The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Florida

Edition of 1879. See also Florida on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

FLORIDA, the southernmost state of the American Union, and the 14th admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 24° 30' and 31° N., and lon. 80° and 87° 45' W.; bounded N. by Alabama and Georgia, E. by the Atlantic ocean, S. and W. by the gulf of Mexico and the Perdido river, the latter dividing W. Florida from the gulf section of Alabama; area, 59,268 sq. m., or 37,931,520 acres.

Seal of Florida (1868–1985).jpg

State Seal of Florida.

The state is divided into 39 counties, viz.: Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Brevard, Calhoun, Clay, Columbia, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Franklin, Gadsden, Hamilton, Hernando, Hillsborough, Holmes, Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, Leon, Levy, Liberty, Madison, Manatee, Marion, Monroe, Nassau, Orange, Polk, Putnam, St. John's, Santa Rosa, Sumter, Suwanee, Taylor, Volusia, Wakulla, Walton, and Washington. The cities of the state are: Jacksonville, which had 6,912 inhabitants in 1870; Pensacola, 3,343; Tallahassee, the capital, 2,023; and St. Augustine, 1,717. Key West (called by the Spaniards Cayo Hueso or Bone Key) is a place of great commercial and military importance. Pensacola, Appalachicola (1,129 inhabitants), and St. Mark's are ports of W. Florida. Cedar Keys, Tampa, and Charlotte Harbor are the principal outlets on the W. side of peninsular Florida. St. Augustine, on the Atlantic coast, is the oldest town in the United States, and is much resorted to by invalids on account of its equable climate. Jacksonville is a thriving commercial city on John's river, and likewise a resort of invalids. Fernandina (1,722 inhabitants) is a town at the N. end of Amelia island, and is Atlantic terminus of the railroad which has its gulf terminus at Cedar Keys. It has one of the best harbors on the southern coast. The population of Florida has been as follows:

 YEARS.  White. Free
 colored. 
 Slaves.  Total.





1830 18,385 844  15,501 34,730 
1840 27,943 817  25,717 54,477 
1850 47,203 932  39,310 87,445 
1860 77,746 932   61,745  140,424 
1870  96,057   91,689  ......  187,748 

In 1870 the state ranked 33d in point of population. Of the total population, 94,548 were males and 93,200 females; 182,781 were of native birth, of whom 109,554 were born in the state, and 4,967 were foreign born, including 1,155 born in Cuba and 1,101 in other parts of the West Indies. The density of population was 3.17 to a square mile. There were 39,394 families with an average of 4.77 persons to each, and 41,047 dwellings with an average of 4.57 persons to each. Between 1860 and 1870 there was an increase of 33.7 per cent. in the total population: 23.55 per cent. in the white, and 46.29 per cent. in the colored. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward in 1870 was 38,854. There were in the state 63,897 persons between the ages of 5 and 18 years, including 30,990 colored; the total number attending school was 12,778, of whom 4,524 were colored; 66,238 persons 10 years old and upward were unable to read, and 71,803 could not write. Of the latter, 34,666 were males and 37,132 females; 18,904 were white, and 52,894 colored; 12,786 were from 10 to 15 years of age, 14,678 from 15 to 21, and 44,334 were 21 or over, of whom 3,876 were white males, 5,600 white females, 16,806 colored males, and 18,052 colored females. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 30, 1870, was 147, at a cost of $9,830. Of the total number (142) receiving support June 1, 1870, 80 were white and 62 colored. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 335. Of the total number (179) in prison June 1, 1870, 23 were white and 156 colored. The state contained 88 blind, 48 deaf and dumb, 29 insane, and 100 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (131,119), there were engaged in all occupations 60,703 persons, of whom 50,877 were males and 9,826 females; in agriculture, 42,492, including 31,033 agricultural laborers, and 11,165 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 10,897, of whom 197 were clergymen, 4,003 domestic servants, 4,065 laborers not specified, 149 lawyers, 248 physicians and surgeons, and 250 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 3,023; in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 4,291. The total number of deaths during the year was 2,264. Of these, 730 were from general diseases, including 107 from enteric fever, 45 from yellow fever, 130 from intermittent fever, 84 from remittent fever, 26 from typho-malarial fever, 131 from consumption, and 71 from dropsy; 333 from diseases of the nervous system, of which 82 were from encephalitis and 138 from meningitis; 129 from diseases of the circulatory system; 385 from diseases of the respiratory system, including 268 from pneumonia; and 393 from diseases of the digestive organs.—Florida, exclusive of islands, consists of a long narrow strip of territory extending S. from Georgia and Alabama from 30 to 90 m., and from the Atlantic ocean to the Perdido river about 360 m.; and of a peninsula extending from the mainland S. through five degrees of latitude between the Atlantic and the gulf of Mexico. Its coast line is of much greater extent than that of any other state, having a length of 472 m. on the Atlantic and 674 m. on the gulf; but this immense stretch of sea front is almost inaccessible on account of shallow soundings, and has few good harbors. S. from the mainland a chain of small rocky islands, called cays or keys, extends S. W., ending in a cluster of rocks and sand banks called the Tortugas. S. of the bank upon which these keys rise, and separated from them by a navigable channel, is a long narrow coral reef known as the Florida reef, which here constitutes the left bank of the Gulf stream. The most important of the keys is Key West. For a long period the haunt of smugglers and pirates, it is now a naval station of great importance, and the seat of a band of wreckers whose business it is to assist vessels in distress. This key is about 6 m. long and 2 broad, with a large, well sheltered harbor. The extensive ponds there yield annually a large amount of salt. The Tortugas derive their name from the vast number of turtles found in the neighboring waters. The most important harbors are: on the gulf coast, Pensacola, Appalachicola, St. Mark's, Cedar Keys, Tampa, Charlotte, and Key West; and on the Atlantic coast, St. Augustine and Fernandina. Jacksonville on St. John's river has also a good harbor.—The rivers of Florida are numerous, and many of them afford great facilities for internal navigation. St. John's river rises in the great southern marsh, and reaches the ocean after a N. course of 300 m. in lat. 30° 20' N.; for nearly 100 m. from its mouth it is a wide sluggish sheet of water, more resembling a lagoon than a river. It is navigable to Lake George, about 100 m., for vessels drawing 8 ft. of water, and nearly to its head for smaller craft. Indian river is a long lagoon on the E. side of the peninsula, and communicates with the ocean by an outlet in lat. 27° 30'. It is proposed to connect these two waters by a short canal, and by this means secure an inland navigation from the mouth of the St. John's to Jupiter inlet, a distance of about 250 m. Charlotte and Amaxura are the principal rivers on the W. side, the whole of which S. of the Suwanee contains only small streams. The Suwanee is formed by the Withlacoochee and Allapaha from Georgia, and reaches the gulf at Wacasasa bay. The Ockloconee also rises in Georgia. The Appalachicola, formed on the N. frontier by the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint, falls into the bay of the same name after a navigable course of about 75 m. The Choctawhatchee, Escambia, and Perdido rise in Alabama and flow S., the first into Choctawhatchee bay, the second into Pensacola bay, and the last into Perdido bay, arms of the gulf of Mexico. The St. Mary's in the N. E. is common also to Georgia; it flows into the Atlantic in about lat. 30° 40' N., and is navigable for steamers to the town of St. Mary, and much further for sloops. The surface of Florida is dotted with numerous lakes, some of which are navigable for large steamers. Lake Okeechobee, in the Everglades, is about 40 m. long and 30 m. wide.—The S. portion of peninsular Florida, from about lat. 28°, is mostly an extensive swamp or marsh, called the Everglades, which during the rainy season between June and October is impassable. N. of this tract to Georgia the surface is generally a dead level, but in some parts it is undulating, and occasionally hilly. W. of the neck of the peninsula the ground is more uneven and rugged; but still the elevations are inconsiderable and of very limited extent. The substratum of the E. part of the peninsula is clay mixed with sand, and that of the W. a kind of rotten limestone, which in many places is undermined by subterranean streams. The central district is the most productive, but even here a large portion is composed of poor pine barrens; yet in the midst of these are found gentle eminences (called hummocks) of fertile land, supporting a vigorous growth of oaks and hickories, while numerous rivulets of pure water flow through the country or expand into beautiful lakes. Further W. the land is more generally poor. The warmth and humidity of the climate compensate in a great measure for the inferior character of the soil, and give it a vegetation of great variety and luxuriance.—The productions of Florida are chiefly those which require a tropical sun. Sea island cotton (the production of which was formerly confined to a few small islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia) will grow luxuriantly even in the centre of the peninsula, and a fine quality of this staple has been produced on the Suwanee. The soils are also adapted to the successful cultivation of the coffee plant, the cocoa palm, the sugar cane, cotton, tobacco, rice, indigo, arrowroot, Sisal hemp, New Zealand flax, &c.; and the climate is suitable for the cochineal insect and the silkworm. The principal forest trees are red, live, and water oaks, mahogany, palmetto, magnolia, dogwood, and in the swamps, pines, cedars, and cypresses. Oranges, lemons, limes, pineapples, olives, and grapes flourish luxuriantly; and garden vegetables are produced in the greatest abundance. The driest seasons are relieved by heavy dews, and the sun that would bake the earth in other parts, and wither vegetation, is so tempered by the pervading moisture as to cover the surface with perennial verdure. The prairies afford excellent pasture. Cattle require little care from their owners, and no housing in winter; and in most parts of the state hogs fatten without any other support than that which they derive from the roots and mast of the forests. Deer of various kinds abound, and smaller game is found in all parts of the country. The coast waters produce the finest fish, including the sheepshead, grouper, redfish, and mullet, besides green turtle and oysters; and the numerous lakes and rivers of the interior teem with fresh-water species. On many parts of the coast sponge is found, and the trade in it is constantly increasing. Among the mineral productions are amethysts, turquoises, lapis lazuli, ochre, coal, and rich iron ore.—Among the most remarkable natural curiosities are the hollows called “sinks,” worn in the soft limestone by subterranean streams, and varying in size from a few yards to several acres. The great sink of Alachua county, by which the waters of the Alachua savanna are supposed to flow into Orange lake, is a large basin almost surrounded by hills, into which the drainage of the savanna is conveyed by several conduits, uniting before they reach the basin in a single stream. From the basin the waters descend slowly by three great vent holes into the earth, and are carried by underground channels to other basins. Numerous springs, bursting from great depths, some of them with sufficient force to turn a mill, are found in different parts of the state, and have led to the supposition that the parts of the country in which they exist may be undermined by vast caverns through whose roofs the springs well up wherever an opening can be found. About 12 miles from Tallahassee is a lake of icy cold transparent water, which is fed by a subterranean source of this kind.—The climate of Florida is one of the finest in the world. The following meteorological summary from observations made at Jacksonville, lat. 30° 15', is reported by the chief signal officer of the United States:

 YEAR.  Month. Mean
 barometer. 
Mean
 thermometer. 
Total
 rainfall, 
inches.
 Prevailing 
wind.






1871  October. 30.131 73.5 3.62   Northeast.
 November 30.091 65.4 3.63   Northeast.
 December 30.226 55.4 2.65   N'thwest.
1872  January 30.174 52.7 3.44   N'thwest.
 February 29.993 53.9 2.70   S'thwest.
 March 30.102 59.1 7.32   Northeast.
 April 30.113 73.5 2.39   Northeast.
 May 30.089 78.3 1.25   S'thwest.
 June 30.072 81.0 6.97   S'thwest.
 July 80.089 83.4 2.92   Southeast.
 August 30.062 81.4 6.41   Northeast.
 September 30.065 77.7 10.65   Northeast.




 Annual mean  30.101 69.6 53.95   Northeast.

In the south the temperature scarcely changes the year round, and summer is only distinguished by the copiousness of its showers. The average mean temperature of the state is about 73° F., and the difference between summer and winter does not generally exceed 25°, while at Key West it is not more than 11°. The thermometer seldom rises above 90° in summer, and rarely falls below 30° in winter. Frost is unknown in southern Florida, and very little ice is formed in the northern part of the state. The atmosphere is generally dry and clear. Owing to the evenness and salubrity of its climate, Florida has long been a popular resort for invalids, and especially those afflicted with pulmonary complaints. Of the total deaths from all causes in Florida in 1870, as reported by the federal census, only 131 were from consumption. There were 17.3 deaths from all causes to one from consumption. The advantages of the climate in this respect are further shown by a comparison of the statistics relating to consumption as reported by the census of 1870, from which it appears that the ratio of deaths from consumption to those from all causes was less in Florida than in any other state except Nevada; and this advantage becomes still greater when it is considered that Florida being a popular resort for consumptives, a large proportion of those who die there from that cause came with the disease from other states.—According to the census of 1870, the state contained in farms 736,172 acres of improved land, 1,425,786 of woodland, and 211,583 of other unimproved land. The total number of farms was 10,241; cash value of farms, $9,947,920; of farming implements and machinery, $505,074; total amount of wages paid during the year, including value of board, $1,537,060; total (estimated) value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $8,909,746; value of orchard products, $53,639; of produce of market gardens, $31,983; of forest products, $7,965; of home manufactures, $131,693; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $520,966; of all live stock, $5,212,157. There were on farms 11,902 horses, 8,835 mules and asses, 61,922 milch cows, 6,292 working oxen, 322,701 other cattle, 26,599 sheep, and 158,908 swine. The chief productions were 2,225,056 bushels of Indian corn, 114,204 of oats, 64,846 of peas and beans, 10,218 of Irish and 789,456 of sweet potatoes, 39,789 bales of cotton, 401,687 lbs. of rice, 157,405 of tobacco, 37,562 of wool, 100,984 of butter, 50,884 of honey, 6,052 of wax, 952 hogsheads of sugar, and 344,339 gallons of molasses. The total number of manufacturing establishments in 1870 was 659, having 126 steam engines of 3,172 horse power and 79 water wheels of 528 horse power, and employing 2,749 hands, of whom 2,670 were males above the age of 16. The capital invested amounted to $1,679,930; wages paid during the year, $989,592; value of materials used, $2,330,873; of products, $4,685,403. The leading industries were 138 flouring and grist mills, which had $119,075 capital invested, and from $411,857 of materials yielded products valued at $508,388; 104 establishments for sawing lumber, with 69 steam engines of 2,487 horse power and 1,116 hands; capital, $755,090; wages paid, $421,820; value of materials $1,163,238, of products $2,235,780. There were 27 establishments for the manufacture of molasses and sugar, whose products were valued at $41,510. The fisheries of Florida might be of great value, but as yet this industry has been but slightly developed. According to the census of 1870, the value of the fisheries for that year was $101,528.—Florida has seven ports of entry: Appalachicola, Fernandina, Key West, Pensacola, St. Augustine, St. John's, and St. Mark's. The value of the imports from foreign countries for the year ending June 30, 1873, was $505,571, and of the domestic exports $2,984,975. Of the former $389,054 were entered at Key West, and of the latter $1,591,532 were from the port of Pensacola. The chief articles of export are lumber, cotton, tobacco, and fish. The number and tonnage of vessels entering from and clearing for foreign countries, and of those registered, enrolled, and licensed at the different ports, were as follows:

PORTS. ENTERED. CLEARED.  REGISTERED, &C. 



 No.   Tons.   No.   Tons.   No.   Tons. 







Appalachicola  15  2,656  21  4,149  22  1,993 
Fernandina 52  14,789  68  22,217  10  1,570 
Key West 384  68,828  383  58,661  103  3,374 
Pensacola 269   179,772   256   173,590  96   5,607 
St. Augustine  ..  ......  ..  ......  32 
St. John's 26  3,456  40  6,455  32  3,653 
St. Mark's 980  122  509 

The coasting trade is also very extensive, employing numerous steamers, which with other craft carry immense freights to Savannah, Charleston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York. But a large portion of the material exported from Pensacola and Appalachicola originates in southern Alabama and southwestern Georgia. The great bulk of foreign merchandise consumed in the state is also entered coastwise, chiefly from the northern ports. The number of vessels that entered and cleared in the coastwise trade during the year ending June 30, 1873, was as follows:

PORTS. ENTERED. CLEARED.


 No.   Tons.   No.   Tons. 





Appalachicola  54  12,932  48  12,285 
Fernandina 218  106,258  217  102,373 
Key West  337   201,942   278   198,517 
Pensacola 284  43,870  294  51,253 
St. Augustine  60  9,513  43  6,673 
St. John's 445  136,085  484  145,528 
St. Mark's 148  68,345  153  70,046 

Ship building is carried on at all of these ports. During the year 14 vessels of 241 tons were built.—In 1873 there were 466 m. of railroad in Florida. The Jackson, Pensacola, and Mobile railroad extends W. from Jacksonville across the N. part of the state, and is intended to afford direct communication with Pensacola and Mobile. In 1873 it was in operation from Jacksonville to the Chattahoochee river, 209 m. The Florida branch extends from Live Oak N. to Lawton, Ga., on the Atlantic and Gulf railroad, and another branch extends S. from Tallahassee to St. Mark's. The Atlantic, Gulf, and West India Transit company's railroad connects Fernandina on the Atlantic and Cedar Keys on the gulf, 155 m. The St. John's River railroad extends from St. Augustine to Tocoi on St. John's river, 14 m., where connection is made with steamers to Jacksonville. The Pensacola and Louisville railroad extends from Pensacola to Pollard, Ala., on the Mobile and Montgomery railroad, 45 m.—The legislative authority is vested in a senate and assembly, designated the “legislature of the state of Florida.” There are now 53 representatives and 24 senators. The sessions are annual, beginning on the first Tuesday after the first Monday of January, and may extend to 60 days. Members of the assembly are chosen for two years and senators for four years. The governor is elected for four years. He is required to be a qualified elector, and to have been a citizen of the United States nine years and of Florida three years next preceding the time of his election. A lieutenant governor is elected, whose term of office and eligibility are the same as those of the governor. The governor is assisted by a cabinet of administrative officers, consisting of a secretary of state, attorney general, comptroller, treasurer, surveyor general, superintendent of public instruction, adjutant general, and commissioner of immigration. These officers are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate, and hold office the same time as the governor, or until their successors shall be qualified. The governor is required to appoint in each county, with the consent of the senate, an assessor of taxes and collector of revenue, a county treasurer, county surveyor, superintendent of common schools, and five county commissioners, each of whom shall hold office for two years. Such officers are subject to removal by the governor, but only for wilful neglect of duty, a violation of the criminal laws of the state, or for incompetency. The governor and cabinet constitute a board of commissioners of state institutions, with supervision of all matters connected therewith. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, circuit courts, county courts, and justices of the peace. All judges are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate; justices of the peace are also appointed by the governor. The supreme court judges hold office for life or during good behavior; those of the circuit courts for eight and of the county courts for four years. The supreme court consists of a chief justice and two associates, and holds three terms annually in Tallahassee. There are seven circuit courts, each having one judge. In addition to the usual functions, the county courts have full surrogate or probate powers, but subject to appeal. Besides the above mentioned, the legislature may establish courts for municipal purposes only in incorporated towns and cities. A state attorney in each judicial district is appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate; also in each county a sheriff and clerk of the circuit court, who shall also be clerk of the county court and board of county commissioners, recorder, and ex officio auditor of the county, each of whom shall hold office for four years. The right of suffrage is conferred upon every male person of the age of 21 years and upward, provided he be a citizen of the United States or has declared his intention to become such, and has resided in Florida for one year, and in the county where his vote is offered for six months next preceding the election. The salary of the governor is $5,000 a year; of the lieutenant governor, $2,500; of cabinet officers, $3,000; of justices of the supreme court, $4,000, and of the circuit court, $3,500. Florida is entitled to two senators and two representatives in congress. Provision is made for a state census to be taken in 1875 and every tenth year thereafter. The constitution provides that “institutions for the benefit of the insane, blind, and deaf, and such other institutions as the public good may require, shall be fostered and supported by the state;” but no such institutions have yet been established. The penitentiary at Chattahoochee contained in 1873 an average of 43 convicts; they are employed under contract outside the prison. The total cost of maintaining the prison in 1872 was $20,078. The total assessed value of real estate in 1870 was $20,197,691, and of personal estate $12,283,152. The true value of real and personal estate was $44,163,655. The total taxation not national was $496,166, including $248,768 state, $168,389 county, and $79,009 town, city, &c. The total receipts into the state treasury during the fiscal year were $192,489, of which $175,467 were from general taxes, $14,096 from licenses, and $2,926 from miscellaneous sources. The disbursements amounted to $295,078, of which $23,942 were for the executive department, $78,337 for the legislature, $82,697 for the judiciary, $18,559 for schools and educational purposes, $7,663 for interest, $14,333 for printing, $16,982 for the penitentiary, $4,923 for the militia, and $47,642 for contingent and miscellaneous expenses. The bonded debt, Jan. 1, 1873, was $5,619,973, including bonds to the amount of $4,000,000 issued to the Jacksonville, Mobile, and Pensacola railroad. In addition to this there was a floating debt of $224,827. The constitution requires the legislature to provide a uniform system of common schools and a university for the free education of all children. The general supervision of the educational interest of the state is intrusted to a superintendent of public instruction, who with the secretary of state and attorney general constitutes the board of education for the state. The common school fund is derived from the proceeds of all lands granted to the state by the United States for educational purposes; gifts by individuals, and the appropriations by the state; escheated and forfeited lands; money paid for exemption from military duty; all fines collected under the penal laws of the state; such portion of the per capita tax as may be prescribed by law for educational purposes; and 25 per cent. of the sales of public lands by the state. In addition to the other means provided, a special tax of not less than one mill on the dollar of all taxable property in the state is required to be levied. The common school fund must be distributed among the several counties in proportion to the number of children between the ages of 4 and 21 years. Each county is required to raise annually by tax a sum not less than one half the amount apportioned for the common school fund. Any school district neglecting to establish and maintain for at least three months in the year such schools as are required by law, forfeits its portion of the common school fund. The amount of the school fund in 1873 was $281,785. The whole number of schools in the state was 444, and of pupils 16,258. About one fourth of the school population were enrolled in the public schools. The average duration of school was four and two thirds months. Florida is singularly deficient in institutions for advanced instruction. Lands have been granted by the general government, amounting in 1873 to 85,714 acres, for the support of two seminaries in East and West Florida. In 1872 the Florida state agricultural college was incorporated, which is designed to afford educational facilities to the working classes and prepare them for agricultural and mechanical pursuits. According to the census of 1870, the whole number of libraries was 253, with an aggregate of 112,928 volumes. Of these 178, with 87,554 volumes, were private. There were in the state 23 newspapers and periodicals, with a total circulation of 10,545; annually issued, 649,220 copies: 2 were tri-weekly, circulation 820; 1 semi-weekly, circulation 300; and 23 weekly, circulation 9,425. The total number of religious organizations was 420, having 390 edifices, with 78,920 sittings, and property valued at $426,520, as follows:

DENOMINATION.  Organizations.   Edifices.   Sittings.   Property. 





Baptist 127  123  21,100  $53,460 
Episcopal (Protestant)  17  13  4,600  71,100 
Methodist 235  215  42,600  140,700 
Mormon 50  150 
Presbyterian 29  29  6,620  70,310 
Roman Catholic 10  3,950  90,800 




Total 419  390   78,920   $426,520 

—The name of Florida (which signifies the florid or flowery, and was given by the Spaniards in allusion to the aspect of the country, and partly also because it was first visited by them on Pascua Florida, or Easter Sunday) was originally not confined to the present state limits, but extended over an indefinite region northward, and to the Mississippi. The first visitant to the actual territory of Florida was Ponce de Leon, who landed near St. Augustine in 1513. It was subsequently visited in 1520 by Vasquez, a Spaniard; in 1523 by Verrazzano, a Florentine; and in 1524 by De Geray, a Spaniard. Two years later Pamfilo de Narvaez obtained a grant from Charles V. of all the lands from Cape Florida to Rio Panuco. In 1528 he landed with a numerous army at Appalachee, but met with a formidable resistance from the Indians, and at last perished on the coast near the Panuco by shipwreck, only 10 of his followers returning to Spain. In 1539 Fernando de Soto explored Florida. About the middle of the 16th century many Protestants of France sought refuge in Florida, but only to experience greater evils than they had endured at home. In 1565 they were attacked by the Spaniards, and many were hanged on the trees with an inscription purporting that they were destroyed “not as Frenchmen, but as heretics.” This barbarity was soon afterward avenged by a party of Frenchmen, who attacked the Spanish fort, and hung up the garrison on the same trees that sustained the mouldering bones of their countrymen, inscribing over them that they were executed “not as Spaniards, but as cutthroats and murderers.” The Spaniards, persevering in their attempts to obtain a foothold in Florida, established a fort at St. Augustine in 1565, which they held till 1586, when it was captured by Sir Francis Drake. Two years earlier Captains Barlow and Amidas had taken nominal possession in right of England of the northern portion of the coast and the adjoining country. From this period for nearly a century, history is silent in relation to this country. In 1682 La Salle visited West Florida or Louisiana. In 1696 Pensacola was settled by Spaniards. In 1702 the Carolinians made an unsuccessful attack on St. Augustine, but in 1704 captured Fort St. Mark. The subsequent expedition of Oglethorpe against the Spanish settlements will be spoken of in the article Georgia. In 1763 the whole province of Florida was ceded to Great Britain in exchange for Cuba, which the English had then recently taken. Soon after the British divided the territory into two provinces, the river Appalachicola being the boundary between them, and by a proclamation invited settlers. Many Carolinians emigrated thither; and about 1,500 Greeks, Italians, and Minorcans were brought from the Mediterranean and settled at New Smyrna, about 60 m. S. of St. Augustine, where they began the cultivation of indigo and the sugar cane. Being badly treated by their employers, they removed to St. Augustine. During the revolutionary war privateers were fitted out at the ports of Florida, by which the trade of the southern provinces was severely harassed, and the Indians were encouraged to a barbarous hostility against the Americans. In 1778 Gen. Prevost marched from Florida into Georgia, and captured Savannah and other towns. While engaged on this expedition he left his province open to incursions from Louisiana. In 1779 the Spaniards invested the garrison and settlement of Baton Rouge, and compelled them to surrender, and in May, 1781, Pensacola was captured. By the treaty of 1783 Florida was retroceded to Spain, and the greater part of the inhabitants deserted the country and settled in the United States. When Louisiana was ceded to the United States by France in 1803, it was declared to be ceded with the same extent that it had in the hands of Spain, and as it had been ceded by Spain to France. The terms of this cession gave rise to a claim on the part of the United States to the country west of the Perdido river; and to prevent the occupation of this territory by any other power, the government took possession in 1811 of the principal posts. The rest of Florida remained unmolested until the second war between the United States and Great Britain. In 1814, a British expedition having been fitted out from Pensacola, Gen. Jackson marched against that town and captured it. In 1818 it was again taken by Jackson, and also Fort St. Mark, but they were subsequently restored to Spain. Finally in 1819 Spain ceded the whole province to the United States, and possession was surrendered to the Americans in July, 1821. Immigration now set in to the territory, but the lack of surveys, the uncertainty of titles, &c., prevented its rapid settlement; and the Seminoles, a fierce and warlike Indian race, occupied the best lands. Yet in spite of these obstacles, a considerable population settled in the country. In 1835 a deadly war between the Indians and settlers broke out, and suspended what progress had hitherto been effected. A long contest ensued between the savages and the United States troops, which is known as the Seminole war, and resulted in 1842 in the subjection of the Indians, of whom the greater part were removed west of the Mississippi. The few remaining Indians continued to be troublesome, and on several occasions committed great depredations on the settlers; but on May 4, 1858, the whole body was removed, and on the 8th Gen. Loomis, then commanding in Florida, issued a proclamation declaring the war closed. Florida was admitted into the Union, March 3, 1845. An ordinance of secession from the Union was passed Jan. 10, 1861, by a convention which had assembled on the 3d. On the 7th Fort Marion, the arsenal at St. Augustine, and the Chattahoochee arsenal were seized by order of the state authorities; and on the 12th the navy yard and forts at Pensacola were taken. Fernandina, Jacksonville, St. Augustine, and other places on the E. coast were retaken by the national forces early in 1862, and held. Restrictions on commercial intercourse with Florida were removed by proclamation of President Johnson dated April 29, 1865, and on July 13 William Marvin was appointed provisional governor. On Oct. 10 was held an election of delegates to a state convention, which assembled in Tallahassee on the 25th, and on the 28th repealed the ordinance of secession. Subsequently a legislature and state officers were elected, to whom the civil authority was transferred in January, 1866. Under the reconstruction measures of congress in 1867 Florida was made a part of the third military district, of which Maj. Gen. Pope was appointed commander. A convention to reorganize the state government was authorized by vote of the people in November. It assembled in Tallahassee Jan. 20, 1868, and subsequently framed a new constitution, which was ratified by the people in May. At the same election state officers and a legislature were chosen. The legislature convened June 1, and adopted the 14th amendment to the federal constitution, in consequence of which Florida was recognized as a state by the general government. On July 4 the government was transferred to the state authorities.