Robert the Bruce and the struggle for Scottish independence
ROBERT THE BRUCE
(From a photograph by Valentine Bros., Dundee.)
Robert the Bruce
AND THE STRUGGLE FOR SCOTTISH
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
The Knickerbocker Press
Copyright, 1897, by
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
Entered at Stationers' Hall, London
The Knickerbocker Press, New York
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.
I HAVE been charged with want of patriotism in writing too confidently about the homage exacted from Malcolm Canmore for Lothian and Cambria. In spite of the close attention which has been devoted during the last hundred and fifty years to this delicate point, unanimity among historical students seems as far off as ever. In the first edition I gave the impression of probability left on my mind after comparison of every leading authority, namely, that Lothian—the territory lying along the east coast between the Tweed and the Forth—was not reckoned an integral part of Scotland in the eleventh century. That this view does not imply want of patriotism surely appears clear when it is seen to have been the one adopted by such able advocates of Scottish nationality as Heron in the last century and Skene in the present one.
However, as it is almost certain that the doubt hanging round this venerable dispute can never be dispelled, I have taken this opportunity of modifying the references to the Lothian homage in such a way as to avoid unnecessary controversy. The fact remains that the Scottish Kings were content to pay homage for English fiefs; the precise extent and locality of those fiefs it is impossible to define.
Indignant remonstrance has been addressed to me for having suggested the identity of William Wallace with William le Waleys who, in company with a priest, was alleged to have stolen 3s. worth of beer from a woman in Perth. It is fair to point out that the charge never was brought to proof; even had it been so, it would have sunk into insignificance beside the many cold-blooded crimes with which Blind Harry proudly credits his hero. It is certainly a curious coincidence that Blind Harry states that Wallace was in Perth, disguised as a priest, just about the time the theft was committed.
It has been pointed out that in following the version of the Bruce pedigree, compiled by Miss Cumming-Bruce, I am at variance with some other writers who have attained greater proficiency than I can lay claim to in Norman genealogy. Mr. J. H. Round points out that while the de Brus family came from the Château d'Adam at Brix, near Cherbourg, the house of de Braose, which obtained lands in Sussex, originated at Briouze, in the south of Normandy.
Mr. William Brown, in a paper on "The Brus Cenotaph at Guisborough" (Yorkshire Archæological Journal, 1895, vol. xiii., pp. 226-261), gives the following pedigree of the family of Brus of Skelton and Annandale, in which it will be seen that the first two Roberts given in my version of the pedigree (p. 18) and in the Dictionary of National Biography, are returned as one. The cenotaph at Guisborough cannot be considered as earlier than the sixteenth century.
London, July 1, 1897.
|Robert de Brus, came to England after 1086-7. Present at the Battle of the Standard.||Agnes Paynel.|
|Adam de Brus, head of the line of Skelton.||Robert de Brus.||Euphemia, niece of William le Gros, Earl of Albermarle.|
|Robert de Brus, died before 1191.||Isabel, daughter of William the Lion.|
|Robert de Brus, died without issue.||William de Brus, died about 1215.||Christiana.|
|Robert de Brus, died 1245.||Isabel, dau. of David, Earl of Huntingdon.|
|Robert de Brus, the Competitor, died 1295.||(1) Isabel, dau. of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, (2) Christiana de Ireby.|
|Robert de Brus, died 1304.||Margaret, dau. of Nigel, Earl of Carrick.|
|King Robert Bruce.|
|THE MAKING OF SCOTLAND (A.D. 844-1286)||17|
|THE DISPUTED SUCCESSION (A.D. 1286-1291)||38|
|THE REIGN OF JOHN DE BALLIOL (A.D. 1291-1296)||62|
|THE CAMPAIGN OF WALLACE (A.D. 1296-1298)||82|
|THE DEATH OF WALLACE (A.D. 1299-1305)||101|
|THE REVOLT OF ROBERT DE BRUS (A.D. 1304-1306)||120|
|ADVENTURES OF THE KING OF SCOTS (A.D. 1306-||137|
|DEATH OF EDWARD I. CAMPAIGNS OF EDWARD II. (A.D. 1307-1313)||163|
|BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN (A.D. 1314)||194|
|INVASION OF ENGLAND AND IRELAND BY THE SCOTS (A.D. 1314-1317)||224|
|CONTINUED SUCCESS OF THE SCOTTISH ARMS (A.D. 1316-1319)||245|
|INVASION AND COUNTER-INVASION (A.D. 1319-1322)||263|
|NEGOTIATIONS FOR PEACE (A.D. 1322-1326)||287|
|THE CAMPAIGN OF WEARDALE AND CONCLUSION OF PEACE (A.D. 1327-1328)||305|
|DEATH OF THE QUEEN OF SCOTS AND MARRIAGE OF THE PRINCE (A.D. 1328)||329|
|DEATH OF ROBERT DE BRUS. REVIEW OF HIS WORK AND CHARACTER (A.D. 1329)||337|
|EXPEDITION OF DOUGLAS. HIS DEATH, AND THAT OF MORAY (A.D. 1329-1332)||356|
|THE ABBEY CRAIG AND WALLACE MONUMENT, SCENE OF THE BATTLE OF STIRLING, SEPTEMBER 11, 1297||92|
|"THE ROCK OF BLOOD." SITE OF THE CASTLE OF DUNAVERTY||144|
|MAP OF GALLOWAY||152|
|LOCH TROOL NEAR NEWTON STUART From a photograph by Mr. Hunter.||160|
|BOTHWELL CASTLE ON THE CLYDE||164|
|CLACKMANNAN CASTLE, THE RESIDENCE OF ROBERT IN 1314||192|
|STIRLING CASTLE, FROM THE SOUTH-WEST||196|
|MAP OF BANNOCKBURN||216|
|BOTHWELL CASTLE, THE QUADRANGLE||224|
|TARBET CASTLE ON LOCH FYNE||300|
|DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. REFECTORY||330|
|DUNFERMLINE ABBEY, FROM THE NORTH-EAST||342|
|DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. NAVE, LOOKING EAST||344|
|MELROSE ABBEY FROM THE SOUTH-EAST||356|
|TOMB OF SIR JAMES DOUGLAS From Eraser's The Douglas Book, Edinburgh, 1895.||362|
For the subjects not otherwise specified, the illustrations have been reproduced, with permission, from photographs by Messrs. Valentine Bros., Dundee.
COINS AND SHIELDS.
|SILVER PENNY OF JOHN DE BALLIOL From a cast in the British Museum.||1|
|SILVER PENNY OF ROBERT I. From a cast in the British Museum.||1|
|THE KING OF SCOTLAND||17|
|THE KING OF ENGLAND||17|
|SIR JOHN DE BALLIOL||38|
|SIR ROBERT DE BRUS||38|
|COMYN, EARL OF BUCHAN||62|
|SIR AYMER DE VALENCE||62|
|SIR HENRY DE PERCY||82|
|SIR ROBERT DE CLIFFORD||82|
|SIR JOHN DE MAXWELL||101|
|SIR INGELRAM DE UMFRAVILLE||101|
|THE EARL OF GLOUCESTER||120|
|SIR ROGER DE KIRKPATRICK||120|
|SIR JOHN DE ST. JOHN||137|
|MURDOCH OF CUMLODEN||137|
|PATRICK, EARL OF DUNBAR AND MARCH||163|
|SIR DOUGAL MACDOUALL OF GALLOWAY||163|
|SIR GILBERT DE CLARE, EARL OF GLOUCESTER||194|
|SIR GILES DE ARGENTINE||194|
|SIR HUMPHREY DE BOHUN||224|
|SIR PHILIP DE MOUBRAY||224|
|SIR WALTER THE STEWARD||263|
|SIR THOMAS GRAY OF HETOUN||263|
|SIR JOHN OF BRITTANY, EARL OF RICHMOND||287|
|SIR HUGH LE DESPENSER||287|
|THOMAS, EARL OF MORAY||305|
|SIR JAMES DE DOUGLAS||305|
|THE EARLS OF CARRICK||329|
|SIR HUGH DE MORTIMER, EARL OF MARCH||337|
|JOHN, EARL OF WARENNE AND SURRY||337|
|THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER||356|
|SIR RICHARD FITZ ALAN, EARL OF ARUNDEL||356|
|SIR SIMON DE FRASER||370|
The shields are reproduced from drawings by Mr. Graham Johnston, of the Lyon Office, Edinburgh.
ABBREVIATED REFERENCES TO AUTHORITIES.
Bain.—Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland preserved in H. M. Public Record Office. Edited by Joseph Bain. 4 vols. H. M. General Register House, Edinburgh.
Hailes.—Annals of Scotland, by Lord Hailes. Ed. 1797. 3 vols.
Lanercost.—Chronicon de Lanercost. Maitland Club. Edinburgh. 1839.
Palgrave.—Documents and Records illustrating the History of Scotland preserved in the Treasury. Collected and edited by Sir Francis Palgrave. Published by the Records Commissioners. 1837.
Raine.—Historical letters and papers from the Northern Registers. Edited by James Raine. Master of the Rolls series. 1873.
Stevenson.—Documents illustrative of the History of Scotland, 1286-1306. Selected and arranged by the Rev. Joseph Stevenson. H. M. General Register House. Edinburgh, 1870.
Scalacronica.—Scalacronica: by Sir Thomas Gray of Heton, Knight. A Chronicle of England and Scotland from A.D. MLXVI to A.D. MCCCLXII. Edinburgh, printed for the Maitland Club. 1836.