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Robert the Bruce and the struggle for Scottish independence

Heroes of the Nations

EDITED BY

Evelyn Abbott, M.A.

FELLOW OF BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD


FACTA DUCIS VIVENT, OPEROSAQUE
GLORIA RERUM.—OVID, IN LIVIAM, 265.
THE HERO'S DEEDS AND HARD-WON
FAME SHALL LIVE.


ROBERT THE BRUCE
Robert the Bruce and the struggle for Scottish independence - Loch Trool.jpg

(From a photograph by Valentine Bros., Dundee.)

ROBERT THE BRUCE

AND THE STRUGGLE FOR SCOTTISH

INDEPENDENCE

BY

SIR HERBERT MAXWELL, BART., M.P.

AUTHOR OF "MERIDIANA," "LIFE OF W. H. SMITH"

"SCOTTISH LANDNAMES," ETC.



G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

NEW YORK

27 WEST TWENTY-THIRD STREET

LONDON

24 BEDFORD STREET, STRAND


The Kickerbocker Press

1909


Copyright, 1897, by

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London




The Knickerbocker Press, New York


by the gracious permission

of

His Royal Highness

Albert Edward,

PRINCE OF WALES and EARL OF CARRICK,

THIS WORK IS

MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED TO HIM

by the Author.

Robert the Bruce and the struggle for Scottish independence - Loch Trool.jpg

(From a photograph by Valentine Bros., Dundee.)

ROBERT THE BRUCE

AND THE STRUGGLE FOR SCOTTISH

INDEPENDENCE

BY

SIR HERBERT MAXWELL, BART., M.P.

AUTHOR OF "MERIDIANA," "LIFE OF W. H. SMITH"

"SCOTTISH LANDNAMES," ETC.



G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

NEW YORK

27 WEST TWENTY-THIRD STREET

LONDON

24 BEDFORD STREET, STRAND


The Kickerbocker Press

1909


Copyright, 1897, by

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London




The Knickerbocker Press, New York


by the gracious permission

of

His Royal Highness

Albert Edward,

PRINCE OF WALES and EARL OF CARRICK,

THIS WORK IS

MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED TO HIM

by the Author.

Robert the Bruce and the struggle for Scottish independence - Header P v.png
 

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.


 

I HAVE been charged with want of patriotism in writing too confidently about the homage exacted from Malcolm Canmore for Lothian and Cambria. In spite of the close attention which has been devoted during the last hundred and fifty years to this delicate point, unanimity among historical students seems as far off as ever. In the first edition I gave the impression of probability left on my mind after comparison of every leading authority, namely, that Lothian—the territory lying along the east coast between the Tweed and the Forth—was not reckoned an integral part of Scotland in the eleventh century. That this view does not imply want of patriotism surely appears clear when it is seen to have been the one adopted by such able advocates of Scottish nationality as Heron in the last century and Skene in the present one.

However, as it is almost certain that the doubt hanging round this venerable dispute can never be dispelled, I have taken this opportunity of modifying the references to the Lothian homage in such a way as to avoid unnecessary controversy. The fact remains that the Scottish Kings were content to pay homage for English fiefs; the precise extent and locality of those fiefs it is impossible to define.

Indignant remonstrance has been addressed to me for having suggested the identity of William Wallace with William le Waleys who, in company with a priest, was alleged to have stolen 3s. worth of beer from a woman in Perth. It is fair to point out that the charge never was brought to proof; even had it been so, it would have sunk into insignificance beside the many cold-blooded crimes with which Blind Harry proudly credits his hero. It is certainly a curious coincidence that Blind Harry states that Wallace was in Perth, disguised as a priest, just about the time the theft was committed.

It has been pointed out that in following the version of the Bruce pedigree, compiled by Miss Cumming-Bruce, I am at variance with some other writers who have attained greater proficiency than I can lay claim to in Norman genealogy. Mr. J. H. Round points out that while the de Brus family came from the Château d'Adam at Brix, near Cherbourg, the house of de Braose, which obtained lands in Sussex, originated at Briouze, in the south of Normandy.

Mr. William Brown, in a paper on "The Brus Cenotaph at Guisborough" (Yorkshire Archæological Journal, 1895, vol. xiii., pp. 226-261), gives the following pedigree of the family of Brus of Skelton and Annandale, in which it will be seen that the first two Roberts given in my version of the pedigree (p. 18) and in the Dictionary of National Biography, are returned as one. The cenotaph at Guisborough cannot be considered as earlier than the sixteenth century.

London, July 1, 1897.



Robert the Bruce and the struggle for Scottish independence - Fleuron P vii.png

 
 
 
 
Robert de Brus, came to England after 1086-7. Present at the Battle of the Standard.
 
Agnes Paynel.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adam de Brus, head of the line of Skelton.
 
Robert de Brus.
 
Euphemia, niece of William le Gros, Earl of Albermarle.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Robert de Brus, died before 1191.
 
Isabel, daughter of William the Lion.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Robert de Brus, died without issue.
 
William de Brus, died about 1215.
 
Christiana.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Robert de Brus, died 1245.
 
Isabel, dau. of David, Earl of Huntingdon.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Robert de Brus, the Competitor, died 1295.
 
(1) Isabel, dau. of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, (2) Christiana de Ireby.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Robert de Brus, died 1304.
 
Margaret, dau. of Nigel, Earl of Carrick.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
King Robert Bruce.
 
 
 
 
Illustrated header for THERESA OF AVILA.jpg


CONTENTS.



PAGE
INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER I.
THE MAKING OF SCOTLAND (A.D. 844-1286) 17
CHAPTER II.
THE DISPUTED SUCCESSION (A.D. 1286-1291) 38
CHAPTER III.
THE REIGN OF JOHN DE BALLIOL (A.D. 1291-1296) 62
CHAPTER IV.
THE CAMPAIGN OF WALLACE (A.D. 1296-1298) 82
CHAPTER V.
THE DEATH OF WALLACE (A.D. 1299-1305) 101
CHAPTER VI.
THE REVOLT OF ROBERT DE BRUS (A.D. 1304-1306) 120
CHAPTER VII.
ADVENTURES OF THE KING OF SCOTS (A.D. 1306-1307 137
CHAPTER VIII.
DEATH OF EDWARD I. CAMPAIGNS OF EDWARD II. (A.D. 1307-1313) 163
CHAPTER IX.
BATTLE OF BANNOCKBURN (A.D. 1314) 194
CHAPTER X.
INVASION OF ENGLAND AND IRELAND BY THE SCOTS (A.D. 1314-1317) 224
CHAPTER XI.
CONTINUED SUCCESS OF THE SCOTTISH ARMS (A.D. 1316-1319) 245
CHAPTER XII.
INVASION AND COUNTER-INVASION (A.D. 1319-1322) 263
CHAPTER XIII.
NEGOTIATIONS FOR PEACE (A.D. 1322-1326) 287
CHAPTER XIV.
THE CAMPAIGN OF WEARDALE AND CONCLUSION OF PEACE (A.D. 1327-1328) 305
CHAPTER XV.
DEATH OF THE QUEEN OF SCOTS AND MARRIAGE OF THE PRINCE (A.D. 1328) 329
CHAPTER XVI.
DEATH OF ROBERT DE BRUS. REVIEW OF HIS WORK AND CHARACTER (A.D. 1329) 337
CHAPTER XVII.
EXPEDITION OF DOUGLAS. HIS DEATH, AND THAT OF MORAY (A.D. 1329-1332) 356
INDEX 371
 
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Robert the Bruce and the struggle for Scottish independence - Illustrations Headpiece.png



ILLUSTRATIONS.



|colspan=2|DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. NAVE, LOOKING EAST
PAGE
LOCH TROOL Frontispiece
THE ABBEY CRAIG AND WALLACE MONUMENT, SCENE OF THE BATTLE OF STIRLING, SEPTEMBER 11, 1297 92
DIRLETON CASTLE 96
CAERLAVEROCK CASTLE 106
DUMFRIES 130
KILDRUMMIE CASTLE 138
"THE ROCK OF BLOOD." SITE OF THE CASTLE OF DUNAVERTY 144
MAP OF GALLOWAY 152
LOCH TROOL NEAR NEWTON STUART From a photograph by Mr. Hunter. 160
BOTHWELL CASTLE ON THE CLYDE 164
CLACKMANNAN CASTLE, THE RESIDENCE OF ROBERT IN 1314 192
STIRLING CASTLE, FROM THE SOUTH-WEST 196
MAP OF BANNOCKBURN 216
BOTHWELL CASTLE, THE QUADRANGLE 224
DUNBARTON CASTLE 298
TARBET CASTLE ON LOCH FYNE 300
DUNFERMLINE ABBEY. REFECTORY 330
DUNFERMLINE ABBEY, FROM THE NORTH-EAST 342
344
CAMBUSKENNETH ABBEY 348
MELROSE ABBEY FROM THE SOUTH-EAST 356
TOMB OF SIR JAMES DOUGLAS From Eraser's The Douglas Book, Edinburgh, 1895. 362

For the subjects not otherwise specified, the illustrations have been reproduced, with permission, from photographs by Messrs. Valentine Bros., Dundee.



COINS AND SHIELDS.


PAGE
SILVER PENNY OF JOHN DE BALLIOL From a cast in the British Museum. 1
SILVER PENNY OF ROBERT I. From a cast in the British Museum. 1
THE KING OF SCOTLAND 17
THE KING OF ENGLAND 17
SIR JOHN DE BALLIOL 38
SIR ROBERT DE BRUS 38
COMYN, EARL OF BUCHAN 62
SIR AYMER DE VALENCE 62
SIR HENRY DE PERCY 82
SIR ROBERT DE CLIFFORD 82
SIR JOHN DE MAXWELL 101
SIR INGELRAM DE UMFRAVILLE 101
THE EARL OF GLOUCESTER 120
SIR ROGER DE KIRKPATRICK 120
SIR JOHN DE ST. JOHN 137
MURDOCH OF CUMLODEN 137
PATRICK, EARL OF DUNBAR AND MARCH 163
SIR DOUGAL MACDOUALL OF GALLOWAY 163
SIR GILBERT DE CLARE, EARL OF GLOUCESTER 194
SIR GILES DE ARGENTINE 194
SIR HUMPHREY DE BOHUN 224
SIR PHILIP DE MOUBRAY 224
SIR WALTER THE STEWARD 263
SIR THOMAS GRAY OF HETOUN 263
SIR JOHN OF BRITTANY, EARL OF RICHMOND 287
SIR HUGH LE DESPENSER 287
THOMAS, EARL OF MORAY 305
SIR JAMES DE DOUGLAS 305
THE EARLS OF CARRICK 329
SIR HUGH LE DESPENSER 329
SIR HUGH DE MORTIMER, EARL OF MARCH 337
JOHN, EARL OF WARENNE AND SURRY 337
THOMAS, EARL OF LANCASTER 356
SIR RICHARD FITZ ALAN, EARL OF ARUNDEL 356
SIR SIMON DE FRASER 370

The shields are reproduced from drawings by Mr. Graham Johnston, of the Lyon Office, Edinburgh.


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Illustrated header for THERESA OF AVILA.jpg
 

ABBREVIATED REFERENCES TO AUTHORITIES.


Bain.—Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland preserved in H. M. Public Record Office. Edited by Joseph Bain. 4 vols. H. M. General Register House, Edinburgh.

Hailes.—Annals of Scotland, by Lord Hailes. Ed. 1797. 3 vols.

Lanercost.—Chronicon de Lanercost. Maitland Club. Edinburgh. 1839.

Palgrave.—Documents and Records illustrating the History of Scotland preserved in the Treasury. Collected and edited by Sir Francis Palgrave. Published by the Records Commissioners. 1837.

Raine.—Historical letters and papers from the Northern Registers. Edited by James Raine. Master of the Rolls series. 1873.

Stevenson.—Documents illustrative of the History of Scotland, 1286-1306. Selected and arranged by the Rev. Joseph Stevenson. H. M. General Register House. Edinburgh, 1870.

Scalacronica.—Scalacronica: by Sir Thomas Gray of Heton, Knight. A Chronicle of England and Scotland from A.D. MLXVI to A.D. MCCCLXII. Edinburgh, printed for the Maitland Club. 1836.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1924.


The author died in 1937, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.