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The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Boston (Massachusetts)

< The American Cyclopædia (1879)

BOSTON, the capital of the commonwealth of Massachusetts and of Suffolk county, the chief city of New England, and the seventh of the United States in point of population, situated in lat. 42° 21' 24" N., lon. 71° 3' 58" W., at the western extremity of Massachusetts bay. The city embraces Boston proper, East Boston, South Boston, Roxbury, and Dorchester. Boston proper, or old Boston, occupies a peninsula, joined to the mainland on the south by a narrow strip of land known as the Neck, which was once overflowed by the tide, but has been raised and widened. The surface is very uneven, and originally presented three hills, Beacon, Copp's, and Fort (whence the early name of the peninsula, Trimountain), the first of which is about 130 ft. above the sea. Fort hill has recently been levelled, while the elevation of Copp's hill has been much reduced. East Boston occupies the W. portion of the island formerly known as Noddle's island, but more commonly bearing the name of Maverick, from Samuel Maverick, who lived there in 1630. It is equidistant from old Boston and Charlestown, and has a hilly surface. South Boston extends about 2 m. along the S. side of the harbor, an arm of which separates it from Boston proper. Near the centre are Dorchester heights, which attain an elevation of about 130 ft. above the ocean, and afford a fine view of the city, bay, and surrounding country. The surface of Roxbury and Dorchester in many places is rugged and hilly. The original limits of Boston embraced but 690 acres; 1,700 acres were acquired by the addition of South and East Boston, and by filling the surrounding flats; 2,100 by the annexation of Roxbury; 4,800 by the annexation of Dorchester; and 880 by filling flats in other places; making the present area 10,170 acres. The city is connected with Charlestown by the Charles river bridge, 1,603 ft. long, and the Warren bridge, 1,390 ft. long; and with Cambridge by the West Boston bridge, which crosses Charles river from Cambridge street, Boston, and is 2,756 ft. long, with a causeway of 3,432 ft. Craigie's bridge, 2,796 ft. long, extends from Leverett street to East Cambridge; from this bridge another, 1,820 ft. in length, extends to Prison point, Charlestown. South Boston is reached by the Federal street bridge, about 500 ft. long, and the South Boston bridge, 1,550 ft. long, extending from the Neck to South Boston. These bridges are all free. The Western avenue, or Milldam road, has been constructed upon a substantial dam across the Back bay from the foot of Beacon street to Sewall's point, in Brookline. It is about 1½ m. long, from 60 to 100 ft. wide, and is a popular resort for driving. Boston is unsurpassed in the beauty of its suburbs, which embrace the cities of Charlestown, Chelsea, Somerville, and Cambridge, and the towns of Revere, Brighton, Brookline, Winthrop, and others. These places contain many handsome residences of persons doing business in Boston.—The harbor is a spacious indentation of Massachusetts bay, the mouth of which lies between Point Alderton on Nantasket and Shirley in Chelsea. It embraces about 75 sq. m., and includes several arms, such as Dorchester bay, South Boston bay, and the embouchures of Charles, Mystic, and Neponset rivers. A part of Charles river is commonly known as the Back bay. There are more than 50 islands or islets in the harbor. Boston light stands on Lighthouse island. Its top is 98 ft. above the sea, and is fitted with a revolving light which can be seen at a distance of 16 m. Northerly from the lighthouse runs a chain of islands, rocks, and ledges, 3 m. long, to the Graves. George's island commands the open sea, and Fort Warren, a very strong fortification, is built on it, the island being national property. Castle island (so called from a fortress which was erected there in 1633, and which subsequently was rebuilt and called Castle William in honor of William III.) lies further up the harbor, and is the site of Fort Independence. Governor's island is a mile to the north of Castle island, and Fort Winthrop, an uncompleted fortification, stands there. This island passed into the possession of John Winthrop in 1632, and for a long time was known as “the governor's garden.” It is still in the possession of the Winthrop family, except that portion of it which has been ceded to the national government. Long island, which also has a lighthouse, is large, and attempts have been made to render it a place of residence, but with little success. Deer island is now occupied by city institutions, and Rainsford island by state hospitals. On Thompson's island is the Boston asylum and farm school for indigent boys. The main entrance to the harbor is between Castle and Governor's islands; it is very narrow, and is defended by Forts Independence and Warren. Deer island, comprising 134 acres of upland and 34 acres of flats, Thompson's, Great Brewster (16 acres), Galloupe's (16 acres), and Apple islands (9½ acres) belong to the city.

AmCyc Boston.jpg

View of Boston from the Harbor.

—The growth of Boston for two centuries was not rapid. There are no exact figures for her population during the first four generations of her existence. It is supposed to have been 7,000 at the close of the 17th century. In 1742 it was placed at 18,000, probably an exaggeration. In 1764-'5, during the administration of Gov. Bernard, the first colonial census was taken, and under it the population of Boston was returned at 15,520. Mr. Bancroft says the population was “about 16,000 of European origin” at the close of 1768; and Mr. Frothingham puts it at about 17,000 in 1774. If the returns under the census of 1764-'5 were correctly made, Boston was 40 years in doubling her population after that date. The revolution, and the troubles which followed it, retarded her growth. Down to 1790 Boston did not increase so fast in numbers as the colony, province, or state of which she was or is the capital. The population from that date is shown by the federal censuses as follows: 1790, 18,038; 1800, 24,937; 1810, 33,250; 1820, 43,298; 1830, 61,392; 1840, 93,383; 1850, 136,881; I860, 177,840; 1870, 250,526. The increase during the last decade is largely due to the annexation of Roxbury in 1867, which now constitutes the 13th, 14th, and 15th wards, containing 34,772 inhabitants, and of Dorchester in 1869, now forming the 16th ward, with 12,259 inhabitants. The character of the population has much changed during the last 30 years. Formerly it contained but few foreigners. In 1870 there were 162,540 native, 87,986 foreign, 247,013 white, and 3,496 colored. Of the native population, 127,617 were born in Massachusetts; of the foreign, 56,900 were natives of Ireland, 13,818 of British America, 5,978 of England, 5,606 of Germany, 1,795 of Scotland, and 615 of France. Of the total population, 17,487 over 10 years of age were unable to read and 23,420 over 10 years of age were unable to write; of the latter, 21,993 were foreign and 1,427 native-born.—The legal division of the city is into 16 wards, but usage has divided it into certain districts. North Boston, or “the North End,” is the oldest part of the place, and still retains much of the irregular appearance that characterized it in colonial times. Many old buildings yet stand there, but change is steadily going on. The North End comprises the larger portion of the Boston which makes so grand a figure in our revolutionary history. West Boston is mostly new, and contains the “fashionable quarter” of the town. It lies between Canal street and the Common, and west of Tremont and Hanover streets. It contains many public edifices, among which are the state house, the city hall, and the building of the Boston Athenæum. Most of the houses are of brick or stone, and many are costly and elegant. It contains many historical sites. “The South End” included before the annexation all that part of Boston which lies to the south of Winter and Summer streets, and running to Roxbury, now known as Boston Highlands. South Boston was originally the N. E. part of the town of Dorchester, and was annexed to Boston in 1804, except Washington Village, which was annexed in 1855. It has increased rapidly, and its appearance is strikingly different from that of old Boston, being open, airy, and cheerful. It forms ward 12, and contains 19,880 inhabitants. East Boston dates from 1832. Together with the islands in the harbor, it forms ward 1, and contains 23,824 inhabitants. It is a place of much enterprise, and is united by the Grand Junction railroad with all the railroads that proceed from the city. The depot of the Grand Junction is connected with the wharves, which have great depth of water. The water frontage is almost 20,000 ft., and the wharves are the best in the city. Two lines of steamships for Liverpool have their berths there. Ship building is one of its most important branches of business. It has extensive elevators for transferring to vessels grain brought from the west in cars, and ample facilities for loading and unloading foreign steamers and for the reception and despatch of immigrants. During the six months ending with March, 1872, 14,558 cars with 139,187 tons of merchandise were received here, and 11,127 cars with 114,128 tons of freight were forwarded. During the same period more than 1,000,000 bushels of grain were received at the elevator, and 617,826 bushels were exported. A large portion of the city west of the Common, known as the Back Bay, consists of made land, and has already become the most beautiful and fashionable quarter. In 1852 the commonwealth began to fill in these flats, and the proceeds of sales of this made land up to January, 1872, amounted to $3,591,514, and the total expenditure to $1,547,220. About 500,000 feet of land still remain unsold, and it is expected that $1,500,000 profit will be realized from the improvement. Extending westerly from the public garden through this district is Commonwealth avenue, which when completed will be 1½ m. long with a width of 240 ft. Through the centre runs a long park with rows of trees, while on either side are wide driveways. Many of the finest churches in the city, as well as private residences, have recently been erected in this quarter; among the public buildings are those of the Boston society of natural history and the institute of technology. The streets here are wide, regularly laid out, and present a handsome appearance; but in the older parts of the city, especially in the North End and the West End, they are exceedingly irregular. Some are very short, many very narrow, and most of them very crooked. Great improvements, however, have been made in the older parts of Boston by widening and raising streets. The most important of these improvements were made in Tremont street, south of Boylston street, and in Hanover and Devonshire streets. After the great fire of 1872 the streets burned over were improved by widening and straightening. The principal thoroughfare for general retail stores is Washington street, which extends S. W. in a very irregular line from Cornhill to Roxbury, a distance of more than 2 m. An ordinance has been passed for its extension northerly. The district bounded by State, Court, Tremont, Boylston, and Essex streets may be regarded as the business section of the city. The financial centre is State street, the headquarters of the bankers and brokers. Pearl street has been the largest boot and shoe market in the world, while Franklin, Chauncey, Summer, and the neighboring streets are noted for the great establishments that make Boston the leading market of the country for American dry goods. Boston has 120 hotels, 13 markets, 70 public halls, and 16 free public baths, of which 5 are for females. Gas is furnished by 7 gas companies, and the streets are lighted by 5,505 gas and 1,192 oil lamps. The city in 1872 contained 27,457 dwelling houses, 2,670 stores, and 2,690 miscellaneous buildings. There are 257,563,351 square feet of vacant land applicable to building purposes, valued at $31,546,300, and 78,061,539 square feet of marsh land and flats, valued at $2,630,100.

AmCyc Boston - Faneull Hall.jpg

Faneull Hall.

—The most celebrated public building is Faneuil hall, the “cradle of liberty,” in Dock square, which has a historical reputation, because of the meetings of the revolutionary patriots that were there held. Most of the Boston political meetings are held in it now, when they are meant to be of a comprehensive character. The building was erected in 1742 by Peter Faneuil, a gentleman of Huguenot descent, and by him given to the town. It was nearly destroyed by fire in 1761. Rebuilt, and enlarged in 1805, it now covers nearly twice its first area. The hall is 76 ft. square and 28 ft. high. It is adorned with portraits of eminent Americans, conspicuous among which is an original one of Washington by Stuart. Among the other paintings are a full length of Peter Faneuil (a copy), Healy's picture of Webster replying to Hayne, and portraits of Samuel Adams, John Quincy Adams, Edward Everett, Abraham Lincoln, and John A. Andrew. The room over the hall is used by military companies for drill. The basement, which formerly was a market, is now a series of stores. The state house, in Beacon street, near the centre of the city, with its dome 50 ft. in diameter and 30 ft. high, 110 ft. above the hill on which it stands and 230 ft. above the water of the harbor, is the most conspicuous edifice in Boston. It was commenced in 1793, when Samuel Adams was governor, and was finished and occupied in January, 1798. Its form is oblong, 173 ft. front by 61 deep. The land was purchased by the city of Boston of the Hancock family, and given to the state. It was then known as “Gov. Hancock's pasture.” The view from the dome is very fine, as it includes the harbor with the ocean beyond, an immense extent of country in various directions, covered with towns and villages, and the Blue hills of Milton. The hall of the house of representatives, the senate chamber, the rooms of the governor and council, the offices of the secretary of state, state treasurer, adjutant general, and auditor, and the state library, together with some minor offices, are in the state house. Large additions have been made to the state house since 1852, for the accommodation of the government; in 1866-'7 it was remodelled inside. On the terrace in front of the state house are statues of Daniel Webster and Horace Mann. In the Doric hall, or rotunda, is a statue of Washington by Chantrey, placed there in 1828 by the Washington monument association. Here are also the battle flags borne by Massachusetts soldiers during the civil war, copies of the tombstones of the Washington family in Brington parish, England, a statue of Gov. Andrew, busts of Samuel Adams, Abraham Lincoln, and Charles Sumner, and many historical relics. The old state house was erected in 1748, and was for half a century the seat of government, being the building which is of such frequent mention in the revolutionary history. It is in Washington street, at the head of State street, dividing the latter, and obstructing a beautiful view. It has long been devoted to business purposes, having been entirely remodelled. One of the most imposing specimens of architecture in the city is the city hall in School street. It covers 13,927 square feet, is built of the finest Concord granite in the Italian renaissance style with modern French modifications, and is surmounted with a Louvre dome. It was completed in 1865 at a cost of $505,691. The city officials have commodious quarters here, while in the dome is the central point of the fire-alarm telegraphs. On the lawn in front of the city hall stands the bronze statue of Franklin by Greenough. The new post office, in Milk, Water, and Devonshire streets, the corner stone of which was laid Oct. 16, 1871, will be when completed the finest building in New England. Its architecture is of the most ornate character. It will be of the finest granite, four stories high, with a frontage of over 200 ft. in Devonshire street. Its cost will exceed $2,000,000. The upper stories will be occupied by the United States sub-treasury. The post office was in the merchants' exchange in State street until the fire of 1872, when it was removed temporarily to Faneuil hall. The exchange, completed in 1842, at a cost, exclusive of the land, of $175,000, was noted for its large size and massive architecture; but in consequence of the damage then received, it was decided to remodel it. The custom house is a large and costly granite edifice in State street, and was 12 years in building, 1837-'49, at an expense of $1,076,000. It is of the Doric order, and is 140 ft. long from N. to S., 95 ft. through the centre, and 75 ft. at the ends. The form is that of a Greek cross. The porticos are 67 ft. long, and project 10 ft. on each side. They comprise 32 Doric columns, each 32 ft. high with a diameter of 5 ft. 2 in. The building is surmounted by a dome, the top of which is 90 ft. from the ground. The court house, also of granite, is in Court square. The state and municipal courts are held here, while the old Masonic temple in Tremont street is devoted to the use of the United States courts. The Suffolk county jail, in Charles near Cambridge street, completed in 1849, is 70 ft. square and 85 ft. high, with four wings. The exterior is of Quincy granite, and the remaining porticos are of brick, stone, and iron. No school building in the United States surpasses in general completeness that of the girls' high and normal school. It was completed in 1870 at a total cost of $310,717, has a frontage of 144 ft. both on Newton and Pembroke streets, contains 66 separate apartments exclusive of halls, corridors, &c., and has accommodations for 1,225 pupils. The large hall in the upper story contains a valuable collection of casts of classical sculpture and statuary acquired by donations. Tremont Temple, in Tremont street, was erected in place of the building burned in 1852, which had been made from the Tremont theatre. The main hall is 124 ft. by 73, and is 60 ft. high, with galleries on three sides. Nearly all the concerts, lectures, fairs, readings, &c., given in Boston, occur in Tremont Temple, Horticultural hall, and the Music hall. In 1872-'3, 19 courses, embracing 205 lectures, were delivered in Boston. The Music hall, completed in 1852, is in the interior of a block, with entrances from Winter and Tremont streets. The main hall is 130 by 78 ft. and 65 ft. high, and has two tiers of galleries on three sides. It is adorned with Crawford's statue of Beethoven, a statue of the Apollo Belvedere, and three casts of eminent composers presented by Miss Charlotte Cushman. The great organ in the Music hall is the largest instrument of the kind in America, and ranks among the finest in the world. Its entire height is 60 ft., breadth 48 ft., depth 24 ft. It contains 5,474 pipes, of which 690 are in the pedal organ, and has 84 complete registers. It was constructed at Ludwigsburg in Germany, at a cost of $80,000, by Walcker, the builder of the great organs of Ulm and Stuttgart, and was formally inaugurated Nov. 2, 1863. Horticultural hall, corner of Tremont and Bromfield streets, is a handsome structure of fine-grained white granite, beautifully dressed. The front is surmounted by a granite statue of Ceres, and is ornamented by statues of Flora and Pomona. The lower floor is occupied for business purposes, while the two halls are used by the Massachusetts horticultural society and for public lectures, fairs, concerts, &c. The Masonic temple, on the corner of Tremont and Boylston streets, a structure of fine light-colored granite, highly ornamental and unique in style, was completed in 1867. It has a front of 85 ft. in Tremont street, and is 90 ft. high, having seven stories above the basement, and, besides numerous smaller apartments, contains three large halls for masonic meetings. Odd Fellows' hall has lately been erected on the corner of Berkeley and Tremont streets. The building is of elegant design, constructed of Concord and Hallowell white granite, is four stories high, and covers 12,000 square feet. The hall of the Massachusetts charitable mechanics' association, constructed of dark freestone in a modification of the Italian renaissance style, at a cost, including land, of about $320,000, is on the corner of Bedford and Chauncey streets. It is used by the Boston board of trade and the national board of trade. The depot of the Lowell railroad company will when completed be one of the largest and most ornamental railroad structures in the country. It will be of brick, with trimmings of Nova Scotia freestone, and will be 700 ft. long, with a front of 205 ft. in Causeway street. The train house will be spanned by an arch of 120 ft. without central support. Faneuil Hall market, popularly known as Quincy market, situated just E. of Faneuil hall, was completed in 1827 at a cost of $150,000. It is of Quincy granite, 530 ft. by 50, and is two stories high. Washington market was erected in 1870 for the accommodation of the South End, on the corner of Washington and Lenox streets. It is 250 ft. long, 120 ft. wide, and contains nearly 100 stalls. Among the most ornamental of the private edifices may be mentioned the “Sears building,” corner of Court and Washington streets, constructed of gray and white marble in the Italian-Gothic style, at a cost, including land, of about $750,000, and devoted exclusively to offices, banks, &c.; and the hotel Boylston, containing apartments for families, recently erected on the corner of Tremont and Boylston streets.

AmCyc Boston - State House.jpg

State House.

—Boston contains 25 public parks and squares. The principal one, Boston Common, is a park of 48 acres, surrounded by an iron fence, erected in 1836 at a cost of more than $100,000. The Common is considered to date from 1634, and by the city charter it is made public property for ever, and the city cannot sell it or change its character. The malls are spacious and shaded by magnificent trees, some of which were set out considerably more than a century ago. There are nearly 1,300 trees on the Common, which are kept in admirable order at a large annual expense. The “old elm” is regarded as the oldest tree in New England; it is represented on a map engraved in 1722, and is supposed to be as old as Boston itself. In the great branch broken off by the gale of 1860 nearly 200 rings could be easily counted. It was also mutilated by a high wind in 1869, and is now protected by strong iron bands and props, and an iron fence. One of the most conspicuous objects on the Common is a costly bronze fountain, known as the Brewer fountain, cast in Paris and set up at the expense of Gardner Brewer. The foundation for a soldiers' monument has been laid on Flagstaff hill, near the centre of the Common. The public garden, which was once a portion of the Common, is now separated from it by a part of Charles street. It comprises 21¼ acres beautifully laid out, and contains a conservatory, an equestrian statue of Washington by Ball, a bronze statue of Edward Everett by Story, one representing Venus rising from the sea, and a monument to commemorate the discovery of ether as an anæsthetic. Besides the public statues already mentioned, there is one of Alexander Hamilton in Commonwealth avenue, and two in Louisburg square, respectively representing Aristides and Columbus.—Five city passenger railway companies have lines extending to all parts of the city and suburbs, and there is an omnibus line from Concord street to Charlestown. There are two ferries to East Boston—North ferry, from Battery street to Border street, and South ferry, from Eastern avenue to Lewis street. Communication with Chelsea is by the Winnisimmet ferry, popularly known as Chelsea ferry, established in 1631, and believed to be the oldest ferry in the United States. Eight lines of railroad terminate in Boston, viz.: the Fitchburg, the Eastern, the Boston, Lowell, and Nashua, the Boston and Maine, the Boston and Providence, the Boston, Hartford, and Erie, the Boston and Albany, and the Old Colony and Newport. By means of the Grand Junction railroad, the main line of the Boston and Albany is connected with the Fitchburg, Lowell, Eastern, and Boston and Maine railroads, and with the Grand Junction wharf at East Boston, which greatly facilitates the transfer of freight to and from vessels. There are numerous lines of steamers to the principal eastern ports of the United States and British America, while two lines ply between Boston and Liverpool. The harbor has 164 wharves, and will afford anchorage for 500 vessels of the largest class.—Boston early became distinguished for her commerce. In less than half a century after the foundation of the place, the Boston merchants traded not only with other parts of America and the leading nations of Europe, but with the Canaries, the coast of Africa, and Madagascar. Their wealth was the subject of remark to all visitors. The first vessel belonging to Boston, of American build, was the bark Blessing of the Bay, built at Mystic for Gov. Winthrop, and launched July 4, 1631. She was of 30 tons, and her first voyage was to Long Island and New York. The first ship built at Boston was the Trial, in 1644, which immediately made a voyage to Spain. The same year a fur company composed of Boston merchants was formed. During the year ending Dec. 25, 1748, 430 vessels entered the port, and 540 were cleared. A century earlier the arrivals of ships were only about one a month, but even then large quantities of country produce were exported, 20,000 bushels of corn being mentioned among the exports of 1645. After the revolution Boston rapidly attained to eminence in commerce. The number of foreign arrivals was 399 in 1791, and 2,985 in 1857. In 1806 it was 1,083, and but 83 in 1814, the last year of the second war with England. In 1871 Boston ranked next to New York in extent of imports, and third among the cities of the Union in the value of foreign commerce, New York being first and New Orleans second. The total value of the commerce for the year ending June 30, 1871, was $68,063,914, the imports being $53,652,225, domestic exports $12,761,291, foreign exports $1,450,398; 671 American vessels of 266,673 tons, and 2,843 foreign vessels of 569,431 tons, entered from foreign ports; and 566 American vessels of 205,775 tons, and 2,723 foreign vessels of 396,778 tons, cleared for foreign ports; 41 American and 85 foreign ocean steamers entered, and 40 American and 28 foreign cleared; 788 steamers and 468 sailing vessels entered in the coastwise trade, and 858 steamers and 1,207 sailing vessels cleared. There were belonging to the port 876 sailing vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 315,966, and 57 steamers with a tonnage of 22,820; 166 vessels of 5,360 tons were employed in cod and mackerel fishing; 25 vessels of 4,732 tons were built during the year. The imports from England amounted to $22,941,579, and the exports to that country were $4,127,916; imports from British America, $2,139,473, exports $2,896,827; imports from British India, $4,206,474, exports $285,523; imports from Cuba and Porto Rico, $7,325,512, exports $992,784; imports from Brazil, $1,042,000; from China, $1,953,066; from the Argentine Republic, $1,902,752; from Italy, $1,740,607; from Sweden and Norway, $1,150,070; exports to Chili, $838,237. The leading articles imported, with their values, were: brown sugar, $7,329,133; hides and skins (not fur), $3,158,524; dress goods, $2,188,451; bar iron, $1,962,116; cloths and cassimeres, $1,864,289; molasses, $1,627,502; fruits and nuts, $1,349,858; raw hemp, $1,201,148; rags, $854,369; coffee, $698,729; earthen, stone, and china ware, $672,837; indigo, $594,338; spices, $400,000; wool, $372,115; tea, $245,382. The chief articles of export were: flour, $1,467,748; bacon and hams, $653,501; petroleum, $529,470; household furniture, $301,569; ice, 49,085 tons, valued at $202,452. The ice trade is a Boston invention. It was originated by Frederick Tudor, who in 1806 shipped 130 tons to Martinique. For 20 years the losses were great, but success was finally won by talent and perseverance. Mr. Tudor had a monopoly of the trade for 30 years, when, its brilliant success having become known to all, he found competitors. It is believed that but for the ice trade the Calcutta trade of Boston never could have become important. Formerly this trade was very large, but it has within a few years considerably declined. Boston is the only city on the eastern seaboard in which no capitation tax is levied upon immigrants. This impost in other cities varies from $1 50 to $2 50 on each passenger. The number of arrivals in 1871 was 22,904; in 1870, 30,069; in 1869, 26,414; in 1868, 15,128. The domestic trade of Boston is specially large in boots and shoes, wool, cotton, dry goods, clothing, fish, flour, and grain. The annual sales of merchandise are estimated at $1,200,000,000. The receipts of wool embrace about one third the entire clip of the country, while the average weekly sales amount to about 1,000,000 lbs. The imports of foreign wool for a series of years, as compared with the imports into New York, are as follows:

1863 17,371,813 47,571,920
1864 20,780,124 51,591,379
1865 14,292,412 32,561,580
1866 20,027,958 36,066,176
1867 12,675,880 19,858,369
1868 10,373,791 18,456,635
1869 19,954,582 21,570,480
1870 15,721,147 12,460,290
1871  38,098,521   39,411,518 

The stock of foreign wool on hand in Boston Jan. 1, 1872, was 2,846,800 lbs.; 1871, 2,052,000 lbs.; 1870, 4,550,000 lbs.; 1869, 2,840,000 lbs.; 1868, 5,155,000 lbs.; 1867, 5,435,000 lbs. The amount of domestic wool on hand Jan. 1, for a series of years, in the three leading wool markets of the country, was as follows:

1868 7,400,000  6,100,000  8,000,000
1869  11,350,000   11,200,000   5,500,000
1870 8,900,000  8,780,000  3,900,000
1871 6,725,000  7,070,000  4,779,000
1872 7,100,000  6,814,000  2,702,000

The receipts of cotton in 1871 were 313,000 bales, all of which, excepting about 8,000 bales exported, was for consumption in the manufacturing towns of New England. The number and value of packages of domestic dry goods exported from the city has been:

 YEARS.   Packages.  Value.
1862 2,065  $261,128
1863 438  85,447
1864 245  42,217
1865 341  53,354
1866 4,746  670,285
1867 10,322  1,084,966
1868  11,943   1,293,242
1869 6,665  720,834
1870 7,436  785,365
1871 11,254  979,659

The hides received in 1871 were valued at $14,800,000; 1870, $11,385,000; 1869, $13,225,000; 1868, $11,500,000. The value of the leather manufactured for the Boston market in 1871 was $36,900,000, against $33,038,574 in 1870; and the whole amount of sales for the year was $53,479,000, against $47,881,991 in 1870. The aggregate sales of boots and shoes for 1871 amounted to $64,500,000, and for 1870 to $63,188,255. In 1871 1,251,223 cases of boots and shoes (average value, $66 75 per case) were shipped from the city; in 1870, 1,213,129 cases; in 1869, 1,182,704; in 1868, 1,041,472. The receipts of fish in 1871 amounted to $4,199,872. The elevators of Boston have a capacity for 1,000,000 bushels of grain. During the year ending March 1, 1872, there were received 1,408,325 barrels of flour, 4,179,911 bushels of corn, 475,500 bushels of wheat, and 2,431,272 bushels of oats, a large portion of which was for foreign exportation.—According to the latest returns of the industry of Massachusetts, the chief manufacturing establishments of Boston were 49 cabinet ware factories, 38 manufactories of machinery, 38 book-publishing houses, 89 printing establishments, 31 hat and cap factories, 30 bookbinderies, 29 manufactories of watches, 28 of cars, carriages, &c., 17 of pianos, 17 of upholstery, 12 brass and 7 type and stereotype founderies, 9 glass factories, 4 of organs, melodeons, and harmoniums, 4 of paper collars, 3 of sewing machines, and 2 of chemicals.—There are 51 national banks in Boston, with an aggregate capital of $49,400,000. The number of savings banks in 1871 was 16, with a total of 180,480 depositors, and deposits aggregating $49,944,206. The two most extensive were the five-cent savings bank, which had 58,568 depositors and deposits amounting to $9,984,068, and the provident institution for savings, with 33,528 depositors and deposits reaching $12,405,954. In 1872 there were 37 insurance companies, of which 6 were life, with a combined capital of $28,632,778; while 92 insurance companies belonging to other cities had agencies in Boston.—The government is vested in a mayor (salary $5,000), elected annually on the second Monday in December, a board of 12 aldermen, and a common council of 64 members, 4 from each ward. The police are appointed by the mayor and aldermen, and are under the immediate direction of the mayor and a police committee. There are 11 police districts, a chief, 11 captains, and 11 lieutenants. The maximum number of the police force is 500, of whom 60 are officers. In 1871, 10,837 disturbances were suppressed and 25,201 arrests made, 17,794 of foreigners; 15,089 arrests were for drunkenness, 2,213 for assault, 1,372 for larceny, 98 for robbery, 18 for house breaking, and 8 for murder. The amount of property reported stolen was $60,018; amount recovered, stolen in and out of the city, $71,159; fines imposed, $60,370. There were 2,952 places where intoxicating drinks were sold—1,428 groceries, &c., 1,121 bar-rooms, 327 jug rooms, and 76 hotels. The whole number of persons taken into custody by the police was 17,107, of whom 15,089 were taken to the stations, and 2,018 were taken home. The fire department comprises a chief, 14 assistant engineers, and a secretary, all elected annually by the city council, and 450 members; their aggregate salaries amount to $215,163. They are divided into 21 steam engine companies, 10 hose companies, and 7 hook and ladder companies. About 46,000 feet of hose are used, and there are 2,375 hydrants and 96 reservoirs where water can be obtained in case of fire. The number of fires in 1871 was 549; the losses by fire amounted to $704,329, being $297,722 on buildings and $406,606 on stock; total insurance, $534,991—$168,757 on buildings and $366,234 on stock. The fire-alarm telegraph is in charge of a superintendent and a corps of operators, who keep constant watch at the city hall day and night. Here is the central office to which alarms are transmitted from the signal stations or boxes, of which there are 146. From this office 42 bells and 55 gongs at their various locations on churches, school houses, engine houses, &c., are struck precisely at noon every day.—Boston long felt the want of a supply of water, but it was not till 1848, during the mayoralty of Josiah Quincy, jr., that the want was met, and water brought from Lake Cochituate, 20 m. W. of Boston. The lake covers 650 acres, and drains some 14,400 acres. Water is conveyed by a brick conduit 11 m. long to a grand reservoir in Brookline, and thence to distributing reservoirs in Boston, East Boston, South Boston, and the Highlands. Brookline reservoir covers about 23 acres, and has a capacity of nearly 120,000,000 gallons. The Chestnut Hill reservoir has just been completed at a cost of $2,423,231. It is situated in the towns of Brighton and Newton, 5 m. from the Boston city hall and 1 m. from the Brookline reservoir, covers about 125 acres, and has two basins with an aggregate capacity of 730,000,000 gallons. It is surrounded by a beautiful driveway, varying from 60 to 80 ft. in width, which cost $169,471, and is a fashionable resort. Authority has lately been given to the city to take water from the Sudbury river, which will be connected with the reservoirs by independent mains. An important improvement was made in the Cochituate water works in 1869, by the construction of a standpipe in Roxbury, by means of which pure water is forced to the highest levels occupied by dwelling houses throughout the city. The base of the shaft is 158 ft. above tide level; the interior pipe is a cylinder of boiler iron 80 ft. long. The total cost was about $100,000. Its capacity is adequate to the supply of the whole city; hence the reservoir on Beacon hill is no longer used. The gross payments for constructing, carrying on, and extending the Cochituate water works, from their commencement, Aug. 20, 1846, to April 30, 1871, amount to $19,087,530; total income, $9,867,633.—The total debt of the city at the close of 1871 was $29,383,390, of which $27,865,916 was funded and $1,517,473 unfunded. This was classified as follows:

City debt proper $17,020,493 88
Water debt (net cost of works)  9,570,896 64
War loans (outstanding) 1,915,500 00
Roxbury loans (outstanding) 692,000 00
Dorchester loans (outstanding)  184,500 00
Total $29,383,390 52

The means on hand for the payment of this debt, Dec. 30, 1871, were funds in the hands of the board of commissioners of the sinking fund, amounting to $10,771,231, and public land and other bonds in the city treasury pledged for the payment of the debt, amounting to $998,930; total, $11,770,162. Immediately after the great fire of 1872, the legislature authorized the city government to issue bonds to the amount of $20,000,000 to meet the exigencies caused by the fire. The total receipts into the city treasury on account of the city for the year ending April 30, 1871, amounted to $20,773,594; expenditures, $19,320,382. The chief items were:

 Expenses.   Income. 
City hospital $101,290  $5,686
Fire department 418,507  3,810
Health department 298,892  48,926
Police department 578,344  11,525
Public buildings 68,815  25,273
Public institutions 300,067  114,179
Schools and school houses  1,575,279  23,800
Streets 1,486,273  167,776
Water works 1,596,043  789,123

The whole amount of taxes assessed for the year 1870 was $9,050,419, of which $8,936,567 was assessed on real and personal estate, and $113,852 on 56,926 polls. Of the whole amount, $7,972,820 ($13 65 per $1,000) was for city and county, and $963,747 ($1 65 per $1,000) for state purposes. The valuation and rate of tax for a series of years are as follows:

 YEARS.   Real estate.   Personal estate.  Total
 Rate per 

1800 $6,901,000  $8,194,700  $15,095,700  ..........
1820 21,687,000  16,602,200  38,289,200  $4 00 
1830 39,960,000  22,626,000  59,586,000  4 05 
1840 60,424,200  34,157,400  94,581,600  5 50 
1850 105,098,400  74,907,100  180,500,000  6 80 
1860 168,891,300  112,969,700  276,861,000  9 30 
1861 167,682,100  108,078,000  275,760,100  8 90 
1862 163,638,000  112,579,000  276,217,000  10 50 
1863 169,624,500  132,882,700  302,507,200  11 50 
1864 182,070,300  150,377,600  332,449,900  13 30 
1865 201,628,900  170,263,875  371,892,775  15 80 
1866 225,767,215  189,595,130  415,362,345  13 00 
1867 250,587,700  194,358,400  444,946,100  15 50 
1868 287,635,800  205,937,900  498,573,700  12 30 
1869 332,051,900  217,459,700  549,511,600  13 70 
1870  365,598,100   218,496,300   584,089,400  15 30 

The tax rate per $1,000 in 1870 was $22 50 in New York, $18 in Philadelphia, $15 in Chicago, and $31 60 in Cincinnati. In 1840 the average amount of property owned by each inhabitant of Boston was less than $900; in 1870 it had increased to an average of more than $2,300.—The benevolent institutions of Boston are numerous, and effective in their operations. There are 62 societies which come under this special head. The Perkins institute and Massachusetts asylum for the blind, though it is largely aided by the state, and is in part the work of other places, is of Boston origin, and has derived much of its means from the liberality of Boston people. It has been under the charge of Dr. S. G. Howe since its opening in 1832, and has received 776 pupils. The number of inmates in 1871 was 162; number of instructors and employees, 40; average annual receipts for five years, $78,497; expenditure, $71,342. Indigent persons are admitted gratuitously. The Massachusetts school for idiotic and feeble-minded youth, at South Boston, also under Dr. Howe, has been very successful. It was opened in 1848, since which time 465 pupils have been received, and there were 106 inmates in 1871. The eye and ear infirmary, exclusively for the poor, is in Charles street, and is provided with everything necessary for the efficient treatment of the sick. The building and land cost $54,000. The city hospital, opened in 1864, covers nearly seven acres of land, occupying the entire square bounded by Concord, Albany, and Springfield streets, and Harrison avenue. It consists of a central building and three pavilions, two of which are connected with the central building by corridors. Many patients are received and treated at the expense of the city, while others pay for these privileges. In 1871, 2,569 patients were treated within the hospital, in addition to 8,899 out patients. The Massachusetts general hospital, incorporated in 1811, is at the corner of Allen and Blossom streets, occupying a plot of four acres. The building is of granite, and has a front of 274 ft. and a depth of 54 ft., with a portico of eight Ionic columns. The general fund of the hospital, Jan. 1, 1872, amounted to $888,258; the income of the corporation for the preceding year was $211,302, and the expenses $238,458. These figures include the statistics of the McLean asylum for the insane at Somerville, which is a branch of this institution. In 1871 more than 1,500 patients were received in the hospital, about two thirds free of charge, and nearly 10,000 out patients were treated. The consumptives' home is a spacious mansion surrounded with ample grounds, at the junction of Warren street and Blue Hill avenue, Dorchester. The institution is of recent origin. It was founded by Dr. Charles Cullis, and is supported by voluntary contributions, which in 1871 amounted to $55,000. During that year 185 patients were cared for at the home, and 757 have been received since its opening. The Boston farm school, for the relief and instruction of poor boys destitute of proper control, is on Thompson's island, and has accommodation for about 300 boys. Among the other benevolent institutions that are doing much good are the Baldwin home for little wanderers, the home for aged indigent females, and two inebriate asylums, the Washingtonian home and the Greenwood institute. The public charitable institutions are under the care of a board of directors elected by the city council; they have charge of the house of industry and reformation and the almshouse, situated on Deer island, and the house of correction and lunatic hospital, at South Boston. The whole number of inmates in the first three institutions, April 30, 1871, was 1,062, of whom 398 were females; total expenditures for the year, $111,212; income, $25,943. There were 409 inmates of the house of correction and 233 of the lunatic hospital; expenditures of the former for the year, $82,001; income, $75,599; expenditures of the latter, $64,441; income, $5,676. Galloupe's island is used as a quarantine station and for a smallpox hospital.—The schools of Boston have a high reputation. According to the report of the superintendent for the year ending Aug. 31, 1871, the number of persons in the city of school age (from 5 to 15) was 45,970, of whom 38,220 were attending school. The average number belonging to the day schools was 36,174, with an average daily attendance of 33,464; and there were 1,666 in the evening schools, with an average attendance of 1,037. There were 5 high, 37 grammar, and 327 primary schools, 11 evening schools, a school for deaf mutes, a kindergarten school, and 2 schools for licensed minors (boys licensed to sell papers and serve as bootblacks on the streets), making a total of 384 schools. The whole number of teachers was 990, of whom 850 were females. The high schools are the Latin school for boys, the English high school for boys, the girls' high and normal school, and the Highland and Dorchester high schools for boys and girls. The first named is well known as a preparatory school to Harvard university; its object is “to give thorough general culture to boys intending to pursue the higher branches of learning, or preparing for professional life.” Much time is devoted to the study of the languages, ancient and modern. There is also an evening high school. Music and drawing are taught in all grades of the public schools. The total expenditure for school purposes during the year was $1,575,279, of which $1,131,599 was for current expenses and $443,679 for school houses and lots. The institute of technology was founded in 1861, and is “devoted to the practical arts and sciences.” It is in Boylston, between Berkeley and Clarendon streets. The building, an elegant structure of pressed brick with freestone trimmings, is 150 ft. long, 100 ft. wide, and 85 ft. high. The institute receives one third of the grant made by congress to the state for the establishment of a college of agriculture and the mechanic arts. Its plan of organization includes a society of arts, a museum of arts, and a school of industrial science and art. In 1871 there were 264 students, from 13 states, and 13 instructors. Boston college is a Jesuit institution, with 10 instructors and 140 pupils, organized in 1863. The Boston university was founded in 1869 by the munificence of Isaac Rich, who bequeathed for that purpose the bulk of his estate, amounting to nearly $2,000,000. The plan of the institution comprehends a general department of schools, which supposes on the part of the student a previous collegiate training, and a department of colleges. The former will embrace schools of theology, law, medicine, and universal science; and the latter, colleges of arts, natural science, philosophy and literature, agriculture, mining and engineering, navigation and commerce, pharmacy, dentistry, music, architecture, and painting and sculpture. The school of theology, the school of law, and the college of music are already in operation. The first named, the largest theological school in New England, was formerly the Boston theological seminary (Methodist Episcopal), organized in 1847. In 1872 it had 14 instructors, 94 students, and a library of 4,000 volumes. The school of law was opened in October, 1872, with 50 students. The college of music is intended to afford instruction to pupils advanced in the study and practice of music. Boston has numerous music schools, the chief of which, besides the one already mentioned, are the New England conservatory of music, in Music hall, the Boston conservatory of music in Tremont street, opposite the Common, and the national college of music in Tremont Temple, organized in 1872. The medical school of Harvard university is situated in North Grove street. It was established in 1783, and in 1871 had 25 instructors, 301 students, and a library of 2,000 volumes. The dental school of Harvard university, with 13 instructors and 27 students, is also situated in Boston. The New England female medical college, established in 1848, in 1871 had 5 instructors and 26 pupils. The Massachusetts college of pharmacy was established in Boston in 1867. In educational and literary institutions Boston is not surpassed by any city in the United States. The public library, next to the library of congress at Washington, is the largest in the country. Joshua Bates, a wealthy banker of London, whose early life was passed in Boston, having offered the city $50,000 toward the purchase of books if a suitable building should be provided, his offer was accepted in 1852 and an edifice was erected in Boylston street, opposite the Common, which was completed and delivered to the trustees Jan. 1, 1858. The cost of the land and building was $365,000. Abbott Lawrence gave $10,000 and Jonathan Phillips $30,000 to the institution. In 1858 the library (2,250 volumes) of Nathaniel Bowditch was presented by his sons, and in 1860 the valuable collection (11,721 volumes) of Theodore Parker was received by bequest. The increase of the library has been as follows:

 YEARS.   Volumes.   Pamphlets. 
1852 9,688  961 
1855 28,080  12,886 
1860 97,386  27,881 
1865 130,678  36,566 
1871 179,250  89,746 
1872  192,958   100,383 

In 1871 the library of congress had about 206,000 volumes, the Astor library 140,538, and the New York Mercantile library 127,237. The increase of the Boston public library in 1871 was the largest ever reported, being 18,000 volumes and nearly 15,000 pamphlets; during the same period the library of congress increased 12,441 volumes and 8,000 pamphlets, the New York Mercantile library 11,416 volumes, and the Astor library 1,500 volumes. In that year the library of Spanish and Portuguese books and manuscripts of the late George Ticknor, more than 4,000 in number, was added to the public library. In 1872 the number of persons using the library was 42,453, and the number of books issued 380,343. The expenditures amounted to $74,924, of which $67,000 was appropriated by the city. The library is free to all, and books may be taken away; a branch with 6,767 volumes (included in the above figures), is in operation in East Boston. In 1872 a branch with 4,365 volumes was opened in South Boston, and preparations were made for opening another in Roxbury.—The Boston Athenæum dates from 1804, its germ being the Anthology club. The association was incorporated in February, 1807. The beautiful building now used by the Athenæum was completed in 1849. It stands on the S. side of Beacon street, between Bowdoin and Somerset streets. Its length is 114 ft., and its breadth is irregular; the height is 60 ft. The material is freestone. The first story contains the sculpture gallery and two reading rooms. The library is in the second story, and the picture gallery in the third. The building cost $136,000, and $55,000 was paid for the land. The privilege of using the library, which contains about 95,000 volumes, is limited to the holders of about 1,000 shares, but strangers may have access. The funds of the Athenæum amount to more than $250,000, besides the real estate, library, paintings, and statuary, which are valued at upward of $400,000. The chief benefactors of the institution are: James Perkins, who gave it a house on Pearl street, which was used as a library, &c., for 27 years, and then sold for $45,000; John Bromfield, who bequeathed it $25,000; Samuel Appleton, who bequeathed it $25,000; James Perkins, jr., who gave it $8,000; Thomas II. Perkins, who gave it $8,000; and T. W. Ward, who gave it $5,000. Many other persons have given or bequeathed lesser sums, or books, or articles for the picture and sculpture galleries. The American academy of arts and sciences, incorporated in 1780, has its rooms and its library (about 15,000 volumes) in the Athenæum building. The magnificent building of the Boston society of natural history (incorporated in 1831), recently constructed at a cost of $100,000, is on the corner of Boylston and Berkeley streets. The library contains 12,000 volumes; the valuable cabinet is open to the public for several hours on Wednesdays and Saturdays. The Lowell institute was founded by John Lowell, jr., who bequeathed $250,000 to provide regular courses of free lectures. The most important libraries, in addition to those already mentioned, are the libraries of the American Congregational association, with 6,500 volumes and a fund of $168,000; the Boston library society, with 19,000 volumes; the Handel and Haydn society, with 8,000 volumes (music); the Massachusetts historical society, founded in 1791, with 18,500 volumes; the mechanic apprentices' library association, with 6,000 volumes; the social law library, with 8,000 volumes; the state library of 32,000 volumes; and the young men's Christian association, with 4,610 volumes. The mercantile library, founded in 1820, had about 20,000 volumes, which were destroyed in the great fire of 1872.—The press of Boston is the oldest in the United States. The first journal regularly published in North America was “The News Letter,” which was commenced April 24, 1704, by John Campbell, postmaster. It was published 72 years, ceasing in 1776, with British rule. The second paper was the “Boston Gazette,” commenced in 1719, of which James Franklin was printer. In 1721 Franklin commenced the publication of the “New England Courant.” Benjamin Franklin was an apprentice to his brother, and wrote for the “Courant” at the age of 16. The paper was for some time published in Benjamin's name. There are now (1873) 143 periodicals published in Boston, of which 9 are daily, 6 semi-weekly, 61 weekly (4 German), 1 bi-weekly, 4 semi-monthly, 51 monthly, 2 bi-monthly, 8 quarterly, and 1 semi-annual.—There are 150 churches in Boston, classified as follows: Baptist, 17; Christian, 1; Church of Christ, 1; Church of the Adventists, 1; Congregational Trinitarian, 22; Independent Congregational, 2; Congregational Unitarian, 27; Episcopal, 15; Evangelical Adventists, 1; Freewill Baptist, 1; German Lutheran, 1; German Evangelical Reformed, 1; Swedish Lutheran, 1; Jewish synagogues, 4; German Methodist, 1; Methodist, 2; Methodist Episcopal, 18; Independent Methodist, 1; Presbyterian, 17; Roman Catholic, 17; Swedenborgian, 1; Universalist, 6. In the above are included several of the oldest churches in the United States. The oldest church edifice in the city is Christ church, Episcopal, in Salem street, founded in 1723. The Old South church was erected in 1729 in the same place where the first edifice of the society had stood since 1669. During the revolution it was occupied by British soldiers as a place for cavalry drill. Immediately after the great fire of 1872, it was leased for two years to the government for a post office, a new edifice for the use of the society being in process of construction on the corner of Dartmouth and Royalston streets. The last service was held in it on Nov. 17. King's chapel, on the corner of Tremont and School streets, has been used for divine service since 1754; the first edifice was erected there in 1689. Brattle Square church, in the walls of which was imbedded a cannon ball fired from Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775, was taken down in 1871. When completed, the cathedral of the Holy Cross on Washington and Waltham streets, begun in 1867, will be the largest and most ornamental church edifice in New England. The great tower at the S. W. corner will he 300 ft. high. There are two convents of Sisters of Notre Dame in Boston, St. Joseph's in South Boston and St. Aloysius in East Boston.—There are five theatres in the city, the oldest of which is the Boston museum, which was founded in 1841 and has occupied its present location in Tremont street since 1846. The Boston theatre, in Washington street near Boylston, one of the largest theatres in the United States, was opened in 1854. It is capable of seating 3,400 persons, with standing room for 1,000 more. The Globe theatre, in the same vicinity, was opened in October, 1868. The Howard Athenæum, in Howard street, and the St. James, in Washington street, are devoted to varieties.—The principal cemeteries used by Boston are the Mount Auburn, embracing 125 acres, in Cambridge and Watertown; Forest Hills, with a still larger area, in West Roxbury; Mount Hope, also in West Roxbury, 105 acres; Cedar Grove, in Dorchester, 46 acres; and Woodlawn, in the towns of Everett and Chelsea. There are in the heart of the city several burial grounds not now in use, but of great historical interest. The oldest of these adjoins King's chapel at the corner of Tremont and School streets. It is not known when it was first used for interments, but certainly as early as 1658. The “old granary burying ground,” in Tremont street, between Beacon and Park place, was established in 1660, and contains the tombs of John Hancock, Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, Peter Faneuil, Samuel Sewall, and the parents of Franklin. The Old North burying ground on Copp's Hill, which was first used for interments in 1660, still remains, and is protected by a high stone wall.—The first settlement of Boston was made Sept. 7 (O. S.), 1630, by a portion of the company which came from England that year with John Winthrop. The Plymouth pilgrims became acquainted with the peninsula in 1621. The only person residing there in 1630 was William Blackstone, or Blaxton, supposed to have been an Episcopal clergyman, and to have arrived about 1623. David Thompson and Samuel Maverick lived on two islands in what is now Boston harbor. It was by invitation from Blackstone that Winthrop and his associates removed from Charlestown to the peninsula, the excellence of the water at the latter place, and its abundance, being the chief inducement to the change. Blackstone soon left the colony, and his lands were purchased by the settlers. More than 50 years later, the last Indian claim to any portion of the territory was extinguished by the payment of “a valuable sum of money” to the claimants. The Indian name of the peninsula, according to Mr. Drake, the highest authority, was Mushauwomuk, Shawmut being merely an abbreviation. Some of the most noted of the colonists were from Lincolnshire, and it had from the first been their intention to give the name of Boston to their chief settlement, in honor of the Rev. John Cotton, vicar of St. Botolph's church, in the Lincolnshire Boston. The town records begin about 1634. The officers who subsequently were known as “selectmen” were in existence in 1634, but how the institution originated is unknown. The town meetings begin to he of importance at this date. The first grand jury of the country met at Boston, Sept. 1, 1635, and presented 100 offences. The church of Boston was much troubled about Roger Williams and his heresy, and finding him resolute, handed him over to the general court, which banished him. The Antinomian controversy broke out in 1636, the occasion of it being the action of Mrs. Anne Hutchinson, a woman of superior understanding, whose conduct greatly vexed the church. Free schools were established, the town paying liberally for their support, and Indians being taught gratis. Negro slaves were first brought to the town in 1645, much to the people's anger. A malignant disease raged in 1646. In 1651 the place is described by an eye-witness as very flourishing. Mrs. Anne Hibbins, a widow, said to have been a sister of Gov. Bellingham, was hanged in 1656 for witchcraft. When, two years later, the general court made a law for the punishment of Quakers, two of the Boston members dissented; but three Quakers were executed on the Common for having returned from banishment in defiance of the law. When Goffe and Whalley, the regicides, came to Boston in 1660, they were openly entertained by the principal inhabitants. Boston sullenly acquiesced in the restoration, but Charles II. was not proclaimed there until 14 months after his arrival at London. Down to the date of the English revolution there was a constant antagonism, sometimes fierce in its manifestation, between the colony and the royal government, and it was most intensely felt in Boston. A description of Boston in 1671 shows that the town had much increased in numbers and wealth. The streets were large, and many of them paved with pebble stones. The buildings were fair and handsome, some being of stone, and one is mentioned that cost £3,000. The next year a report was made to the English government in which the number of families is stated at 1,500. When the general court voted £1,890 for the rebuilding of Harvard college, Boston paid £800. In anticipation of attacks from the Dutch, in 1672, extensive fortifications were commenced. “Philip's war” began in 1675, when Indian scalps were for the first time brought to Boston. They were Boston men who led the van in the famous attack on the Narragansett fort, and the town is said to have suffered nearly five times as much as any other place from the war. Liberty to establish a printing press in the town had been granted in 1674, with two ministers for censors; and a printing house was opened in 1676 by John Foster, a graduate of Harvard college. He printed the histories of the Indian wars written by Hubbard and Mather. In November, 1676, a fire occurred, which destroyed 46 dwellings, a church, and other buildings. A fire department was then organized, but not with much immediate effect; for in 1679 another conflagration swept away 80 dwellings and 70 warehouses. The loss was estimated at £200,000. During the reign of James II., and under the rule of his governors Dudley and Andros, the town lived under a tyranny. Yet James's “declaration of indulgence” was well received there, and the churches held a thanksgiving on its account. On April 18, 1689, the people of Boston rose against the government, and overthrew it. In no part of the British empire was the revolution of 1688 more warmly supported than in Boston. The witchcraft delusion raged in 1692 in Boston, as in other parts of New England. In 1695 the town's churches were much agitated by the discussion of the question whether it is lawful for a man to marry the sister of his deceased wife, and they decided it in the negative, which decision was followed by the enactment of severe laws by the general court against marriages of affinity. A list of all the streets, lanes, and alleys was made in 1708, and they were found to be 110 in number. Long wharf was commenced in 1710, running 800 feet into the harbor. A severe fire happened in 1711, burning 100 edifices, including the first church that had been erected in Boston, after the rude hut which had witnessed the primitive devotions of the earliest settlers. Several persons were killed, and others wounded, by the blowing up of houses, and a number of sailors perished while piously endeavoring to save the church bell. Mail routes were at this date established at Boston, running both east and west. What is known as “the great snow storm” occurred in February, 1717. Some of the Scotch-Irish settled in Boston in 1720, and introduced the linen manufacture, which excited much interest, and was greatly encouraged, spinning schools being established. Boston had often been ravaged by the smallpox, and when in 1721 it again broke out virulently, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston determined to introduce inoculation. He encountered savage and malignant opposition, especially from medical men, but owing to the influence of Cotton Mather was allowed to proceed. Of 286 persons who were inoculated, only 6 died, while of the 5,759 who took the disease naturally, 844 died. As the population of Boston could not have been above 12,000, half the people were attacked. The first insurance office was established in 1724. The traffic in slaves prevailed to some extent in 1727, but the action of the town was strongly against it on many occasions. The town was divided into 12 wards in 1736. It was the scene of great riots in 1747, in consequence of some of the citizens having been impressed by Com. Knowles. The first theatrical performance was in 1750, Otway's “Orphan” being the piece selected. This led to the passage of a law which prevented any more dramatic exhibitions for 25 years. Nov. 18, 1755, 17 days after the great earthquake at Lisbon, the town was “dreadfully shaken” by an earthquake, perhaps the severest ever known in New England, by which great damage was done and much fright caused. March 20, 1760, a fire consumed 349 buildings, the entire property destroyed being valued at £100,000. Relief was sent to the sufferers from the other colonies and from England. The case of writs of assistance, which began the American revolution, was tried at Boston in 1761. James Otis so distinguished himself therein, that he became the most influential man of the town, and was said to have governed it for the next 10 years. At the first news of the intention of the British government to apply its revenue system comprehensively to the colonies, Boston assumed that determined stand in behalf of liberty which gave her so conspicuous a part in the birth of the republic. “The Boston massacre” happened March 5, 1770, when three persons were killed by the fire of the soldiery, and five wounded. The destruction of the tea in 1773 was pronounced by the tory governor of the province the boldest stroke which had been struck in America. (See United States.) The passage of the Boston port bill was the practical retort of the imperial government to the proceedings of the Bostonians. But though the commerce of the town was for the time destroyed, and the independence of the local government was suspended for nearly two years, other places refused to profit from Boston's sufferings; and her people received from all parts of the country warm sympathy and solid assistance. In 1775 there were about 4,000 British troops in Boston, and several armed vessels in the harbor. The battle of Lexington (April 19) roused the country, and in a short time Boston was beleaguered by a large American force, full of spirit, but destitute of all the other essentials of war. Their attempt to fortify and hold Bunker Hill, which commanded the town, resulted in a battle, June 17, in which the Americans were defeated from lack of ammunition, but which had on them and their cause the usual influence of a victory. Gen. Washington arrived in the besieging camp July 2, and assumed command the next day. The siege was prosecuted with all the vigor that could be displayed, but it lasted nearly a year. On the night of March 4, 1776, the besiegers seized and occupied Dorchester heights, which commanded both town and harbor. The English made preparations to recover the heights, but were prevented from assailing them by the severity of the weather, which was extreme until the 7th, by which time the American fortifications had been rendered impregnable to any force the enemy could bring against them. The British commander was compelled to abandon the place March 17. During the war Boston supported the policy that ended in the adoption of the federal constitution. In the material prosperity that followed the inauguration of the new government Boston largely shared. Her business increased, and her commerce was extended to almost every part of the world. She became distinguished also as a seat of learning, and for the number of persons eminent in literature or in oratory who were among her citizens or those of her suburbs. From 1830 to 1860 she was popularly regarded as the headquarters of anti-slavery and other reform movements. In 1822 Boston was made a city, 170 years after the change had been first talked of, and 113 years after the failure to have the place incorporated in 1709. In 1869 a monster musical festival, styled the peace jubilee, was held in Boston, in a wooden coliseum built for the purpose, 500 ft. long and 300 ft. wide, with a capacity for 50,000 persons. The chorus comprised 108 societies, with about 10,000 singers, and there was a band of nearly 1,000 instruments, with a battery of artillery, and 50 anvils beaten by 100 men. The festival opened June 15. and lasted five days. The receipts exceeded the expenditures by about $50,000. A second festival projected by the originator of the first, Mr. P. S. Gilmore, was held from June 17 to July 6, 1872, under the name of the international peace jubilee. The coliseum built for this affair was 550 ft. long by 350 ft. wide, with an extreme height of 115 ft. The chorus comprised 165 societies with 20,000 voices, while the orchestra numbered 2,000. Representative military bands were present from France, Germany, England, and the United States marine corps. The expenditures, which amounted to nearly $600,000, exceeded the receipts by about $150,000. In November, 1872, occurred a great conflagration, which, excepting the fire in Chicago the year before, was the most extensive and destructive ever known in the United States. It originated from an unknown cause in a large granite building, devoted chiefly to dry goods, on the corner of Kingston and Summer streets, and was discovered about 7 o'clock in the evening of the 9th. A moderate wind prevailed, and the flames, with wonderful rapidity, spread simultaneously in all directions, but chiefly toward the north and east. The fire continued till noon of the following day (Sunday), when it was brought under control, but again broke forth, in consequence of an extensive explosion of gas, about midnight, and lasted till 7 o'clock on the morning of the 11th. The district burned over extended from Summer and Bedford streets on the south to near State street on the north, and from Washington street east to the harbor. Within these limits, excepting a portion bounded by Milk, Devonshire, State, and Washington streets, the devastation was complete. The burnt district covered about 65 acres, and was the centre of the great wholesale dry goods, boot and shoe, wool, and clothing trades. About 800 buildings, many of which were of granite, five and six stories high, including some of the grandest business blocks in the United States, and occupied by about 1,800 firms, were entirely destroyed. The total loss, according to the most accurate estimate, was about $80,000,000. The total loss by insurance companies was $52,676,000, of which $35,351,600 was sustained by Massachusetts companies. Very few public buildings or residences were destroyed. The number of lives lost did not exceed 15, while the suffering was mainly occasioned by the temporary loss of employment to about 25,000 working men and women.