Secrets of Crewe House/Appendix
Translations of the leaflets reproduced in the preceding pages follow:—
Leaflet No. 1 (between pages 48 and 49).
Map representing the great offensive of the Allies, with the results achieved from August 9th to September 1st:—
In the offensive from July 15th to August 31st the Allies captured 140,000 Germans (2,674 of whom were officers), 2,500 guns, 1,734 Flamethrowers, 13,783 machine guns, together with a huge amount of other war material.
The Jugoslav Committee.
Leaflet No. 2 (between pages 48 and 49).
SERBOCROATS AND SLOVENES.
The "Agenzia Stefani" announces officially:—
"By a decree of the Ministerial Council on September 8th the Home (Italian) Government has informed the Allied Governments that it regards the Jugoslav movement for obtaining independence and the formation of a free State as a principle for which the Allies are fighting, and as a condition of a just and lasting peace."
The Governments of the Allied States have replied that they have received with satisfaction this declaration of the Italian Government.
By this historic and fateful declaration Italy has set up the following war-aim: The destruction of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy such as it is to-day, and upon its ruins the establishment of an independent State of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
This noble decree of hers is accepted by all our Allies.
The part which Italy has been assigned by history has been manifested to-day more strongly than ever. She is the protector of the weak, the bearer of freedom and of the ideal for which the Allies have been fighting for four years. The aim of the fighting is not the peace of Brest-Litovsk and Bucharest, but the freedom of the weak and oppressed.
Therefore open your eyes. Remember that by fighting against it you are fighting against yourselves, against our posterity, against our freedom and unity.
Long live Italy, long live the united and free Jugoslavia, long live our Allies!
Dr. Ante Trumbic,
Chairman of the Jugoslav Council.
Leaflet No. 3 (between pages 64 and 65).
[Note.—This was distributed in October, 1914.]
Explanation for German Soldiers.
It has become known that German soldiers have been told the British treat their captives inhumanly. That is a lie.
All German prisoners of war are well treated and receive from the British the same food as their own soldiers.
The opportunity is now taken to enlighten the German soldier about some facts which hitherto have been kept secret from him.
The German Army never reached or occupied Paris and has been retiring since September 5.
The British Army has been neither made prisoner nor beaten. It increases in strength every day.
The French Army is not beaten. Quite on the contrary, for it inflicted a heavy defeat on the Germans at Montmirail.
Russia and Serbia have so decisively defeated Austria that she no longer plays any part in the war. With the exception of a few cruisers, German shipping, the merchant service as well as the fighting fleet, is no longer to be seen upon the seas.
The British and German Navies have both suffered casualties, but the German the heaviest.
Germany has already lost several colonies and will presently also lose what now remains to her. Japan has declared war on Germany. Kiauchau is now besieged by the British and the Japanese.
The report circulated in the Press that the British Colonies and India have rebelled against Great Britain is wholly untrue. Quite on the contrary, these Colonies have sent to France large masses of troops and many supplies to come to the help of the Fatherland.
Ireland is one with England, and from North and South is sending her soldiers who are fighting with enthusiasm alongside their English comrades.
The Kaiser and the Prussian War Party wanted this war against all interests of the Fatherland. In secret they prepared for this war. Germany alone was prepared, which explains her temporary successes. Now we have succeeded in checking her victorious advance. Supported by the sympathies of the whole civilised world, which regards with horror an arbitrary war of conquest. Great Britain, France, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro, and Japan will carry on the war to the end.
We bring these facts to general notice in order to throw light upon the truth which has been hidden from you. You are not fighting to defend your Fatherland, as no one ever thought of attacking Germany. You are fighting to satisfy the ambitious war-lust of the military party at the cost of the true interests of the Fatherland. The whole business is blackguardly.
At first sight these facts will seem improbable to you. But now it is for you to compare the events of the past weeks with the information manufactured by the military authorities.
ON OCTOBER 4 THE RUSSIANS GAINED A TREMENDOUS VICTORY OVER THE GERMAN ARMIES IN EAST PRUSSIA. GERMAN LOSSES 70,000.
Leaflet No. 4 (between pages 64 and 65).
To the German Soldiers!
It is not true that we French shoot or ill-treat German prisoners.
On the contrary, our prisoners are well-treated and receive plenty to eat and drink.
All who are tired of this wretched life may report themselves unarmed, without fear, to the French outposts.
They will be well received there.
After the war everyone can go home again.
Leaflet No. 5 (between pages 80 and 81).
Information Leaflet for the Troops.
IS PEACE AT THE DOOR?
Our enemies reject negotiations until we have evacuated Belgium and France.
What must we do now?
Well, what does it all mean?
"A few weeks ago," says the Frankfürter Zeitung," it appeared as if our armies were very near their goal, the defeat of the enemy forces and peace. But what a change!"
In these few weeks the German armies have lost three-quarters of a million men. More than a quarter of a million have given themselves up and are now out of danger and have plenty to eat.
In these few weeks Bulgaria has dropped out of the war and has been compelled to surrender unconditionally. The best Turkish armies have been destroyed and Turkey is about to follow Bulgaria's example.
And what is the result of all these events in the last few weeks?
All hope of victory by the military Junker party in Germany abandoned: an armistice demanded: the admission of the new Imperial Chancellor, Prince Max von Baden, that Belgium was wrongfully attacked.
The following is the text of the Note addressed to President Wilson through the Swiss Government:—
"The German Government requests the President of the United States to bring about the restoration of peace, to inform all belligerent States of this request and to summon them to send plenipotentiaries to open negotiations. Germany takes as a basis for peace negotiations the programme set forth by the President of the United States in his Message to Congress of January 8th, 1918, and particularly in his speech of September 27th.
"With a view to preventing further bloodshed the German Government requests the immediate conclusion of an armistice on land, on water, and in the air.
(Signed) Max, Prince von Baden,
Why was this Note addressed to President Wilson?
Partly because he laid down certain conditions which he explained the German Government must accept before he would enter into any discussion whatever on peace terms.
But also partly because the German Government at length became aware of the United States' military effort.
In this, as in every other important matter dealing with the war, our leaders deceived us in the most unheard-of way. They fed us with false hopes.
They have brought us to such a desperate pass that we are retiring on every front and are now compelled to sue for peace.
But will our enemies consent to discuss peace?
Not as long as we are still in Belgium, which, as our Government admits, was wrongfully attacked; not whilst we are still in Northern France.
Before our enemies will consent to negotiate with us we must retire to Germany. For, they say, they will gladly conclude a just and honourable peace with the German people if they can be sure that militarism and medieval methods of statesmanship are abolished for good.
What must we do to save ourselves? We must retire to our own country, then we may hope for an end of all the horror and hardships we have suffered for more than four years, only because our Government let its policy be dictated by militarism and underestimated the forces which had to be arrayed against us owing to the attempt to realise the criminal ambition of the Pan-Germans.
We have been miserably deceived.
Leaflet No. 6 (between pages 96 and 97).
WHAT THE ALLIES HAVE WON.
Back on the Line of Last March.
The whole ground has been twice won and twice lost by the German armies. How much blood has been spilled, and how much misery has been caused? For what object? Think it over!
On the other side of the leaflet was the following:
Further Successes of the Entente; the German Retreat continues.
During the last few weeks there has been fighting west of Cambrai and St. Quentin. The battle reached a degree of vehemence fully equal to any previously experienced in the course of the whole war.
The Germans and British attacked simultaneously; both sides fought with stubborn determination, but
the British gained the victory.
They beat off the German attack, made many prisoners, and killed an enormous number, thanks to the manner in which the German troops were driven forward under murderous machine-gun fire.
The British attack succeeded. The German front was pressed back closer to St. Quentin.
Ten thousand prisoners
were made and a number of guns were captured. The outer works of the Siegfried Line are in British possession in spite of the determined and plucky attempts of the German troops to hold them. The latter did not retreat "according to plan," but because in open honourable fight
they got the worst of it.
The operations of the Entente forces have in no way reached an end, as reported in the German newspapers a week ago by military writers. The German forces were unable to stand their ground. The French threaten Laon and the Chemin des Dames and in these regions are driving the Germans back.
On the Balkan Front
the Bulgarians are totally defeated
and are still retreating. The French and Serbian troops have advanced 20 kilometres. Many thousands of Bulgarians have surrendered. The prisoners ascribe the blame for Bulgaria's disastrous situation to Germany.
The Austrian proposal that representatives of the belligerent nations should hold a secret conference in order to discuss
the possibilities of peace
was described by the representatives of the Workmen's and Socialist parties assembled at the London Conference as inspired more by the anxiety to strengthen the monarchy than by the desire to help effectively to put an end to the world-war.
No voice was raised for the acceptance of the Austrian proposal.
Leaflet No. 7 (between pages 96 and 97).
TO-DAY WE ARE IN RETREAT.
Next Year we shall be destroyed.
America, which has now 1,750,000 men in France, had made arrangements to send 3,500,000 troops by next year.
But now, in view of the refusal of the German Government to make a genuine peace proposal, America has decided to increase the number.
By next year America will have 5,000,000 men on the Western Front.
What do our leaders say to this—our leaders who declared that America was not a danger to us because our U-boats would prevent them from sending troops to Europe?
What do we say to this, we who will be completely crushed by the huge superiority of numbers?
The increase of the American Army on the Western Front.
Leaflet No. 8 (between pages 112 and 113).
WHERE THE HINDENBURG LINE IS BROKEN
This map shows exactly where the British troops have forced a way through an important part of the Hindenburg defence line. The dotted line from North to South indicates these defences. The black line shows the positions reached by the British. Their advance continues. In Flanders the German armies are in full retreat. Kemmel Hill has been given up. "Our troops left it with heavy heart," writes Karl Rosner, war correspondent of the Lokalanzeiger.
Leaflet No. 9 (between pages 112 and 113).
TURKISH ARMY IN PALESTINE DESTROYED.
No further Resistance against the British Troops.
Brilliant Encircling Manœuvre.
Turkey incensed against Germany for leading her to irretrievable disaster.
The Turkish Army in Palestine has ceased to exist. The British took them unawares, broke through the front, sent through large masses of cavalry, cut off all lines of retreat and completely surrounded the Turks.
Twenty thousand surrendered, a large number were killed, and only a few stragglers succeeded in escaping. The Holy Land has been liberated from the Mussulman suzerainty which the German Government did its best to uphold. Turkey could not have received a harder blow. Her best troops have been destroyed. The Turks' feeling against Germany is extremely bitter. They openly threaten to turn against the German Government.
The Bulgarians are scarcely less embittered against Germany. They are still pursued in the Balkan mountains by the French and Serbian troops, who have driven them back 64 kilometres. Their defeat is a wholesale disaster.
On the Western Front the British and French troops are still gaining ground, slowly but steadily, a little every day.
Everywhere Germany and her allies are in retreat.
Read no leaflets which you may find accidentally, say Field-Marshal Hindenburg and General von Hutier.
Because they know that the leaflets contain the truth which they and the Government want to conceal.
They fear the truth. When the German people know it the Government and militarism will be wiped out.
Read overleaf of the successes of the Entente Powers and ask yourselves
How long can it go on like this?
[Map of Palestine]
The black lines and arrows show the position of the English forces. The Turks were between Samaria and Nablus. They were wiped out. Their army no longer exists.
Leaflet No. 10 (between pages 112 and 113).
The High Official.
"We have no cause for anxiety."—Dr. Wekerle, Hmigarian Premier.
"The men must thoroughly understand that they must stand fast."—Order of the Day to 200th Infantry Division.
"We have no reason to be downhearted."—General von Wrisberg, War Minister in the Reichstag.
"The principle that troops must continue fighting all day long, to the last man, to the last cartridge, even when they are surrounded, appears to have sunk into oblivion."—General Army Order, signed by General Ludendorff.
Preparations for Civil War.
Every precaution has been taken in Berlin and other places to suppress an eventual attempt at revolution.
Orders for the suppression of risings are issued under the heading "Measures for the Suppression of Strikes." Proof of this is furnished by the order of German G.H.Q. to all Guards Infantry troops and to the 3rd, 4th, and 5th Corps.
On receipt of the telegraphic order "Prepare for the suppression of strikes," all man-power must be mobilised. On receipt of the order "Suppress strikes," the commandant of the transport troops must be immediately informed. The men must be equipped as for field service, only without masks. On receipt of the telegraphic order "Make preparations for surrounding," all detachments of troops will be marched to their allotted positions. Battalion commanders should place themselves at the head of their units and direct all further movements.
On receipt of the telegraphic order "Surround," the troops selected for this duty, the 3rd, 4th, and 5th Corps, will march on Berlin to the Vorstadtbahn (Suburban Railway). The Guards will take the opposite direction from the centre of the city to the Vorstadtbahn, driving the populace before them. Headquarters will be Kaulsdorf. Then follow detailed instructions for the employment of machine guns. The order is strictly secret.
What shall we do with the Kaiser?
Stockholm, 10th September.—The German Minister in Stockholm has requested the Swedish Foreign Office to seize the copy of the "New York Herald Magazine of the War" of the 14th July because it publishes on the first page a photograph of the German Emperor underneath which are the words:—
"What shall we do with the Kaiser after the War?"
The Minister of Justice is said to have ordered the copies in question to be seized.
Arrest of Socialists.
According to the Neue Badische Landeszeitung, wild scenes took place last week at a meeting of Independent Socialists in Berlin. "In the course of the meeting the Reichstag member Hoffmann was arrested by two policemen because of provocative speeches. A scene of such excitement ensued that in the general disturbance Hoffmann escaped, while the hall rang with cries of 'Down with the War!' 'Long live Liebknecht!'
"The following morning the officials arrived at Hoffmann's house in order to arrest him again, but the deputy was not to be found. Many arrests were made among his adherents."
Pork in Bottles.
"The smugglers are still devising new tricks so as to prevent their costly goods from falling into the clutches of the war contraband officials. At the Schlesicher Station a man was stopped as he was fetching away two carboys such as are used for the transport of dangerous acids. A closer inspection showed that the carboys were divided in two parts, a small receptacle at the top being filled with vinegar, while the lower and larger part contained 55 kilos. of freshly killed pork neatly packed. The expensive pork was seized."—Berliner Tageblatt, Sept. 10, 1918.
The Veto on Dancing.
"In the Hanover Command dancing lessons are only allowed for men and women separately, and anyone who has already taken a course of dancing is not allowed to learn again. A sensible regulation has been issued at Essen. Only dancing instructors belonging to the two German dancing instructors' unions may hold dancing classes as in peace time."—Berliner Tageblatt, Sept. 19, 1918.
Leaflet No. 11 (between pages 128 and 129).
In the House of Commons the British Prime Minister, Mr. Lloyd George, said, '"Our British vessels are serving as convoys, patrolling, laying mines, sweeping mines, protecting merchant ships and hunting U-boats over vast and uncharted distances. They have destroyed at least 150 of these ocean pests, the German U-boats—more than half that number in the course of last year."
In reply to this, the following official Berlin telegram was sent out to the German papers and to neutral countries:
"We are in the position to state that the enemy's war against the U-boats does not show anything like so great a success as that claimed by the British Prime Minister."
The Chief of the Naval General Staff in London has in his possession a complete list of the names of the commanders of the 150 U-boats which Germany has lost through sinking, capture, or internment. The greater part of these officers are dead, a certain percentage are prisoners of war, a few are interned in neutral countries. The truth of the statement of the British Prime Minister is thus proved. It is also proved that the statement contained in the official Berlin telegram is untrue. Here is the list:
[List of U-boat commanders.]
Leaflet No. 12 (between pages 128 and 129).
In 1914 the English air squadrons which carried out reprisals for the attacks made on English towns were small and carried small bombs. In 1915 they grew larger and dropped larger bombs. In 1916 both had doubled in size. In 1917 there was a further increase in the size of the bombing squadrons and the bombs were 7½ times again as heavy. 1918 saw further increases and throughout the period under review the range of attacks steadily extended. In 1919 Berlin, Hamburg, Brunswick, and Hanover will be easily within range of attack—if we do not make peace in the meantime.
Leaflet No. 13 (between pages 144 and 146).
The upper map is entitled "Pan-German Dream," the wording under it being as follows:
"Our rulers went to war because they hoped to found a gigantic empire for the Kaiser and the Junkers. All the territories shaded in on the above map were to be their realm. It would have meant the subjection of half the world under the German sword."—Vorwärts, Oct. 11, 1918.
The lower map is entitled "The Awakening of the German People." Under it is the following inscription:
This is how Germany looks to-day. Her allies can give no further aid. What the Kaiser calls "his heritage from God" will soon be smaller than it was at the beginning of the war. But the German people will be the better for it. They will have escaped from autocracy and militarism. Freedom at last!
Leaflet No. 14 (between pages 144 and 145).
WAR AND HOME.
The Summons to Unity.
The picture on the left is headed "The Ideal" and represents "The Assembly." On its right is the following parody, entitled "Paradise Lost," on Goethe's "Faust":
"Gretchen, how different thou wast!"—(Goethe—"Faust.")
Germany, how different thou wast before the war
Brought about by thy lust of conquest.
With self-assurance thou wentst from triumph to triumph
And reached the summit of thy power
Untouched, with ample possessions
In earthly goods, in fame and world renown
Thou hadst all mankind can crave,
In high respect regarded, if not beloved.
But now what disgust, what horror
The mere name of Germany excites!
There is deep mourning for thy vanished happiness,
Thy honour lost, thy peace of mind destroyed!
Thou liest parted by the iron wall
Which thy crime has built between us
Fast fettered to thy false ideal
And all thy former glory gone!
The lower picture is called "The Reality," the quotation from Moltke underneath being "March separately, strike together." On its left:
The War was decided at Potsdam.
During a debate on the origin of the war in the Hungarian Parliament, Count Tisza claimed that the ultimatum to Serbia was drawn up at a conference at which no German representative was present.
A Deputy: Not in Vienna but in Potsdam.
Count Tisza: Neither in Potsdam nor anywhere else.
The Deputy: The ultimatum was not drawn up at Potsdam, but the outbreak of war was decided there.
The Dutch newspaper, the Handelsblad, reports that a person who has just returned from Germany saw this rhyme written up in gigantic letters at an important factory:
"If the war lasts another year,
William's fate will be the Tsar's!"
Leaflet No. 15 (between pages 160 and 161).
German prisoners of war arriving behind the British lines are greeted by their comrades, who assure them of good treatment.
Leaflet No. 16 (between pages 160 and 161).
The reason is clear.
The Government undertook the war in the hope of realising the Pan-German dream of a Middle Europe.
This was the real cause of the war.
If there remained any doubt on the subject it is clearly proved by the fact that the moment the realisation of the Pan-German dream became impossible the Government sues for peace.
This was the plan of the Pan-Germans who led us into the war.
The whole of the territory coloured black was to become German.
Bulgaria and Turkey would become vassal States.
The Kaiser and the Prussian Junker aristocracy, the bureaucrats and the rich who exploit the rest of the people, should become the most powerful class in the world.
Bulgaria refuses to be a vassal State.
Turkey is becoming anxious.
The plan for the realisation of which the Pan-Germans persuaded Germany to go to war and which has cost so many millions of lives and caused such universal misery is completely frustrated.
What reason remains why we should fight?
The Government has no further reason for continuing the struggle and is therefore suing our enemies for peace.
Therefore all the talk about a defensive war proves to have been absolutely untruthfully and dishonestly
started to deceive us.
Leaflet No. 17 (betiveen pages 176 and 177).
What are you fighting for?
For the Emperor of Austria and the King of Hungary!
Or is it for the German Emperor?
You are only fighting for the German Emperor. The Austrian Emperor has given over to him the army and the State revenues for twenty-five years by a formal treaty the contents of which are kept from you.
But your newspapers also announce a "Waffenbund" which was entered upon on May 12th, 1918, between your old and your new masters.
But you Magyars, whose ancestors shed so much blood for freedom, you are ignorant of the truth.
For behold according to the Germans you are idle and slow.
The Frankfürter Zeitung says on May 13th,
The Deutsche Zeitung of the 19th May remarks, "What the Mittel-Europa Confederacy chiefly needs is strength, and never more so than at the time the war broke out. Austria-Hungary was not sufficiently prepared. According to the 'Waffenbund' that, the delegates vote the guns but that the refuses the necessary calling up of the recruits, so that afterwards the guns are there but there are not soldiers to man them.". It is no longer possible that it should happen that the delegates should vote extraordinary credits for military purposes, and that afterwards they should waste a long time before they pass the amount because either the Hungarian or the Austrian Minister of Finance says there is no money; or
Is this clear enough? The Germans struggle for a mad whim—they wish to rule the whole world. To fight for years, to pour out Hungarian blood for German glory for years and years.
Naturally the Neue Freie Presse should with triumph proclaim that the new treaty is specially a triumph for the "upholders of Germany in Austria."
Leaflet No. 18 (between pages 176 and 177).
MESSAGE OF PROFESSOR MASARYK TO THE CZECHOSLOVAK ARMY IN ITALY.
Through the agency of the Italian Legation, Professor T. G. Masaryk has sent the following message from Washington to the autonomous Czecho-Slovak army in Italy:
"Brothers! Austria-Hungary, desiring to break the opposition at home, has asserted that our army is a rabble which has no political or military significance. She has even uttered the lie that our army is composed of Russians and other nationalities, and that a Czecho-Slovak army does not exist. Our nation does not believe this dishonesty and has remained obdurate and proud of its army. Then Austria-Hungary endeavoured to deal a decisive blow to our nation by destroying you, and with you its army. She desired to gain possession of our banners of resistance and independence, the symbol of trust and aspiration cherished by our people.
"Brothers! Your will, your far-reaching glance frustrated the enemy's plans. Our flag is still flying proudly upon the position entrusted to you for defence. Our nation recognises your heroic deeds and all hearts are stirred by profound gratitude to you. They extol you and the proud memory of your fallen brothers.
"As your Commander-in-Chief I send you my heartiest thanks for the bravery by which you have contributed to the victory of our nation, of Italy, the Allies and all mankind.
|"Greetings!||"T. G. Masaryk."|
We cannot help telling you how proud we are of the recognition by our beloved leader, who will guide us and our nation to the goal of victory.
We are convinced that you also, in concert with the whole nation, see the salvation of our country and the realisation of our sacred rights only in the destruction of Austria.
When they drive you forward to protect the treacherous dynasty, to which the nation has no obligations, you will certainly find an opportunity of retaliating worthily for centuries of oppression and of saving yourselves for a better future.
Volunteers of the Czecho-Slovak Army in Italy.
October 2nd, 1918.
Leaflet No. 19 (between pages 192 and 193).
FLIGHT OF GERMAN GENERAL.
The Turks make Liman von Sanders responsible for their Misery.
TWO ARMIES DESTROYED.
Bulgarians pursued on an Extended Front in the Balkans.
Count Hertling's Gloom.
The victory of the British troops in Palestine over the Turkish troops commanded by General Liman von Sanders has made further progress and assumed much greater dimensions than was indicated by the first reports.
Two Turkish armies, the 7th and 8th, have ceased to exist. The whole of their baggage train, all their guns, and their entire material of war have been captured.
30,000 men surrendered
and the few who escaped death or captivity fled in small dispersed bodies across the Jordan and are now wandering about the country.
The British are now pursuing the 4th Turkish Army, which is also in danger of destruction. In any case the Turkish resistance in Palestine is definitely broken. General Liman von Sanders, the German Commander-in-Chief, who was so completely surprised and so much surpassed in leadership by the enemy headquarters,
is in flight before the British.
The Turks claim that they have been betrayed and led into misfortune by the German officers appointed to command their forces. Palestine is now lost to them for ever. The Holy Places have been liberated from the suzerainty of the Mussulman. The Entente has undertaken to restore Palestine to the Jewish people. The victory of the French and Serbian troops over the Bulgarians in the Balkan mountains has strikingly developed. The Bulgarians are now
WITHDRAWING ON A FRONT OF 160 KILOMETRES.
They have made no strong opposition to the advance of the Entente troops. The German defeats on the Western front have merely depressed them and weakened their fighting ardour. We know it is useless to continue the struggle.
Count Hertling, the Imperial Chancellor, knows this too. He told the Chief Commission of the Reichstag that deep discontent had seized wide circles of the people. What does he recommend? That the German people shall maintain its old and sure confidence in Hindenburg and Ludendorff in the hope that they may improve the situation a little? But he knows, we know, and the whole world knows that they cannot improve it.
Only the German people itself
can bring about an improvement by putting an end to autocracy and militarism, pan-Germanism, and the out-of-date absurdities which other peoples have long since done away with.
On the other side of the leaflet:
The upper map shows the encircling movement of the British which annihilated the Turkish forces under General Liman von Sanders.
Notes in the body of the map:
Here 25,000 Turks surrendered.
Site of break-through on the Turkish front.
The lower map shows the ground gained in the Balkans by the French and Serbian troops which have inflicted on the Bulgarians the heaviest defeat they have suffered in the war.