Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (1972)

For works with similar titles, see Constitution of North Korea.

Chapter 1 - PoliticsEdit

Article 1. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an independent socialist state representing the interests of all the Korean people.

Article 2. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea politically and ideologically unifies all the people based on the alliance of the workers and peasants lead by the working class, and is subject to the foundations of socialist relations of production and independent national economy.

Article 3. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is a revolutionary state which has inherited the brilliant traditions formed during the glorious revolutionary struggle against the imperialist aggressors, in the struggle to achieve the liberation of the country and the freedom and happiness of the people.

Article 4. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is guided in its activities by the Juche idea of the Workers’ Party of Korea, a creative application of Marxism-Leninism to the realities of our country.

Article 5. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea shall strive to achieve the complete victory of socialism in the northern half of Korea, repel foreign influence on a nationwide scale and peacefully reunify the country on a democratic foundation, and achieve complete national independence.

Article 6. In the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, all kinds of human exploitation and oppression due to class conflict and human nature are gone forever. The state defends and protects the interests of the workers, peasants, soldiers and working intellectuals who have been liberated from exploitation and oppression.

Article 7. The sovereignty of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea resides in the workers, peasants, soldiers and working intellectuals. The working people exercise power through their representative organs – the Supreme People’s Assembly and the local People’s Assembly at all levels.

Article 8. The organs of state power at all levels, from the county People’s Assembly to the Supreme People's Assembly, are elected on the principle of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. Deputies to the organs of state power at all levels are responsible to their electors for their work.

Article 9. All state organs in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea are formed and function on the principle of democratic centralism.

Article 10. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea implements the dictatorship of the proletariat and fulfils the class and mass lines.

Article 11. The state shall revolutionize all the members of society and assimilate them to the working class by defending the socialist system from schemes to destroy it and intensifying the ideological revolution.

Article 12. The state shall implement the great Chongsanri spirit and Chongsanri method to all its activities, by which superiors assist their subordinates and respects the opinions of the masses, and rouse the masses to conscious enthusiasm preferentially through political work and work with people.

Article 13. In the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Chollima movement is the central line of socialist construction. The state shall push for socialist construction at the maximum by unceasingly deepening and intensifying the Chollima movement.

Article 14. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea rests on the people's nationwide defence system, and fulfils the self-defensive military line. The mission of the armed forces of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is to defend the interests of the working people including the workers and peasants, protect the socialist system and the gains of the revolution from aggression and to protect the freedom, independence and peace of the country.

Article 15. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea shall protect the democratic national rights of Koreans overseas and their rights recognized by the international law as well as their interests.

Article 16. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea exercises complete equality and independence in its foreign relations. The state shall establish diplomatic, as well as political, economic and cultural relations with all friendly countries, on principles of complete equality, independence, mutual respect, non-interference in each other's affairs and mutual benefit. In line with Marxism-Leninism and proletariat internationalism, the state shall be united with socialist countries and with all peoples of the world fighting imperialism, and shall actively support their struggles for national liberation and revolution.

Article 17. The law of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea reflects the wishes and interests of the working people and is a basic instrument for state administration, and all institutions, enterprises, organizations and citizens shall conscientiously observe it.

Chapter 2 - EconomyEdit

Article 18. In the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the means of production are owned by the state and social cooperative organizations.

Article 19. The property of the State belongs to the entire people. There is no limit to the property which the State can own. All natural resources of the country, railways, air transport service and communications establishments, as well as major factories and enterprises, ports and banks are owned solely by the State. The State shall protect and develop on a preferential basis state property playing the leading role in the economic development of the country.

Article 20. Cooperative property is the collective property of the workers in a cooperative economy. Land, draft animals, farming implements, fishing boats and buildings such as small and medium-sized factories and enterprises can be owned by cooperative organizations. The state must defend properties of cooperative organizations.

Article 21. The state consolidates and develops the socialist cooperative economic system, and gradually changes the properties of cooperative organizations into properties owned by the whole people following the voluntary will of all of the members of the cooperative organizations.

Article 22. Private property is the property for the private consumption of workers. The private ownership of workers is achieved through the socialist distribution due to work and through additional benefits from the state and society. The products of individual sideline activities including those from the kitchen gardens of members of cooperative farms shall also be private property. The State shall protect private property and guarantee the right to inherit it by law.

Article 23. The state regards the steady improvement of the material and cultural standards of the people as the supreme principle of its activities. The increasing material wealth of society in our country, where taxes have been abolished, is used entirely to promote the well-being of the workers.

Article 24. The independent national economy in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is a material security for the country’s prosperity and for the improvement of people’s lives. In the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the historic task of industrialization was brilliantly realized. The state shall consolidate and develop the successes of industrialization and struggle for strengthening further the material and technological foundations of socialism.

Article 25. The state shall eliminate the distinctions between heavy and light work and the distinctions between farming work and factory work and liberates the workers from tiresome work by advancing the technical revolution, and shall gradually reduce the distinctions between physical and mental work.

Article 26. The state shall improve the role of the county and its guidance and assistance to rural areas in order to eliminate the difference between town and country and the class distinction between workers and peasants. The state shall take the burden of constructing production facilities for cooperative farms and modern rural housing.

Article 27. The working masses are the maker of history, and have built socialism and communism through the creative work of millions of working masses. The workers of our country participate in all work, and work with enthusiasm and creativity for country, people and themselves. The state shall accurately apply the socialist distribution principle based on the quantity and quality of work while unceasingly raising the political and ideological consciousness of the workers.

Article 28. The working day shall be 8 hours. The state shall reduce the length of the working day in arduous trades and other special categories of work. The state shall guarantee that the working hours are fully utilized through proper organization of work and enforcement of work discipline.

Article 29.  In the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the minimum working age is 16 years.

Article 30. The state shall direct and manage the national economy through the Taean work system, a socialist form of economic management whereby the economy is operated and managed scientifically and rationally on the basis of collective effort of the producer masses, and through the new system of agricultural guidance whereby agricultural management is conducted by industrial methods.

Article 31. The people’s economy of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is a planned economy. The state shall draw up and implement the plans for the development of the people’s economy in accordance with the laws of socialist economic development so that the balance of accumulation and consumption can be maintained correctly, economic construction accelerated, the people's living standard steadily raised and the nation's defence capability strengthened. The state shall ensure a high rate of growth in production and a balanced development of the national economy by implementing unified and detailed planning.

Article 32. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea shall compile and implement the State budget according to the national economic development plan. The state shall systematically increase its accumulations and expand and develop socialist property by intensifying the campaign for increased production and greater economy, and by exercising strict financial control in all spheres.

Article 33. The state shall completely remove the social relic of tax system.

Article 34. Foreign trade in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is supervised by the state or under the supervision of the state. The state shall develop foreign trade on the principles of complete equality and mutual benefit. The state shall implement a tariff policy to protect the independent national economy.

Chapter 3 - CultureEdit

Article 35. In the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, all of the people study, and the socialist national culture is completely enlightened and developed.

Article 36. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea shall, by carrying out a thorough cultural revolution, train all the workers to be builders of socialism and communism equipped with a profound knowledge of nature and society and a high level of culture and technology.

Article 37. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea shall develop a truly popular, revolutionary culture which serves the socialist workers. In building a socialist national culture, the state shall oppose the cultural infiltration of imperialism and any tendency to return to the past, protect its national cultural heritage, and develop it in keeping with the existing socialist situation.

Article 38. The state shall eliminate the way of life inherited from the outmoded society and establish a new socialist way of life in every sphere.

Article 39. The state shall put the principles of socialist education into practice and raise the new generation to be steadfast revolutionaries who will fight for society and the people, to be people of a new communist type who are knowledgeable, morally sound and physically healthy.

Article 40. The state shall give precedence to public education and the training of cadres for the nation and combine general education with technological education, and education with productive work.

Article 41. The state shall implement a universal 10-year compulsory education for all generations growing until working age. The state will teach the students for free.

Article 42. The state shall train competent technicians and experts by developing the regular educational system as well as different forms of study while working. Scholarships will be granted to university and technical college students.

Article 43. The state shall implement a 1-year compulsory education for all children. The state shall bring up all pre-school students in nurseries and kindergartens at the burden of the state and society.

Article 44. The state shall completely set-up Juche in the field of scientific research, and promote the development of the country’s science and technology by intensifying the creative cooperation of scientists and producers.

Article 45. The state shall develop a Juche-oriented, revolutionary art and literature, national in form and socialist in content. The state shall encourage the creative activities of writers and artists, and extensively involve the working masses including the workers and peasants to literary activities.

Article 46. The state shall protect our language from the policy by the imperialists and their agents to destroy the national language, and shall develop it to meet modern demands.

Article 47. The state shall enhance the physical strength of the workers. The state shall strongly prepare all of the people for work and national defense by popularizing sports and developing national defense sports.

Article 48. The state shall protect people's lives and improve the working people's health by consolidating and developing more the universal free medical care system and fulfilling the preventive medicine policy.

Chapter 4 - Fundamental Rights and Duties of CitizensEdit

Article 49. In the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the rights and duties of citizens are based on the collectivist principle “One for all and all for one.”

Article 50. The state shall effectively guarantee genuine democratic rights and liberties as well as the material and cultural happiness of all its citizens. In the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the rights and freedom of citizens shall be amplified with the consolidation and development of the socialist system.

Article 51. Citizens have universal rights in all fields of state and social life including in politics, economy and culture.

Article 52. All citizens who have reached the age of 17 have the right to elect and to be elected, irrespective of sex, race, occupation, length of residence, property status, education, party affiliation, political views or religion. Citizens serving in the army also have the right to elect and to be elected. A person who has been disenfranchised by a Court decision and a person legally certified insane do not have the right to elect or to be elected.

Article 53. Citizens are guaranteed freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, demonstration and association. The state shall guarantee conditions for the free activity of democratic political parties and social organizations.

Article 54. Citizens have freedom of religious beliefs and freedom of anti-religious propaganda.

Article 55. Citizens are entitled to submit complaints and petitions.

Article 56. Citizens have the right to work. All able-bodied citizens choose occupations in accordance with their wishes and skills and are provided with stable jobs and working conditions. Citizens work according to their abilities and are paid in accordance with the quantity and quality of their work.

Article 57. Citizens have the right to relaxation. This right is ensured by the establishment of the 8-hour work, paid leave, accommodation at health resorts and holiday homes at the burden of the state and by a growing network of cultural facilities.

Article 58. Citizens are entitled to free medical care, and all persons who are no longer able to work because of old age, illness or a physical disability, the old and children who have no means of support are all entitled to material assistance. This right is ensured by free medical care, an expanding network of hospitals, sanatoria and other medical institutions, state social insurance and other social security systems.

Article 59. Citizens have the right to education. This right is ensured by an advanced educational system and by the educational measures enacted by the state for the benefit of the people.

Article 60. Citizens are free to engage in scientific, literary and artistic pursuits. The state shall grant benefits to innovators and inventors. Copyright, inventions and patents shall be protected by law.

Article 61. Revolutionary fighters, the families of revolutionary and patriotic martyrs, the families of soldiers of the People's Army and disabled soldiers enjoy the special protection of the state and society.

Article 62. Women are accorded an equal social status and rights with men. The state shall afford special protection to mothers and children by providing maternity leave, reduced working hours for mothers with many children, a wide network of maternity hospitals, nurseries and kindergartens, and other measures. The state shall free women from the heavy burden of family life, and provide all conditions for them to play a full role in society.

Article 63. Marriage and the family shall be protected by the State. The state shall pay great consideration to solidify the family, the basic cell of society.

Article 64. Citizens are guaranteed inviolability of the person and the home and privacy of correspondence. Except by law, citizens cannot be arrested.

Article 65. All Korean citizens overseas have the legal protection of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

Article 66. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea shall protect people from other countries seeking asylum due to their struggle for peace, democracy, national independence and socialism, and for scientific and cultural freedom.

Article 67. Citizens must completely observe the laws of the state, the socialist way of life and the socialist regulation of behavior.

Article 68. Citizens must increase the collectivist spirit. Citizens must love their groups and organizations, and must create the revolutionary work spirit by dedicating oneself to the interests of the society, people, country and revolution.

Article 69. Work is the sacred duty and honor of citizens. Citizens shall willingly and conscientiously participate in work and strictly observe work discipline and the working hours.

Article 70. Citizens must take good care of the state and joint properties, combat all forms of misappropriation and waste and manage the nation's economy diligently as the masters. The property of the State and social cooperative organizations is inviolable.

Article 71. Citizens shall raise their revolutionary vigilance for imperialists and all kinds of schemes by hostile elements to go against the socialist system of our country, and strictly keep state secrets.

Article 72. National defense is the greatest duty and honor of citizens. Citizens must defend the country and serve in the army in accordance to the law. The betrayal of the country and people is the greatest crime. Those who have betrayed the country and people are to be severely punished in accordance to the law.

Chapter 5 - The Supreme People's AssemblyEdit

Article 73. The Supreme People's Assembly is the highest organ of state power in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Legislative power is exercised by the Supreme People's Assembly only.

Article 74. The Supreme People's Assembly is composed of deputies elected on the principle of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.

Article 75. The Supreme People's Assembly is elected for a term of 4 years. The new election of the Supreme People's Assembly is held in accordance to the decision of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly before the end of the term of the Supreme People’s Assembly. When unavoidable circumstances render an election impossible, the term is prolonged until the election.

Article 76. The Supreme People’s Assembly has the following powers.

  1. Adopt or amend the Constitution and the laws
  2. Establish basic principles of the state’s domestic and foreign policies
  3. Elect the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
  4. Elect or recall the Vice Presidents of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and the Secretary and members of the Central People’s Committee in accordance to the proposal of the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
  5. Elect or recall the members of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly
  6. Elect or recall the Premier of the Administration Council in accordance to the proposal of the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
  7. Elect or recall the Vice Chairman of the National Defense Commission in accordance to the proposal of the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
  8. Elect or recall the President of the Central Court and appoint or dismiss the Prosecutor General of the Central Public Prosecutors Office
  9. Approve the state plan for the development of the people’s economy
  10. Approve the state budget
  11. Decide on the issue of war and peace

Article 77. The Supreme People's Assembly holds regular and extraordinary sessions. Regular sessions are convened once or twice a year by the Standing Committee of the Supreme People's Assembly. Extraordinary sessions are convened when the Standing Committee of the Supreme People's Assembly deems them necessary, or at the request of a minimum of one-third of the total number of deputies.

Article 78. The Supreme People's Assembly requires a quorum of more than half of the total number of deputies in order to meet.

Article 79. The Supreme People's Assembly elects its Chairman and Vice-Chairmen. The Chairman executes the sessions.

Article 80. Items to be considered at the Supreme People's Assembly are submitted by the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Central People’s Committee, the Standing Committee of the Supreme People's Assembly, and the Administration Council. Items can also be presented by deputies.

Article 81. The first session of each Supreme People's Assembly elects a credentials committee and, on hearing the committee's report, adopts a decision confirming the credentials of deputies.

Article 82. The ordinances and decisions of the Supreme People’s Assembly shall be adopted by the consent of more than half of the total number of deputies participating in the session through a show of hands. The Constitution shall be adopted or amended by the consent of more than two-thirds of the total number of deputies of the Supreme People’s Assembly.

Article 83.  The Supreme People’s Assembly shall organize the necessary committees, such as a budget deliberation committee and a legislation deliberation committee. The committees of the Supreme People’s Assembly shall help in the work of the Supreme People’s Assembly.

Article 84. Deputies to the Supreme People's Assembly are guaranteed inviolability. Deputies to the Supreme People’s Assembly cannot be arrested without the approval of the Supreme People’s Assembly or of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly when it is not in session.

Article 85. The Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly is the standing organ of the Supreme People’s Assembly.

Article 86. The Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly consists of the Chairman, Vice Chairmen and members. The Chairman and Vice Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly are also the Chairmen and Vice Chairmen of the Supreme People’s Assembly.

Article 87. The Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly have the following functions and powers.

  1. Review bills proposed when the Supreme People’s Assembly is not in session and send them to the Supreme People’s Assembly for its approval on its next session
  2. Amend existing laws when the Supreme People’s Assembly is not in session and send them to the Supreme People’s Assembly for its approval on its next session
  3. Interpret existing laws
  4. Convene the Supreme People’s Assembly
  5. Implement the work of electing deputies to the Supreme People’s Assembly
  6. Conduct work with the deputies of the Supreme People’s Assembly
  7. Conduct work with standing members of the Supreme People’s Assembly when the Supreme People’s Assembly is not in session
  8. Organize the work of electing the deputies to the local People’s Assembly
  9. Elect or recall the Judges and People’s Assessors of the relevant Court

Article 88. The Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly adopts decisions.

Chapter 6 - The President of the Democratic People's Republic of KoreaEdit

Article 89. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is the head of state and represents the state power of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

Article 90. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is elected by the Supreme People’s Assembly. The term of the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is 4 years.

Article 91. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea personally guides the Central People’s Committee.

Article 92. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea convenes and guides the State Administration Council when needed.

Article 93. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is the supreme commander of the entire armed forces of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Chairman of the National Defense Commission, and commands the entire armed forces of the state.

Article 94. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea promulgates the ordinances of the Supreme People’s Assembly, the decrees of the Central People’s Committee and the decisions of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea issues orders.

Article 95. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea grants special pardons.

Article 96. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea ratifies or abrogates treaties with other countries.

Article 97. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea receives the credentials and letters of recall of diplomatic representatives of other countries.

Article 98. The President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is responsible to the Supreme People’s Assembly for his work.

Article 99. The Vice Presidents of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea assist the work of the President.

Chapter 7 - The Central People's CommitteeEdit

Article 100. The Central People’s Committee is the highest leadership organ of state power of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

Article 101. The head of the Central People’s Committee is the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

Article 102. The Central People’s Committee consists of the President and Vice Presidents of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and Secretary and members of the Central People’s Committee and its members. The term of the Central People’s Committee is 4 years.

Article 103. The Central People’s Committee has the following functions and powers.

  1. Establish the state’s domestic policy
  2. Guide the work of the Administration Council, and the local People’s Assembly and People’s Committee
  3. Guide the work of organs of justice and prosecution
  4. Guide the work of national defense and the protection of the state’s politics
  5. Repeal decisions and directives of state organs that contravenes the supervising of the execution of the Constitution, laws, orders of the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and decrees, decisions and directives of the Central People’s Committee
  6. Establish or remove Ministries, the executive sectoral organs of the Administration Council
  7. Appoint or remove the Vice Chairman, respective Ministers and other members of the Administration Council in accordance with the proposal of the Premier of the Administration Council
  8. Appoint or recall ambassadors and ministers
  9. Appoint or remove important military officials and award general-level military titles
  10. Establishing orders, awards, military titles and diplomatic positions, and awarding orders and award titles
  11. Grant general amnesty
  12. Create or remove administrative divisions
  13. Declare a state of war and command execution in times of emergencies

Article 104. The Central People’s Committee adopts decrees and decisions, and issues directives.

Article 105. The Central People’s Committee establishes sectoral commissions, such as the Domestic Policy Commission, the National Defense Commission, and the Justice and Security Commission, to assist the work of the Central People’s Committee. The members of the respective commissions of the Central People’s Committee are appointed and removed by the Central People’s Committee.

Article 106. The Central People’s Committee is responsible to the Supreme People’s Assembly for its work.

Chapter 8 - The Administration CouncilEdit

Article 107. The Administration Council is the executive organ of administration of the highest organ of state power. The Administration Council works under the guidance of the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Central People’s Committee.

Article 108. The Administration Council consists of the Premier, Vice Premiers, Ministers and other important members.

Article 109. The State Administration Council has the following functions and powers.

  1. Guide the work of the respective Ministries, organs directly under the Administration Council, and the local administrative committees
  2. Establish or remove organs directly under the Administration Council
  3. Prepare the state plan for the development of the people’s economy and establish measures for its implementation
  4. Organize the state budget and establish measures for its execution
  5. Organize and execute work such as on industries, agriculture, internal and external trade, construction, transportation, communication, land management, urban management, science, education, culture and health
  6. Establish measures for consolidating the monetary and banking system
  7. Enter into treaties with other countries and conduct external work
  8. Conduct work on the construction of the people’s armed forces
  9. Establish measures for the maintenance of social order, protection of state interests and guaranteeing rights of citizens
  10. Repeal decisions and directives of state management organs that contravene the decisions and directives of the Administration Council

Article 110. The Administration Council convenes plenary meetings and permanent committee meetings. The plenary meetings of the State Administration Council consist of all the members of the State Administration Council, and the permanent committee meetings of the State Administration Council consist of the Premier, Vice Premiers and other members of the State Administration Council appointed by the Premier.

Article 111. The plenary meetings of the State Administration Council discuss and decide on new and important questions that arise in the work of state management.

Article 112. The Administration Council adopts decisions and issues directives.

Article 113. The Administration Council is responsible to the Supreme People’s Assembly, the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Central People’s Committee for its work.

Article 114. The Ministries are the sectoral executive organs of the State Administration Council. The Ministries issue directives.

Chapter 9 – The Local People’s Assembly, People’s Committee and Administrative CommitteeEdit

Article 115. The People’s Assembly of the province (or direct-controlled municipality), city (or district) and county is the local organ of state power.

Article 116. The local People’s Assembly consists of deputies elected on the principle of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.

Article 117. The term of the People’s Assembly of the province (or direct-controlled municipality) is four years, and the term of the People’s Assembly of city (or district) and county is two years.

Article 118. The local People’s Assembly has the following function and power.

  1. Approve the local plan for the development of the people’s economy
  2. Approve the local budget
  3. Elect or recall the Chairman, Vice Chairmen, Secretary and members of the relevant People’s Committee
  4. Elect or recall the Chairman of the relevant Administrative Committee
  5. Elect or recall the Judges and People’s Assessors of the relevant Court
  6. Repeal the wrong decisions and directives of the relevant People’s Committee or lower People’s Assembly or People’s Committee

Article 119. The local People’s Assembly convenes regular and extraordinary sessions. Regular sessions are convened once or twice a year by the relevant People’s Committee. Extraordinary sessions are convened when the relevant People’s Committee deems them necessary or at the request of a minimum of one-third of the total number of deputies.

Article 120. The local People’s Assembly requires a quorum of more than half of the total number of deputies in order to meet.

Article 121. The local People’s Assembly elects a Chairman.

Article 122. The People’s Assembly of the province (or direct-controlled municipality), city (or district) and county adopt decisions. The decision of the local People’s Assembly is promulgated by the Chairman of the relevant People’s Committee.

Article 123. The People’s Committee of the province (or direct-controlled municipality), city (or district) and county is the local organ of state power when the relevant People’s Assembly are not in session.

Article 124. The local People’s Committee consists of the Chairman, Vice Chairmen, Secretary and members. The term of the local People’s Committee is the same as the term of the relevant People’s Assembly.

Article 125. The local People’s Committee has the following functions and powers.

  1. Convene the People’s Assembly
  2. Conduct work on the election of deputies to the People’s Assembly
  3. Conduct work with the deputies of the People’s Assembly
  4. Establish measures for the execution of decisions of the relevant People’s Assembly and the higher People’s Committee
  5. Guide the work of the relevant Administrative Committee
  6. Guide the work of the lower People’s Committee
  7. Guide the work of the relevant state organ in the area, enterprise and social cooperative organizations
  8. Repeal the wrong decisions and directives of the relevant Administrative Committee, and the lower People’s Committee and Administrative Committee, and halt the execution of wrong decisions of the lower People’s Assembly
  9. Appoint or remove the Vice Chairmen, Secretary and members of the relevant Administrative Committee

Article 126. The local People’s Committee adopts decisions and issues directives.

Article 127. The local People’s Committee is responsible to the relevant People’s Assembly and the higher People’s Committee for its work.

Article 128. The Administrative Committee of the province (or direct-controlled municipality), city (or district) and county is the administrative executive organ of the local organ of state power.

Article 129. The local Administrative Committee consists of the Chairman, Vice Chairmen, Secretary and the members.

Article 130. The local Administrative Committee has the following functions and powers.

  1. Organize and execute all administration work in the relevant local area
  2. Execute the decisions and directives of the relevant People’s Assembly and People’s Committee, and higher organs
  3. Prepare the local plan for the development of the people’s economy and establish measures for its execution
  4. Organize the local budget and establish measures for its execution
  5. Establish measures for the maintenance of social order, protection of state interests and guaranteeing rights of citizens at the relevant local area
  6. Guide the work of the lower Administrative Committee
  7. Repeal the wrong decisions and directives of the lower Administrative Committee

Article 131. The local Administrative Committee adopts decisions and issues directives.

Article 132. The local Administrative Committee is responsible to the relevant People’s Assembly and People’s Committee for its work. The local Administrative Committee obeys the higher Administrative Committee and the Administration Council.

Chapter 10 - The Court and the Public Prosecutors OfficeEdit

Article 133. Justice is administered by the Central Court, the Court of the province (or directly-controlled municipality), the People's Court and the Special Court. Verdicts are delivered in the name of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

Article 134. The Judges and People’s Assessors of the Central Court are elected by the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Assembly. The Judges and People’s Assessors of the Court of the province (or direct-controlled municipality) and the People’s Court are elected by the relevant people’s committee. The terms of the Judges and People’s Assessors are the same as the term of the relevant People’s Assembly.

Article 135. The Chairman and Judges of the Special Court are appointed and removed by the Central Court. The People’s Assessors of the Special Court are elected by a meeting of relevant soldiers or employees.

Article 136. The Courts fulfil the following functions.

  1. Protect through judicial procedure the State power and the socialist system established in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the property of the State and social, cooperative organizations, personal rights as guaranteed by the Constitution, and the lives and property of citizens
  2. Ensure that all state organs, enterprises, social cooperative organizations and citizens abide strictly by state laws and staunchly combat class enemies and all law-breakers
  3. Give judgments and findings with regard to property and conduct notarial work

Article 137. Justice is administered by a Court consisting of one Judge and two People's Assessors. In special cases, there may be threeJudges.

Article 138. Court cases are heard in public and the accused is guaranteed the right of defence. Hearings may be closed to the public as stipulated by law.

Article 139. Judicial proceedings are conducted in the Korean language. Foreign citizens may use their own language during court proceedings.

Article 140. In administering justice, the Court is independent, and judicial proceedings are carried out in strict accordance with the law.

Article 141. The Central Court is the highest judicial organ of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The Central Court supervises the judicial activities of all the Courts.

Article 142. The Central Court is responsible to the Supreme People's Assembly, the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and to the Central People’s Committee for its work. The Courts of the province (or municipality directly under central authority) and the People's Court are responsible to the relevant people’s assembly for their work.

Article 143. Prosecution work is conducted by the Central Public Prosecutors Office, the Public Prosecutors Offices of the province (or direct-controlled municipality), city (or district) and county and the Special Public Prosecutors Office.

Article 144. The Public Prosecutors Office fulfils the following functions.

  1. Ensure the strict observance of state laws by state organs, enterprises, social cooperative organizations and by citizens
  2. Ensure that the decisions and directives of state organs conform with the Constitution, ordinances of the Supreme People's Assembly, the orders of the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the decrees, decisions and directives of the Central People’s Committee, and the decisions and directives of the State Administration Council
  3. Expose and institute legal proceedings against criminals and offenders in order to protect the state power of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the socialist system, the property of the state and social cooperative organizations and personal rights as guaranteed by the Constitution and the people's lives and property

Article 145. Prosecution work is guided uniformly by the Central Public Prosecutors Office, and all Public Prosecutors Office obey the higher Public Prosecutors Office or the Central Public Prosecutors Office. Prosecutors are appointed or removed by the Central Public Prosecutors Office.

Article 146. The Central Public Prosecutors Office is responsible to the Supreme People’s Assembly, the President of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Central People’s Committee for its work.

Chapter 11 - The National Emblem, National Flag and CapitalEdit

Article 147. The national emblem of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is a grand hydroelectric power station under the beaming light of a red star, framed with ears of rice bound with a band bearing the inscription 'The Democratic People's Republic of Korea.”

Article 148. The national flag of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is a broad, red horizontal stripe in the center with a five-pointed red star in a white circle near the staff, and white and blue stripes over and under the red stripe. The ratio of the width to the length is 1:2.

Article 149. The capital of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is Pyongyang.