Studies in Song/Grand Chorus of Birds from Aristophanes

Previously printed in The Athenæum, October 30th, 1880, p. 568. Based on an excerpt from Aristophanes' Birds.




Attempted in English verse after the original metre.

I was allured into the audacity of this experiment by consideration of a fact which hitherto does not seem to have been taken into consideration by any translator of the half divine humourist in whose incomparable genius the highest qualities of Rabelais were fused and harmonized with the supremest gifts of Shelley: namely, that his marvellous metrical invention of the anapæstic heptameter was almost exactly reproducible in a language to which all variations and combinations of anapæstic, iambic, or trochaic metre are as natural and pliable as all dactylic and spondaic forms of verse are unnatural and abhorrent. As it happens, this highest central interlude of a most adorable masterpiece is as easy to detach from its dramatic setting, and even from its lyrical context, as it was easy to give line for line of it in English. In two metrical points only does my version vary from the verbal pattern of the original. I have of course added rhymes, and double rhymes, as necessary makeweights for the imperfection of an otherwise inadequate language; and equally of course I have not attempted the impossible and undesirable task of reproducing the rare exceptional effect of a line overcharged on purpose with a preponderance of heavy-footed spondees: and this for the obvious reason that even if such a line—which I doubt—could be exactly represented, foot by foot and pause for pause, in English, this English line would no more be a verse in any proper sense of the word than is the line I am writing at this moment. And my main intention, or at least my main desire, in the undertaking of this brief adventure, was to renew as far as possible for English ears the music of this resonant and triumphant metre, which goes ringing at full gallop as of horses who

'dance as 'twere to the music
Their own hoofs make.'

I would not seem over curious in search of an apt or inapt quotation: but nothing can be fitter than a verse of Shakespeare's to praise at once and to describe the most typical verse of Aristophanes.



Come on then, ye dwellers by nature in darkness, and
like to the leaves' generations,
That are little of might, that are moulded of mire,
unenduring and shadowlike nations,
Poor plumeless ephemerals, comfortless mortals, as visions
of creatures fast fleeing,
Lift up your mind unto us that are deathless, and dateless
the date of our being:

Us, children of heaven, us, ageless for aye, us, all of
whose thoughts are eternal;
That ye may from henceforth, having heard of us all things
aright as to matters supernal,
Of the being of birds and beginning of gods, and of
streams, and the dark beyond reaching,
Truthfully knowing aright, in my name bid Prodicus pack
with his preaching.

It was Chaos and Night at the first, and the blackness
of darkness, and hell's broad border,
Earth was not, nor air, neither heaven; when in depths
of the womb of the dark without order
First thing first-born of the black-plumed Night was a
wind-egg hatched in her bosom,
Whence timely with seasons revolving again sweet Love
burst out as a blossom,

Gold wings glittering forth of his back, like whirlwinds
gustily turning.
He, after his wedlock with Chaos, whose wings are of
darkness, in hell broad-burning,
For his nestlings begat him the race of us first, and
upraised us to light new-lighted.
And before this was not the race of the gods, until all
things by Love were united;
And of kind united with kind in communion of nature
the sky and the sea are
Brought forth, and the earth, and the race of the gods
everlasting and blest. So that we are
Far away the most ancient of all things blest. And that
we are of Love's generation
There are manifest manifold signs. We have wings, and
with us have the Loves habitation;

And manifold fair young folk that forswore love once,
ere the bloom of them ended,
Have the men that pursued and desired them subdued,
by the help of us only befriended,
With such baits as a quail, a flamingo, a goose, or a cock's
comb staring and splendid.

All best good things that befall men come from us
birds, as is plain to all reason:
For first we proclaim and make known to them spring,
and the winter and autumn in season;
Bid sow, when the crane starts clanging for Afric, in
shrill-voiced emigrant number,
And calls to the pilot to hang up his rudder again for the
season, and slumber;
And then weave a cloak for Orestes the thief, lest he
strip men of theirs if it freezes.

And again thereafter the kite reappearing announces a
change in the breezes,
And that here is the season for shearing your sheep of
their spring wool. Then does the swallow
Give you notice to sell your greatcoat, and provide
something light for the heat that's to follow.
Thus are we as Ammon or Delphi unto you, Dodona,
nay, Phoebus Apollo.
For, as first ye come all to get auguries of birds, even such
is in all things your carriage,
Be the matter a matter of trade, or of earning your bread,
or of any one's marriage.
And all things ye lay to the charge of a bird that belong
to discerning prediction:
Winged fame is a bird, as you reckon: you sneeze, and
the sign's as a bird for conviction:

All tokens are 'birds' with you—sounds too, and lackeys,
and donkeys. Then must it not follow
That we are to you all as the manifest godhead that
speaks in prophetic Apollo?

October 19, 1880.