 1884, under title of "Life in Paris."

TILLET (Madame Ferdinand du), wife of the preceding, born Marie-Eugenie de Granville in 1814, one of the four children of the Comte and Comtesse de Granville, and younger sister of Madame Felix de Vandenesse; a blonde like her mother; in her marriage, which took place in 1831, was a renewal of the griefs that had sobered the years of her youth. Eugenie du Tillet's natural playfulness of spirit could find vent only with her eldest sister, Angelique-Marie, and their harmony teacher, W. Schmucke, in whose company the two sisters forgot their father's neglect and the convent-like rigidness of a devotee's home. Poor in the midst of wealth, deserted by her husband, and bent beneath an inflexible yoke, Madame du Tillet could lend but too little aid to her sister—then Madame de Vandenesse—in the trouble caused by a passion she had conceived for Raoul Nathan. However, she supplied her with two powerful allies—Delphine de Nucingen and W. Schmucke. As a result of her marriage Madame du Tillet had two children. (A Daughter of Eve)

TINTENIAC, known for his part in the Quiberon affair, had among his confederates Jacques Horeau, who was executed in 1809 with the Chauffeurs of Orne. (The Seamy Side of History)

TINTI (Clarina), born in Sicily about 1803; was maid in an inn, when her glorious voice came under the notice of a great nobleman, her fellow-countryman, the Duke Cataneo, who had her educated. At the age of sixteen, she made her debut with brilliant success at several Italian theatres. In 1820, she was "prima donna assoluta" of the Fenice theatre, Venice. Being loved by Genovese, the famous tenor, Tinti was usually engaged with him. Of a passionate nature, beautiful and capricious, Clarina became enamored of Prince Emilio du Varese, at that time the lover of the Duchesse Cataneo, and became, for a while, the mistress of that descendant of the Memmis: the ruined palace of Varese, which Cataneo hired for Tinti, was the scene of these ephemeral relations. (Massimilla Doni) In the winter of 1823-1824, at the home of Prince Gandolphini, in Geneva, with Genovese, Princesse Gandolphini, and an exiled Italian prince, she sang the famous quartette, "Mi manca la voce." (Albert Savarus)

TIPHAINE, of Provins, brother of Madame Guenee-Galardon, rich in his own right, and expecting something more by way of inheritance from his father, adopted the legal profession; married a granddaughter of Chevrel, a prominent banker of Paris; had children by his marriage; presided over the court of his native town in the latter part of Charles X.'s reign. At that time an ardent Royalist, and resting secure under the patronage of the well-known financiers, Ferdinand du Tillet and Frederic de Nucingen, M. Tiphaine contended against Gouraud, Vinet, and Rogron, the local representatives of the Liberal party, and for a considerable time upheld the cause of Mademoiselle Pierrette Lorrain, their victim. Tiphaine, however, suited himself to the circumstances, and came over to Louis Philippe, the "revolutionist," under whose reign he became a member of the Chamber of Deputies; he was "one of the most esteemed orators of the Centre"; secured his appointment to the judgeship of the court of first instance of the Seine, and still later he was made president of the royal court. (Pierrette)

TIPHAINE (Madame), wife of the preceding, born Mathilde-Melanie Roguin, in the early part of the nineteenth century; the only daughter of a wealthy notary of Paris, noted for his fraudulent failure in 1819; on her mother's side, granddaughter of Chevrel, the banker, and also distant cousin of the Guillaumes, and the families of Lebas and Sommervieux. Before her marriage she was a frequent visitor at the studio of Servin, the artist; she was there "the malicious oracle" of the Liberal party, and, with Laure, took sides with Ginevra di Piombo against Amelie Thirion, leader of the aristocratic group. (The Vendetta) Clever, pretty, coquettish, correct, and a real Parisian, and protected by Madame Roguin's lover, Ferdinand du Tillet, Mathilde-Melanie Tiphaine reigned supreme in Provins, in the midst of the Guenee family, represented by Mesdames Galardon, Lessourd, Martener, and Auffray; took in, or, rather, defended Pierrette Lorrain; and overwhelmed the Rogron salon with her spirit of raillery. (Pierrette)

TISSOT (Pierre-Francois), born March 10, 1768, at Versailles, died April 7, 1854; general secretary of the Maintenance Commission in 1793, successor to Jacques Delille in the chair of Latin poetry in the College de France; a member of the Academy in 1833, and the author of many literary and historical works; under the Restoration he was managing editor of the "Pilote," a radical sheet that published a special edition of the daily news for the provinces, a few hours after the morning papers. Horace Bianchon, the house-surgeon, there learned of the death of Frederic-Michel Taillefer, who had been killed in a duel with Franchessini. (Father Goriot) In the reign of Louis Philippe, when Charles-Edouard Rusticoli de la Palferine's burning activity vainly sought an upward turn, Tissot, from the professor's chair, pleaded the cause of the rights and aspirations of youth that had been ignored and despised by the power surrendered into the hands of superannuated mossbacks. (A Prince of Bohemia)

TITO, a young and handsome Italian, in 1823, brought "la liberta e denaro" to the Prince and Princess Gandolphini, who were at that time impoverished outlaws, living in concealment at Gersau (canton of Lucerne) under the English name of Lovelace—"L'Ambitieux par Amour." (Albert Savarus)

TOBY, born in Ireland about 1807; also called Joby, and Paddy; during the Restoration, Beaudenord's "tiger" on the Quai Malaquais, Paris; a wonder of precocity in vice; acquired a sort of celebrity in exercise of his duties, a celebrity that was even reflected on Madame d'Aldrigger's future son-in-law. (The Firm of Nucingen) During Louis Philippe's reign, Toby was a servant in the household of the Duc Georges de Maufrigneuse on the rue Miromesnil. (The Secrets of a Princess)

TONNELET (Matire), a notary, and son-in-law of M. Gravier of Isere, whose intimate friend was Benassis, and who was one of the co-workers of that beneficent physician. Tonnelet was thin and pale, and of medium height; he generally dressed in black, and wore spectacles. (The Country Doctor)

TONSARD (Mere), a peasant woman of Bourgogne, born in 1745, was one of the most formidable enemies of Montcornet, the owner of Aigues, and of his head-keeper, Justine Michaud. She had killed the keeper's favorite hound and she encroached upon the forest trees, so as to kill them and take the dead wood off. A reward of a thousand francs having been offered to the person who should discover the perpetrator of these wrongs, Mere Tonsard had herself denounced by her granddaughter, Marie Tonsard, in order to secure this sum of money to her family, and she was sentenced to five years' imprisonment, though she probably did not serve her term. Mere Bonnebault committed the same offences as Mere Tonsard; they had a quarrel, each wishing to profit by the advantages of a denunciation, and had ended by referring the matter to the casting of lots, which resulted in favor of Mere Tonsard. (The Peasantry)

TONSARD (Francois), son of the preceding, born about 1773, was a country laborer, skilled more or less in everything; he possessed a hereditary talent, attested, moreover, by his name, for trimming trees, and various kinds of hedges. Lazy and crafty, Francois Tonsard secured from Sophie Laguerre, Montcornet's predecessor at Aigues, an acre of land, on which he built, in 1795, the wine-shop known as the Grand-I-Vert. He was saved from conscription by Francois Gaubertin, at that time steward of Aigues, at the urgent request of Mademoiselle Cochet, their common mistress. Being then married to Philippine Fourchon, and Gaubertin having become his wife's lover, he could poach with freedom, and so it was that the Tonsard family made regular levies on the Aigues forest with impunity: they supplied themselves entirely from the wood of the forest, kept two cows at the expense of the landlord, and were represented at the harvest by seven gleaners. Being incommoded by the active watch kept over them by Justine Michaud, Gaubertin' s successor, Tonsard killed him, one night in 1823. Afterwards in the dismemberment of Montcornet's estate, Tonsard got his share of the spoils. (The Peasantry)

TONSARD (Madame), wife of the preceding; born Philippe Fourchon; daughter of the Fourchon who was the natural grandfather of Mouche; large, and of a good figure, with a sort of rustic beauty; lax in morals; extravagant in her tastes, none the less she assured the prosperity of the Grand-I-Vert, by reason of her talent as a cook, and her free coquetry. By her marriage she had four children, two sons and two daughters. (The Peasantry)

TONSARD (Jean-Louis), born about 1801, son of the preceding, and perhaps also of Francois Gaubertin, to whom Philippe Tonsard was mistress. Exempted from military service in 1821 on account of a pretended disorder in the muscles of his right arm, Jean-Louis Tonsard posed under the protection of Soudry, Rogou and Gaubertin, in a circumspect way, as the enemy of the Montcornets and Michaud. He was a lover of Annette, Rigou's servant girl. (The Peasantry)

TONSARD (Nicolas), younger brother of the preceding, and the male counterpart of his sister Catherine; brutally persecuted, with his sister's connivance, Niseron's granddaughter, Genevieve, called La Pechina, whom he tried to outrage. (The Peasantry)

TONSARD (Catherine). (See Godain, Madame.)

TONSARD (Marie), sister of the preceding; a blonde; had the loose and uncivilized morals of her family. While mistress of Bonnebault, she proved herself, on one occasion at the Cafe de la Paix of Soulanges, to be fiercely jealous of Aglae Socquard, whom he wished to marry. (The Peasantry)

TONSARD (Reine), without any known relationship to all of the preceding, was, in spite of being very ugly, the mistress of the son of the Oliviers, porters to Valerie Marneffe-Crevel; and she remained for a long time the confidential lady's-maid of that married courtesan; but, being brought over by Jacques Collin, she eventually betrayed and ruined the Crevel family. (Cousin Betty)

TONY, coachman to Louis de l'Estorade, about 1840. (The Member for Arcis)

TOPINARD, born about 1805; officer in charge of the property of the theatre managed by Felix Gaudissart; in charge also of the lamps and fixtures; and, lastly, he had the task of placing the copies of the music on the musicians' stands. He went every day to the rue Normandie to get news of Sylvain Pons, who was suffering from a fatal attack of hepatitis; in the latter part of April, 1845, he was, with Fraisier, Villemot and Sonet's agent, one of the pall-bearers at the funeral of the cousin of the Camusot de Marvilles. On leaving the Pere-Lachaise, Topinard, who was living in the Cite Bordin, was moved to compassion for Schmucke, brought him home, and finally received him under his roof. Topinard then secured the position of cashier with Gaudissart, but he almost lost his position for trying to defend the interests of Schmucke, of whom the heirs-at-law of Pons had undertaken to rid themselves. Even under these circumstances Topinard aided Schmucke in his distress; he alone followed the German's body to the cemetery, and took pains to have him buried beside Sylvain Pons. (Cousin Pons)

TOPINARD (Madame Rosalie), wife of the preceding, born about 1815, called Lolotte; she was a member of the choir under the direction of Felix Gaudissart's predecessor, whose mistress she was. A victim of her lover's failure, she became box-opener of the first tier, and also quite a dealer in costumes during the following administration (1834-1845). She had first lived as Topinard's mistress, but he afterwards married her; she had three children by him. She took part in the funeral mass of Pons; when Schmucke was taken in by her husband in the Cite Bordin, she nursed the musician in his last illness. (Cousin Pons)

TOPINARD, eldest son of the preceding couple, was a supernumerary in Gaudissart's company. (Cousin Pons)

TOPINARD (Olga), sister of the preceding; a blonde of the German type; when quite young, she won the warmest affection of Schmucke, who was making his home with the employes of Gaudissart's theatre. (Cousin Pons)

TORLONIA (Duc), a name mentioned, in December, 1829, by the Baron Frederic de Nucingen, as that of one of his friends, and pronounced by him "Dorlonia." The duke had ordered a magnificent carpet, the price of which he considered exorbitant, but the baron bought it for Esther van Gobseck's "leedle balace" on the rue Saint-Georges. The Duc Torlonia belonged to the famous family of Rome, that was so hospitable to strangers, and was of French origin. The original name was Tourlogne. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life)

TORPILLE (La), sobriquet of Esther van Gobseck.

TOUCHARD, father and son, ran a line of stages, during the Restoration, to Beaumont-sur-Oise. (A Start in Life)

TOUCHES (Mademoiselle Felicite des), born at Guerande in 1791; related to the Grandlieus; not connected with the Touches family of Touraine, to which the regent's ambassador, more famous as a comic poet, belonged; became an orphan in 1793; her father, a major in the Gardes de la Porte, was killed on the steps of the Tuileries August 10, 1792, and her only brother, a younger member of the guard, was massacred at the Carmelite convent; lastly, her mother died of a broken heart a few days after this last catastrophe. Entrusted then to the care of her maternal aunt, Mademoiselle de Faucombe, a nun of Chelles,[2] she was taken by her to Faucombe, a considerable estate situated near Nantes, and soon afterwards she was put in prison along with her aunt on the charge of being an emissary of Pitt and Cobourg. The 9th Thermidor found them released; but Mademoiselle de Faucombe died of fright, and Felicite was sent to M. de Faucombe, an archaeologist of Nantes, being her maternal great-uncle and her nearest relative. She grew up by herself, "a tom-boy"; she had at her command an enormous library, which allowed her to acquire, at a very early age, a great mass of information. The literary spirit being developed in her, Mademoiselle des Touches began by assisting her aged uncle; wrote three articles that he believed were his own work, and, in 1822, made her beginning in literature with two volumes of dramatic works, after the fashion of Lope de Vega and Shakespeare, which produced a sort of artistic revolution. She then assumed as a permanent appellation, the pseudonym of Camille Maupin, and led a bright and independent life. Her income of eighty thousand livres, her castle of Les Touches, near Guerande—Loire-Inferieure—her Parisian mansion on the rue de Mont-Blanc—now rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin,—her birth, and her connections, had their power of influence. Her irregularities were covered as with a veil, in consideration of her genius. Indeed, Mademoiselle des Touches had more than one lover: a gallant about 1817; then an original mind, a sceptic, the real creator of Camille Maupin; and next Gennaro Conti, whom she knew in Rome, and Claude Vignon, a critic of reputation. (Beatrix, Lost Illusions, A Distinguished Provincial at Paris) Felicite was a patron of Joseph Bridau, the romantic painter, who was despised by the bourgeois (A Bachelor's Establishment); she felt a liking for Lucien de Rubempre, whom, indeed, she came near marrying; though this circumstance did not prevent her from aiding the poet's mistress, Coralie, the actress; for, at the time of their amours, Felicite des Touches was in high favor at the Gymnase. She was the anonymous collaborator of a comedy into which Leontine Volnys—the little Fay of that time—was introduced; she had intended to write another vaudeville play, in which Coralie was to have made the principal role. When the young actress took to her bed and died, which occurred under the Poirson-Cerfberr[3] management, Felicite paid the expenses of her burial, and was present at the funeral services, which were conducted at Notre-Dame de Bonne-Nouvelle. She gave dinner-parties on Wednesdays; Levasseur, Conti, Mesdames Pasta, Conti, Fodor, De Bargeton, and d'Espard, attended her receptions. (A Distinguished Provincial at Paris) Although a Legitimist, like the Marquise d'Espard, Felicite, after the Revolution of July, kept her salon open, where were frequently assembled her neighbor Leontine de Serizy, Lord Dudley and Lady Barimore, the Nucingens, Joseph Bridau, Mesdames de Cadignan and de Montcornet, the Comtesse de Vandenesse, Daniel d'Arthez, and Madame Rochegude, otherwise known as Rochefide. Canalis, Rastignac, Laginski, Montriveau, Bianchon, Marsay, and Blondet rivaled each other in telling piquant stories and passing caustic remarks under her roof. (Another Study of Woman) Furthermore, Mademoiselle des Touches shortly afterwards gave advice to Marie de Vandenesse and condemned free love. (A Daughter of Eve) In 1836, while traveling through Italy, which she was showing to Claude Vignon and Leon de Lora, the landscape painter, she was present at an entertainment given by Maurice de l'Hostal, the French consul at Genoa; on this occasion he gave an account of the ups and downs of the Bauvan family. (Honorine) In 1837, after having appointed as her residuary legatee Calyste du Guenic, whom she adored, but to whom she refused to give herself over, Felicite des Touches retired to a convent in Nantes of the order of Saint-Francois. Among the works left by this second George Sand, we may mention "Le Nouveau Promethee," a bold attempt, standing alone among her works, and a short autobiographical romance, in which she described her betrayed passion for Conti, an admirable work, which was regarded as the counterpart of Benjamin Constant's "Adolphe." (Beatrix, The Muse of the Department)

TOUPILLIER, born about 1750; of a wretchedly poor family consisting of three sisters and five brothers, one of whom was father of Madame Cardinal. From drum-major in the Gardes-Francaise, Toupillier became beadle in the church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris; then dispenser of holy water, having been an artist's model in the meantime. Toupillier, at the beginning of the Restoration, suspected either of being a Bonapartist, or of being unfit for his position, was discharged from the service of the church, and had only the right to stand at the threshold as a privileged beggar; however, he profited greatly by his new position, for he knew how to arouse the compassionate feelings of the faithful in every possible way, chiefly by passing as a centenarian. Having been entrusted with the diamonds that Charles Crochard had stolen from Mademoiselle Beaumesnil and which the young thief wished to get off his hands for the time being, Toupillier denied having received them and remained possessor of the stolen jewels. But Corentin, the famous police-agent, followed the pauper of Saint-Sulpice to the rue du Coeur-Volant, and surprised that new Cardillac engrossed in the contemplation of the diamonds. He, however, left them in his custody, on condition of his leaving by will all his property to Lydie Peyrade, Corentin's ward and Mademoiselle Beaumesnil's daughter. Corentin further required Toupillier to live in his house and under his surveillance on the rue Honore-Chevalier. At that time Toupillier had an income of eighteen hundred francs; he might be seen, at the church, munching wretched crusts; but, the church once closed, he went to dine at the Lathuile restaurant, situated on the Barriere de Clichy, and at night he got drunk on the excellent Rousillon wines. Notwithstanding an attack made by Madame Cardinal and Cerizet on the closet containing the diamonds, when the pauper of Saint-Sulpice died in 1840, Lydie Peyrade, now Madame Theodose de la Peyrade, inherited all that Toupillier possessed. (The Middle Classes)

TOUPINET, a Parisian mechanic, at the time of the Restoration, being married and father of a family, he stole his wife's savings, the fruit of arduous labor; he was imprisoned, about 1828, probably for debts. (The Commission in Lunacy)

TOUPINET (Madame), wife of the preceding; known under the name Pomponne; kept a fruit-stand; lived, in 1828, on the rue du Petit-Banquier, Paris; unhappy in her married life; obtained from the charitable J.-J. Popinot, under the name of a loan, ten francs for purchasing stock. (The Commission in Lunacy)

TOURNAN, a hatter of the rue Saint-Martin, Paris; among his customers was young Poiret, who, on July 3, 1823, brought him his head-covering, all greased, as a result of J.-J. Bixiou's practical joking. (The Government Clerks)

TOURS-MINIERES (Bernard-Polydor Bryond, Baron des), a gentleman of Alencon; born about 1772; in 1793, was one of the most active emissaries of the Comte de Lille (Louis XVIII.), in his conspiracy against the Republic. Having received the King's thanks, he retired to his estate in the department of Orne, which had long been burdened with mortgages; and, in 1807, he married Henriette Le Chantre de la Chanterie, with the concurrence of the Royalists, whose "pet" he was. He pretended to take part in the reactionary revolutionary movement of the West in 1809, implicated his wife in the matter, compromised her, ruined her, and then disappeared. Returning in secrecy to his country, under the assumed name of Lemarchand, he aided the authorities in getting at the bottom of the plot, and then went to Paris, where he became the celebrated police-agent Contenson. (The Seamy Side of History) He knew Peyrade, and received from Lenoir's old pupil the significant sobriquet of "Philosopher." Being agent for Fouche during the period of the Empire, he abandoned himself in the most sensual way to his passions, and lived a life of irregularity and vice. During the time of the Restoration Louchard had him employed by Nucingen at the time of the latter's amours with Esther van Gobseck. In the service of this noted banker, Contenson (with Peyrade and Corentin) tried to protect him from the snares of Jacques Collin, and followed the pseudo-Carlos Herrera to his place of refuge on a house-top; but being hurled from the roof by his intended victim, he was instantly killed during the winter of 1829-1830. (Scenes from a Courtesan's Life)

TOURS-MINIERES ( Baronne Bryond des), wife of the preceding; born Henriette Le Chantre de la Chanterie, in 1789; only daughter of Monsieur and Madame Le Chantre de la Chanterie; was married after her father's death. Through the machinations of Tours-Minieres she was brought into contact with Charles-Amedee-Louis-Joseph Rifoel, Chevalier du Vissard, became his mistress, and took the field for him in the Royalist cause, in the department of Orne, in 1809. Betrayed by her husband, she was executed in 1810, in accordance with a death-sentence of the court presided over by Mergi, Bourlac being attorney-general. (The Seamy Side of History)

TRAILLES (Comte Maxime de), born in 1791, belonged to a family that was descended from an attendant to Louis XI., and raised to the nobility by Francois I. This perfect example of the Parisian condottieri made his beginning in the early part of the nineteenth century as a page to Napoleon. Being loved, in turn, by Sarah Gobseck and Anastasie de Restaud, Maxime de Trailles, himself already ruined, ruined both of these; gaming was his master passion, and his caprices knew no bounds. (Cesar Birotteau, Father Goriot, Gobseck) He took under his attention the Vicomte Savinien de Portenduere, a novice in Parisian life, whom also he would have served later as his second against Desire Minoret, but for the latter's death by accident. (Ursule Mirouet) His ready wit usually saved him from the throng of creditors that swarmed about him, but even thus he once paid a debt due Cerizet, in spite of himself. Maxime de Trailles, at that time, was keeping, in a modest way, Antonia Chocardelle, who had a news-stand on the rue Coquenard, near the rue Pigalle, on which Trailles lived; and, at the same time, a certain Hortense, a protegee of Lord Dudley, was seconding the genius of that excellent comedian, Cerizet. (A Man of Business, The Member for Arcis) The dominant party of the Restoration accused Maxime de Trailles of being a Bonapartist, and rebuked him for his shameless corruption of life; but the citizen monarchy extended him a cordial welcome. Marsay was the chief promoter of the count's fortunes; he moulded him, and sent him on delicate political missions, which he managed with marvelous success. (The Secrets of a Princess) And so the Comte de Trailles was widely known in social circles: as the guest of Josepha Mirah, by his presence he honored the house-warming in her new apartments on the rue de la Ville-l'Eveque. (Cousin Betty) Marsay being dead, he lost the power of his prestige. Eugene de Rastignac, who had become somewhat of a Puritan, showed but slight esteem for him. However, Maxime de Trailles was on easy terms with one of the minister's intimate friends, the brilliant Colonel Franchessini. Nucingen's son-in-law—Eugene de Rastignac—perhaps recalled Madame de Restaud's misfortunes, and doubtless entertained no good feeling for the man who was responsible for them all. None the less, he employed the services of M. de Trailles—who was always at ease in the Marquise d'Espard's salon, in the Faubourg Saint-Honore, though a man over forty years of age, painted and padded and bowed down with debts—and sent him to look after the political situation in Arcis before the spring election of 1839. Trailles worked his wires with judgment; he tried to override the Cinq-Cygnes, partisans of Henri V.; he supported the candidacy of Phileas Beauvisage, and sought the hand of Cecile-Renee Beauvisage, the wealthy heiress, but was unsuccessful on all sides. (The Member for Arcis) M. de Trailles, furthermore, excelled in the adjustment of private difficulties. M. d'Ajuda-Pinto, Abbe Brossette, and Madame de Grandlieu called for his assistance, and, with the further aid of Rusticoli de la Palferine, effected the reconciliation of the families of Calyste du Guenic and Arthur de Rochefide. (Beatrix) He became a member of the Chamber of Deputies, succeeding Phileas Beauvisage, who had replaced Charles de Sallenauve, at the Palais-Bourbon; here he was pointed out to S.-P. Gazonal. (The Unconscious Humorists)

TRANS (Mademoiselle), a young unmarried woman of Bordeaux, who, like Mademoiselle de Belor, was on the lookout for a husband when Paul de Manerville married Natalie Evangelista. (A Marriage Settlement)

TRANSON (Monsieur and Madame), wholesale dealers in earthenware goods on the rue des Lesdiguieres, were on intimate terms, about 1824, with their neighbors, the Baudoyers and the Saillards. (The Government Clerks)

TRAVOT (General), with his command, conducted, in 1815, the siege of Guerande, a fortress defended by the Baron du Guenic, who finally evacuated it, but who reached the wood with his Chouans and remained in possession of the country until the second return of the Bourbons. (Beatrix)

TROGNON (Maitre), a Parisian notary, wholly at the disposal of his neighbor, Maitre Fraisier; during the years 1844-1845 he lived on the rue Saint-Louis-au-Marais—now rue de Turenne—and reached the death-bed of Sylvain Pons before his colleague, Maitre Leopold Hannequin, though the latter actually received the musician's last wishes. (Cousin Pons)

TROISVILLE (Guibelin, Vicomte de), whose name is pronounced Treville, and who, as well as his numerous family, bore simply the name Guibelin during the period of the Empire; he belonged to a noble line of ardent Royalists well known in Alencon. (The Seamy Side of History) Very probably several of the Troisvilles, as well as the Chevalier de Valois and the Marquis d'Esgrignon, were among the correspondents of the Vendean chiefs, for it is well known that the department of Orne was counted among the centres of the anti-revolutionary uprising (1799). (The Chouans) Furthermore, the Bourbons, after their restoration, overwhelmed the Troisvilles with honors, making several of them members of the Chamber of Deputies or peers of France. The Vicomte Guibelin de Troisville served during the emigration in Russia, where he married a Muscovite girl, daughter of the Princesse Scherbeloff; and, during the year 1816, he returned to establish himself permantly among the people of Alencon. Accepting temporarily the hospitality of Rose-Victoire Cormon (eventually Madame du Bousquier), he innocently inspired her with false hopes; the viscount, naturally reserved, failed to inform her of his being son-in-law of Scherbeloff, and legitimate father of the future Marechale de Montcornet. Guibelin de Troisville, a loyal social friend of the Esgrignons, met in their salon the Roche-Guyons and the Casterans, distant cousins of his, but the intimate relations almost came to an end, when Mademoiselle Virginie de Troisville became Madame de Montcornet. (Jealousies of a Country Town) However, in spite of this union, which he looked upon as a mesalliance, the viscount was never cool towards his daughter and her husband, but was their guest at Aigues, in Bourgogne. (The Peasantry)

TROMPE-LA-MORT, a sobriquet of Jacques Collin.

TROUBERT (Abbe Hyacinthe), favorite priest of M. de Bourbonne; rose rapidly during the Restoration and Louis Philippe's reign, canon and vicar-general, in turn, of Tours, he was afterwards bishop of Troyes. His early career in Touraine showed him to be a deep, ambitious, and dangerous man, knowing how to remove from his path those that impeded his advance, and knowing how to conceal the full power of his animosity. The secret support of the Congregation and the connivance of Sophie Gamard allowed him to take advantage of Abbe Francois Birotteau's unsuspecting good nature, and to rob him of all the inheritance of Abbe Chapeloud, whom he had hated in his lifetime, and over whom he triumphed thus again, despite the shrewdness of the deceased priest. Abbe Troubert even won over to his side the Listomeres, defenders of Francois Birotteau. (The Vicar of Tours) About 1839, at Troyes, Monsiegneur Troubert was on terms of intimacy with the Cinq-Cygnes, the Hauteserres, the Cadignans, the Maufrigneuses, and Daniel d'Arthez, who were more or less concerned in the matter of the Champagne elections. (The Member for Arcis)

TROUSSENARD (Doctor), a physician of Havre, during the Restoration, at the time that the Mignon de la Bastie family lived in that sub-prefecture of the Seine-Inferieure. (Modeste Mignon)

TRUDON, in 1818, a grocer of Paris, in the same quarter as Cesar Birotteau, whom he furnished, on December 17th of that year, with nearly two hundred francs' worth of wax candles. (Cesar Birotteau)

TULLIA, professional sobriquet of Madame du Bruel.

TULLOYE, the name of the owner of a small estate near Angouleme, where M. de Bargeton, in the autumn of 1821, severely wounded M. de Chandour, an unsophisticated hot-head, whom he had challenged to a duel. The name Tulloye furnished a good opportunity in the affair for a play on words. (Lost Illusions)

TURQUET (Marguerite), born about 1816, better known under the sobriquet of Malaga, having a further appellaton of the "Aspasia of the Cirque-Olympique," was originally a rider in the famous Bouthor Traveling Hippodrome, and was later a Parisian star at the Franconi theatre, in the summer on the Champs-Elysees, in the winter on the Boulevard du Crime. In 1837, Mademoiselle Turquet was living in the fifth story of a house on the rue des Fosses-du-Temple—a thoroughfare that has been built up since 1862—when Thaddee Paz set her up in sumptuous style elsewhere. But she wearied of the role of supposed mistress of the Pole. (The Imaginary Mistress) Nevertheless, this position had placed Marguerite in a prominent light, and she shone thenceforth among the artists and courtesans. She had in Maitre Cardot, a notary on the Place du Chatelet, an earnest protector; and as her lover she had a quite young musician. (The Muse of the Department) A shrewd girl, she held on to Maitre Cardot, and made a popular hostess, in whose salon Desroches, about 1840, gave an entertaining account of a strange battle between two roues, Trailles and Cerizet, debtor and creditor, that resulted in a victory for Cerizet. (A Man of Business) In 1838, Malaga Turquet was present at Josepha Mirah's elegant house-warming in her gorgeous new apartments on the rue de la Ville-l'Eveque. (Cousin Betty)

  1. Alexander I., Czar of Russia, once stayed at this house, which is now owned and occupied by the Baron Alphonse de Rothschild.
  2. It was perhaps at Chelles that Mademoiselle de Faucombe became acquainted with Mesdemoiselles de Beauseant and de Langeais.
  3. Delestre-Poirson, the vaudeville man, together with A. Cerfberr established the Gymnase-Dramatique, December 20, 1820; with the Cerfberr Brothers, Delestre-Poirson continued the management of it until 1844.