The Acts and Monuments of John Foxe/Volume 3/Additional Articles against William Swinderby

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by the dore, but wendith upon an other halfe, hee is a night theefe and a day theefe. And there he telleth how he that flieth from their flocke, is not the sheapherd but an hired man, and it pertaineth not to him of the sheepe.

2. Conclusion.To the second conclusion: That, he saien, is errour or heresie, that toucheth taking away of the temporalties and of lordships of priests that bene euill liuers.

Declaration.I saie, me seemeth that the conclusion is true, and is this: That it were medefull and leefull to secular lordes, by way of charitie, and by power giuen to them of God, in default of prelates that amend naught by Gods lawe; cursed curates that openlie misuse the goods of holy church, that ben poore mens goods: and customably ayens the law of God (the which poore men, lordes ben holden to maintaine and defend), to take awaie and to draw from such curates, poore mens goods in helpe of the poore, and their owne wilfull offeringes, and their bodilie almes deedes of worldlie goods, and giue them to such as duelie seruen God in the church, and ben readie in vpbearing of the charge that prelates shoulden doe and done it not. Every gift given upon condition is frustrate upon the breach of every such condition.And as anentes taking away of temporalties, I say thus: That it is leefull to kings, to princes, to dukes, and to lords of the world, to take away from popes, from cardinals, from bishops, prelates, and possessioners in the church, their temporalties, and their almes that they haue giuen them vpon condition that they shoulden serue God the better: when they are verilie seene that their giuing and taking bene contrarie to the law of God, contrarie to Christes liuing and his apostles; and namelie in that they taken vppon them, they that shoulden be next followers of Christ and his apostles in poorenesse and meekenesse, to be secular lords against the teaching of Christ and of S. Peter. Truelie me seemeth that all christen men, and namelie priestes shoulden take keepe, that their doing were according with the lawe of God, either the old law, either the new. The priestes of the olde lawe weren forbidden to haue lordships among their brethren: for God said, that he would be their part and their heritage. And Christ, that was the highest priest of the Newe Testament, forsooke worldlie lordship, and was here in fourme of a seruaunt, and forbad his priests such lordships, and said, 'Reges gentium dominantur eorum, &c. vos autem non sic.' That is: 'The kings of the heathen, beare dominion and rule, &c.; but you shall not do so.' And as S. Peter saith, 'Neque dominantes in clero,' &c. 'Not bearing rule and dominion of the clergie,' &c. So it seemeth me: that it is against both lawes of God, that they haue such lordshippes, and that their title to such lordshippes is not full good. And so it seemeth me, that zif they bene thereto of euill liuing, it is no great perill to take away from them such lordships, but rather meedfull, if the taking awaie were in charitie, and not for singular couetousnesse ne wrath. And I suppose that if friers, that bene bounden to their founders to liue in pouertie,[1] woulde breake their rule and take worldlie lordships, might not men lawfullie take from them such lordships, and make them to liue in pouertie as their rule would? And forsooth it seemeth me, that priestes oughten also well to keepe Christes rule, as friers owen to keepe the rule of their founder. Jeremie witnesseth, howe God commended Rachabs children, for they woulde not breake their faders bidding in drinking of wine. And yet Jeremie profered them wine to drinke. And so I trowe, that God woulde commend his priestes, if they woulden forsake worldlie lordships, and holden them apayd with lifelot, and with clothing; and busie them fast about their heritage of heauen. And God saith, Numeri. 18., ('In terra eorum nihil possidebitis, nec tenebitis partem inter eos: Ego pars et hæreditas vestra in medio filiorum Israel, &c. Et Deut. 18. 'Non habebitis sacerdotes et Leuitæ et omnes quide eadem tribu estis, partem et hæreditatem cum reliquo Israel, quia sacrificia Domini et oblationes eius comedent, et nihil accipient de possessione fratrum suorum. Dominus enim ipse est hæreditas ipsorum, sicut locutus est illis.' Et Lucæ 14. 'Sic ergo omnis ex vobis, qui non renunciauerit omnibus quæ possidet, non potest mens esse discipulus.' Et Ieronymus in Epistola. 34. Et Bernardus libro 20. ad Eugenium Papa. Et Hugo 'De Sacramentis,' parte. 2. libri Secundi cap. 7. Et 12. q. pri. cap. 'Duo sunt:' Et cap. 'Clericus.' Et Bernardus, 'in Sermone de Apostolis, super illud: 'Ecce nos reliquimus omnia.' Et Chrysost. super Math. Et 'Vetus Testamentum: That is, you shall haue no inheritance in their land, nor haue no part amongest them: I will be your part and inheritance amongest the children of Israel,' &c. Deut. 18. 'The priests and Leuites, and all that be of the same tribe shall haue no part nor inheritance with the rest of Israel: because they shall eat the sacrifices of the Lord and his oblations, and they shall take nothing of the possession of their brethren. The Lord himself is their possession, as he spake unto them.' And ye 14. chapter of Luke 'Euen so euerie one of you, which forsaketh not all that he possesseth, cannot be my disciple.' And Jerome, in his 14. Epistle, hath the like wordes. And Bernard in his 20. booke to Eugenius the pope. And also Hugo in his booke 'De Sacramentis,' the second part of his second booke, the 7. chapter. And also in the 12. q. first chap. 'Duo sunt,' and in the chap. 'Clericus.' And againe, Bernard in his booke 'De sermone de Apostolis,' vpon this place: 'Ecce nos reliquimus omnia.' 'Behold we leaue all,' &c. Chrysost. vpon the gospel of S. Math. &c.

3. Conclusion.The third conclusion toucheth the matter of preaching of priests, withouten leaue of bishops, and is this: That such true priestes may counsell sinfull men, that shewen to them their sinnes, after the wit and cunning that God hath giuen, to turne hem from sinne to vertuous life, and as touching preaching of the gospel.

Declaration.I say that no bishop oweth to let a true priest, that God hath giffen grace, wit, and cunning to do that office: for both priestes and deacons, that God hath ordained deacons or priestes, bene holden by power geuen to them of God, to preach to the people the gospel: and namelie, and souerenlie, popes, bishops prelates and curats; for this is due to the people and the parisheners, to haue it and aske it. And hereto seemeth me, that Christ said generallie to his disciples: 'Ite et prædicate Euangelium omni creaturæ,' 'Goe and preach the gospel to all creatures,' as well as he said, 'Ite et baptizate omnes gentes,' ' Goe and baptise all nations,' that also as well longeth preaching to priests without leaue of a bishop as doth baptising: and then why maie he not preach Gods worde withouten a bishops leaue? And sithen Christ bade his priests preach, who should forbidden them preach? A priest admitted ought to preach though the prince and bishop forbid, so that he preach the word.The apostles were forbidden of a bishop at Jerusalem, to speake more of the name of Jesus, but Peter said: 'Si iustum est in conspectu Dei, vos potius audire quam Dominum, indicate.' That is, 'Whether it be iust in the sight of God to heare and obey you before the Lord: be though your selues judges.' A bishop may not let a priest of giuing bodilie almes in his dioces: much more may he not let the doing of spirituall almes in his dioces by Gods lawe. A priest may saie his mattines withouten the bishops leaue: for the pope that is aboue the bishop, hath charged priestes therewith: and me thinketh that Christes bidding should be all so much of charge as the popes. Math. 10. 'Euntes autem prædicate. Ite ecce ego mitto vos.' Et. Mar. 16. 'Euntes in mundum vniuersem,' &c. Lucæ 10. Et Anacletus pap. dis. 21. cap. 'In nouo Testamento.' Et Beda super illud: 'Messis quidem mvlta.' Et Isidonis 'De summo bono.' ca. 44. Et Gregorius in canone dis. 43. 'Præconis quippe officium suscipit,' &c. Et Chrysostom. distinct. 43. 'Nolite timere.' Et. Aug. dis. 34. cap. 'Quisquis.' Et Gregorius in suo pastorali. c. 38. 'Qui enim est.' Chrysost. hom. 31. et in Tollitano concilio: 'Ignorantia.' Et Aug. in Prologo sermonum suorum; et leronymus, dis. 9. 'Ecce ego.' Et Aug. super id: 'Homo quidam peregrinus?' That is, 'Go you forth and preach:' and again, 'Behold I send you,' &c. Mar. 16. 'Go you into all the world,' &c. and Luk. 10. cap. 'In Nouo Testamento.' And Beda vppon this place. 'Messis quidem multa:' the haruest is great. Also Isidorus, 'De summo bono.' cap. 44. And Gregorius in the canon, dist. 43. 'Præconis quippe officium suscipit, &c. and Chrysostome in his 34 distinction: 'Nolite timere:' and Augustine in the 34 distinction, cap. 'Quisquis.' And Gregorius in his Pastoral cap. 38. 'Qui enim est.' And Chrysostome in his 31. Homelie. Et in Tollitano concilio, 'Ignorantia.' And Augustine in the prologue of his Sermons. And Hierome in the 95. distinct. 'Ecce ego.' And Augustine vpon this place: 'Homo quidam peregrinus.' 'A certaine traueller.'

4. Conclusion.The fourth conclusion toucheth the sacrament of the aultar, and is this: That wholly I beleeue that the sacrament of the aultar, made by vertue of heauenlie wordes, is bread and Christes bodie, so as Christ himselfe saith in the gospel, and as S. Paul saith, and as doctors in the common law haue determined: To this sentence John 6. 'Moses hath not giuen yon bread from heauen, but my father will giue you bread from heauen.' He is the true bread that came downe from heauen and giueth life vnto the worlde. My father giueth vnto you bread in deed: the verie true bread of God is that, which came downe from heauen and giueth life vnto the world. I am the bread of life: The bread which I will giue is my flesh.' And in the canon of the Masse, 'Panem sanctum vitæ æternæ,' 'The holie bread of life.' And Corinth, the 10. chap, and first epistle. 'The bread which wee breake, is it not the communicating of the bodie of the Lord? Let a man proue himself, and so eate of that bread,' &c. And canon 'De consecratione' distinction 2. vnder the authoritie of Hilarius the pope: 'Corpus Christi quod sumitur de altari,' &c. And Augustine in the foresaid distinction: 'That which is scene, is bread,' &c. That which faith requireth, is bread, and is the body of Christ. And in ye foresaid distinction, cap. 'Omnia quaecunque,' &c. By these two sentences it is manifestlie declared, that that bread and this, be not two, but one bread and one flesh. Note the words for that he saith, the bread and flesh; and the author, 'De diuinis officiis;' and also Augustine in his booke, 'De remedijs penitentiæ:' 'Why preparest thou thy teeth,' &c. And Ambrose, 'De Sacramentis:' 'De consecratione:' distinct. 2. 'Reuera mirabile est,' &c. 'This meat which you receiue, and this bread of one which descended from heauen, doth minister the substance of eternall life; and whosoeuer shall eate the same, shall not die euerlastinglie, and is the bodie of Christ.' Note how he saith, 'and is the bodie of Christ.'

5. Conclusion.The 5. article telleth of forgiuenesse of sinnes, and is this: That verie contrition withouten charitie and grace, do away all sinnes before done of that man, that is verilie contrite, and all true confession made by mouth outwardly to a wise priest and a good, profiteth much to a man, and it is needfull and helping, that men shew their life to such, trusting fullie to Gods mercie, that be forgiueth the sinne.

Remission double.And hereto I say, that there bene two remissions of sinnes: one that belongeth onelie to God: and that remission is the clensing of the soule from sinne: and the other remission, a certifying that one man certifieth another, that his sinnes be forgiuen of God, if he be sory with all his heart for them, and is in full will to leaue them for euer: and this maner of forgiuenesse longeth to priests. Of the first maner of forgiuenesse, Dauid saith: 'And I said I will confess my vnrighteousnesse vnto the Lord, and thou forgauest me my misdeede.' And Zacharie saith: 'And thou, O child, shalt be called the prophet of the highest, &c. to giue knowledge of saluation vnto his people for the remission of their sinnes, by the bowels of Gods mercie.' And John Baptist: 'Behold the Lambe of God that taketh away the sinnes of the world.' And S. John the Euangelist saith in his epistle: 'If we confesse our sinnes, he is faithfull and iust to forgiue vs our sinnes, and cleanse vs from all our iniquitie.' And it followeth: 'If anie man sinne, we haue an aduocate with the father, euen Jesus Christ, and hee it is that is the propitiation for our sinnes.' And of the other remission of sinnes Christ speaketh in the gospel, and saith: 'Whose sinnes ye forgiue, they shal be forgiuen.' And mans forgiuenes auaileth litle, unless God forgiue our sinnes through his grace.

6. Conclusion.The 6. conclusion teacheth indulgences and pardons, that the pope graunteth in his bulles, and men callen it an absolution, ' A pœna et culpa.'

Of this maner of speach I cannot finde in the gospel, ne in no place of holie write, ne I haue not read that Christ vsed this maner of remission, ne none his apostles. Either there is purgatory, or else the pope is cruel. The pope's power can keep none from bodily pain, Ergo, much less from spiritual. He hath no power grounded upon Scripture to bring from pain of purgatory.But as me seemeth, if the pope had such a power, sithen the paines after a man's death bene much greater than anie bodily pains of the world: me thinketh he should of charitie keep men out of such paines, and then men neede not to finde so manie vicious priests after their life, to bring their soules out of purgatorie. An other thing me thinketh, that sithe the popes power ne may not keep vs in this world fro bodily paines as from cold, from hunger, from dread, from sorrow, and other such paines, how should his power helpe us from spirituall paines, when we bene dead? But for that no man commeth after his death to tell vs the sooth in what pain they bene, men mow tell thereof what hem lust. S. John saithin his Apocalyps, that he saw vnder the aultar, the soules of them which were slayne for the word of God, and for the testimonie which they had. 'And they did crie with a loud voice, saying: 'Howe long Lord, holie and true, doest not thou reuenge our bloud of them which dwell on the earth?[2] And white stoles were giuen to euerie of them to rest a while, till the number of their fellow seruantes and brethren should be fulfilled, which also remained to be slaine as they were,' &c. Here seemeth it, that these soules were not assoiled 'a pœna,' that is, from paine: for their desire ritual, is not fulfillen. And they were bidden abide a while, and that is a pain. And if martyrs were not assoiled from paine, it is hard for anie man to saie, that he assoileth other men 'a pœna.' Also good mens soules haue not but spirituall blisse, and they want bodilie blisse, imtill their resurrection in the day of dome. And after they desiren to haue that blisse, and abiden it, and that is paine to them. And I cannot see that the pope hath power to bring him from this pain. But if anie man can shew me, that he hath such a power graunted in the troth of Holy Write, I will gladlie leefen it.

7. Conclusion.
The pope maketh himself even with Christ.
The 7. point speaketh of the pope and is this: Sithe it is onlie due to God, as I haue said before, to geue and to graunt plener remission, from paine, and from blame, that whatsoeuer he be, pope or other, that presumptuouslie mistaketh vppon him the power that onelie is due to God, in that, in as much as in him is, he maketh himselfe euen with Christ, and blasphemeth God, as Lucifer did, when he said, 'Ascendam, and ero similis altissimo.' That is, 'I will ascend, and be like the highest,' &c.

For that I say, if the pope holde men of armes in maintaining of his temporall lordship, to venge him on them that gilten and offenden him, and geueth remission to fight and to slaie them, that contrarien him, as men sayden hee did by the The bishop of Norwich, Henry Spenser, the pope's warrior set up of the pope to slay his enemies. The pope contrary to Christ.bishop of Norwich, not putting his sworde in his sheath, as God commaunded to Peter, he is Antichrist. For hee doth the contrarie of the commandement of Jesus Christ, that bade Peter forgiuen to his brother 70. sithe 7. sithe. Well I find in the gospel, that vhen Christ sent his disciples to Samarie, the Samaritanes would not receiuen them. And some of them bidden Christ, that hee should make a fire come downe from heauen, to destroy the citie. And hee blamed them, and said: 'Nescitis cuius spiritus estis: filius hominis non venit animas perdere, se'dsaluare.' That is, 'Ye know not of what spirite ye are: the sonne of man is not come downe to destroy, but to saue the liues and soules of men,' &c. If Christ then come to saue men, and not to slea them, who that doth the reuers hereof, is against Christ, and then he is Antichrist. Christ bad Peter put his sword in his sheath and said: 'Omnes qui gladium acceperint, gladio peribunt.' That is: 'All which take the sword, shall perish with the sworde.' Proved Antichrist.And I cannot finde that Peter drewe out his sworde after that time, but suffered as Christ said: 'Cum senueris, alius cinget te, et ducet quo tu non vis.' That is, 'When thou shalt waxe old, another shall gird thee and lead thee whether thou wilt not.' And therefore said Peter, 'Christ suffered for vs, leauing vs example that we should follow his steppes. And Paule saith: 'Not defending your selues, but geue place to anger: leaue reuenging to mee, and I shall reward them,' &c. And therefore it seemeth to mee, that it is as much against Christes loue, that his vicar should bee a fighter, sithen that hee mote be a shepheard, that should go before his sheepe, and let them come after him, and not with swordes to driue them away from him. For as Christ saith, 'A good shepheard shall put his life for his sheepe.' And zif all that Christ had, were two swordes,Two swords never given to the pope. when hee was taken of the Jewes, he said himselfe, it was, for that the Scriptures moten zit be fulfilled: 'Quoniam cum iniquis deputatus est,' that is: 'Hee was reputed among the wicked:' and not to figure two swordes, that men sayen the pope hath, to gouerne with the church. And when I see such doings of the pope, and many other that accorden not with Christes lore, ne his liuing: and when I reade diuers Scriptures of holie writte, I am foule astonied whether they shoulden be understanded of him, or of anie other. And I pray you for Gods loue tell me the sooth. Christ saith: 'Many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ, and shall seduce manie,' &c. Christ (I wot well) is as much to say, as he that is anointed; and two anointingsTwo sorts of annointinges in Scripture. there weren in the lawe, one of kings, another of priests. And Christ was both king and priest, and so the pope saith that he is. And if all that haue bene emperours of Rome, and otlier heathen kinges, haue bene Antichristes, they come not in Christes name. But who so commeth in Christe's name, and faineth him Christe's frend, and he be priuilie his enemie, he may lightlie beguile manie. Saint Paule saith: 'Before there commeth a defection first,A defection in Antichrist's time. and the Sonne of perdition shall be reuealed, which is the aduersarie, and is extolled aboue all that is named God, or which is worshipped: so that he shall sit in the temple of God, shewing him selfe as God.' And it followeth in the same place: 'And now ye know what holdeth till he be reuealed in his time, for he worketh alreadie the mysterie of iniquitie. Onlie he that holdeth, let him holde till he come abroad, and then that wicked one shall be reuealed, whom the Lord Jesus shall slay with the spirite of his mouth,' &c. And Saint John saith in the Apocalyps: 'I sawe another beast ascending out of the earth, and two hornes like to the lambe. He spake like the Dragon, and had the power of the first beast.' Manie such authorities astonieth me oft sithes, and therefore I pray you, for the loue of God, to tel me that they meane.

  1. If the pope may take from the friars, to cause them to keep St. Francis rule, may not the emperor take from the pope, to cause him keep Christ's rule.
  2. If the martyrs being dead, be not assured from grief of tarrying, much less can they assoil others from pains of purgatory.