The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Böttger, Johann Friedrich
BÖTTGER, Böttcher, or Böttiger, Johann Friedrich, a Saxon alchemist, born at Schleiz, Feb. 4, 1682, died in Dresden, March 13, 1719. His pretended discovery of the philosopher's stone resulted in the invention of Saxon porcelain. After various vicissitudes he gave the elector Augustus an account of his discovery, which is preserved in the archives of Saxony. The elector not availing himself of his suggestions, they were put in application by Count Tschirnhausen, who established a manufactory at Meissen in 1705, employing Böttger, who succeeded in producing with the reddish brown clay which abounds in the vicinity of Meissen a porcelain of remarkable beauty and solidity. After Tschirnhausen's death Böttger became in 1710 director of a manufactory, but was arrested shortly before his death for having offered to sell the secret of his art. Engelhardt wrote his biography (Leipsic, 1837).